Exam 2 Study
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna Shaw on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1500-005 at Clemson University taught by Marianne H. Glaser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Super important stuff, like star questions highlited Chapter 4 Connecting through verbal language Language is a structured system of signs, sounds, gestures, or marks used to express ideas and feelings among people, super powerful Muted group theory: people who don’t have power of correct or appropriate language have little voice/power in words (out groups: children, elderly, women, minorities) Style switch: change language to match situation (movement from dominant culture language to coculture Elements of Language Speech Sound o Learn to speak before write o Miscommunication o Words Symbols Grammar Meaning Denotation (dictionary meaning) vs. connotation (subjective) The Ladder of Abstraction o The importance of abstract language (a human) to concrete language (Derek, your best friend) o You need to be specific o Details o Important: words mean different things to different people o Important: meanings of words change from time to time MAJOR STAR QUESTION/CONCEPT QUESTIONS SapirWhorf hypothesis: language affects how people think and what they pay attention to o influences perception Meanings can be misunderstood: what is said is not what is always heard o Bypassing: a misunderstanding that occurs b/t a sender and a receiver b/c of the symbolic nature of language o be personminded Lang. can shape our attitudes: o Indiscrimination: the neglect of individual differences and our over emphasis of similarities o Person chooses to ignore differences o Stereotyping o Ways to reduce indiscrimination: Indexing: a technique to reduce indiscrimination by identifying the specific person, ideas, events, or objects a statement refers to (identifies specifically) Dating: form of indexing that sorts according to time (allows for us to realize changes over time) Language can cause polarization: o Polarization: the tendency to view things as extremes o Pendulum effect: escalating conflict between 2 individuals or groups that results from their use of polar terms to describe and defend their perceptions of reality o Recognize the potential for misunderstanding Lang can be sexist or homophobic: use genderinclusive language o Guidelines: it’s a guideline so be able to recognize Remove sexism from communication Practice nonsexist patterns Use familiar language Do not cause negative reactions by being awkward, using cumbersome language, repetitive, or unnecessary words Not all words need to be changed Check for sexism in language Culture affects language: o Low context culture: cultures with more specific, direct, detailed messages (US, Russia) o High context culture: messages are indirect, general, and ambiguous (china, Finland, France, japan, Korea, Mexico, South America, Thailand How to use language effectively: Use accurate language o Don’t leave room for misinterpretation Use vivid language o Make your message animated and interesting o Makes your audience want to listen Use immediate language o Verbal immediacy: identifies and projects the speaker’s feelings and makes the message more relevant o Draws audience in and involves them Use appropriate language o No slang when talking to the president Metaphorical o Metaphors help to structure what we think, how we perceive world, and what we do o Culture bound be aware b/c if receivers cannot identify with a particular metaphor it’s pointless Chapter 5 Connecting through nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication: behaviors, symbols, attributes, or objects – whether intended or not that communicate messages with social meaning are o There’s a tendency to take nonverbal for granted, o Spend most of time non verbally communicating o Daily decisions based on nonverbal Frequent misunderstanding Complex Bound to context and culture Spontaneous and unintentional POWERFUL AND BELIEVABLE Characteristics of nonverbal : o Occurs constantly Can’t control it o Depends on context Example: pounding on a table during a speech vs. pounding on a table after being called a liar o More believable Verbal communication tends to be more conscious whereas nonverbal is usually unintentional and subconsciously generated o Primary means of expression Pretty much all of our feelings and emotions are read and interpreted through nonverbal cues o Related to culture Each culture had different expectations and norms different nonverbal cues Some similarities in expressions (like a general happy face) People belonging to different cultures also decipher emotions in different ways (pg. 113) Americans look at facial expressions, body posture and nonverbal cues Japanese consider those cues as well as the relationship the person has with people (in order for a person to be happy, the people they are surrounded by must also be happy) o Ambiguous This is seen through technological means of communicating Functions of nonverbal : IMPORTANT STAR Complementing: accent what you verbally communicate Repeating: repeat what you say Regulating: controls communication (ways to “say” no) Substituting: symbols, gesture replace verbal Deceiving: purposely disguising or misleading ( you feel sad but have on your happy face) Types of nonverbal communication: Facial Expressions and body movements o Kinesics interpretation of body motions o Oculesics eye contact (super duper important to maintain) o Star question: Facial Management Techniques: Intensifying: exaggeration of reactions to meet others’ reactions Deintensifying: understatements of reactions to meet others’ expectations Neutralizing: avoidance of an emotional expression (poker face) Masking: replacement of one expression with another considered more appropriate for the situation STAR QUESTION: Categories of Body Movements/ Facial Expressions (pg. 123) o Emblems: translate directly into words or can be used for specific words or phrases Can stand alone or completely substitute When someone sees your Clemson ring they don’t need you to tell them you went to Clemson o Illustrators: accents, reinforce, or emphasize; accompany verbal o Regulators: control, monitor, or maintain interaction b/t or among speakers and listeners Looking at a clock or shifting in posture o Affect displays: body movements that express emotions Slouching, jumping up and down o Adaptors: these help one feel at ease in communication situations Little ticks Smoothing hair, playing with coins, moving closer to someone By scratching your head, the audience knows your head itches Physical Characteristics of Nonverbal: pg. 126 Touch/haptics Basic form: o Functional handshake Unsympathetic, cold, impersonal o Social/polite bow Acknowledges another person according to the norms or rules of society o Friendship hug Expresses an appreciation of another o Love holding hands Romantic relationships o Sexual arousal Certain appropriateness in each category Space: o Proxemics: use of space and it’s interpretation o Territoriality Paralanguage/vocalics o Speech rate, accent, articulation, pronunciation Silence o Vocal pauses emphasize words o Long periods of silence however can be awkward Artifacts o Personal adornments or possessions that can communicate info about us or an audience Environment o Impact on individual, background, and perception of what is important to them at the time Improving abilit t send nonverbal : Self monitoring o A willingness to change your behavior to fit the situation o An awareness of others Sending o Be aware o Ask for help o Watch yourself and adapt Interpreting (THESE ARE THE THREE COMMON REASONS FOR MISINTERPRETTING NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION) o Nonverbal cues many meanings A single behavior can have many meanings There is not a nonverbal dictionary to refer to o Interdependent The meaning of one cue depends on the correct interpretation of other cues simultaneously occurring Functional approach: using more than one verbal message at a time to look for meaning. o Subtle One cue could be overlooked by one person but picked up by another Chapter 11: Informative Speaking Informative speech is meant to increase knowledge; NOT alter attitudes and behaviors (that’s persuasive) Although information may contain some elements of persuasion, all persuasion must provide information (pg. 283) What’s important is the goal of the speaker o Informative speech goal is to inform Choosing a topic o Needs to be something you are passionate about o Objects: examine concrete subjects o Processes: a speaker will usually explain how something is done This is how you make a taco … o Events: discuss happenings or occasions o Concepts: deal with abstract topics Beliefs, theories, ideas, and principles o Need to appeal to audience if you make it compelling and interesting, audience will listen Provide a fresh prospective on a topic Information relevance: making info relevant to audience, giving them a reason to listen Have a well organized speech o Ideas will flow o Planned repetition: deliberately restating a though to increase the likelihood of the audience understanding o Advance organizers: a statement that alerts audience that something important is getting ready to be said “Here’s a big hint: …” “It’s important for everyone that …” Choose language carefully (Refer to Chapter 4 if you forgot) o Concrete words, descriptors Define things for your audience don’t make them work for it AVOID ASSUMPTIONS WHEN IN DOUBT CITE!!!!!!!!!!!! Chapter 12 Persuasive Speaking What is persuasion? o Process involving both verbal and nonverbal messages, that attempt to reinforce or change listeners’ attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors o Constantly trying to persuade/using persuasion techniques Hope to gain fair and favorable consideration for our points of view Argue choice among advocates Greater ethical obligation Not one of the 3 very important star questions but still important: Goals of persuasive speaking o Adoption: asking the audience to demonstrate an acceptance by performing the behavior suggested by the speaker Some one speaks on the importance to volunteer you thought they presented good reasons you now volunteer every Saturday at the pound o Discontinuance: asks listeners to demonstrate their acceptance of an attitude, belief by stopping certain behaviors Stop smoking, drinking etc. o Deterrence: asking audience to avoid certain behaviors Trying to prevent an occurrence If you eat a good breakfast, don’t stop now o Continuance: asking audience to continue to perform the behavior suggested by speaker Keep an existing behavior rather than start a new one o First 2 ask for a change; last 2 ask for not change Important to realize who your target audience is The 1 very important star question Questions of Fact: Asks what is true and what is false Persuasive speeches may be built on predictions of future events that will eventually become matters of fact o Example: Will Americans elect a female president? This can’t be answered with certainty speaker could build a case to predict answer Speeches can also be based on complicated answers to questions of fact or justifications for unclear answers o Why has wind energy not become more popular? Too expensive? Inefficient? No one answer completely covers all aspects, but a speaker could choose to focus on one particular area Some speeches may try to answer questions of fact that are not completely verifiable o Can acupuncture reduce pain more effectively than medicine? Questions of Value: Asks whether something is good or bad, desirable or undesirable Requires a more judgmental approach Who is the most likeable celebrity in Australia? Is a vegan diet really superior? o Answers aren’t based just on a fact, require some speaker bias Need a lot of research and data in order to efficiently present your speech b/c you are challenging the audience’s values. Questions of Policy: Goes beyond seeking a judgmental response to seeking a course of action Speakers can defend an existing policy, suggest modifications of an existing one, offer a new policy to replace an old one, or create a policy where none exists Speakers focus on 3 considerations: need, plan, and suitability o Do you believe there is a need for change o If so, what’s your plan for change o Defend your plan by explaining it’s suitability Persuasive Claims o Ethos credibility o Logos logic logical arrangement of argument o Pathos emotions Persuasion introduction o Same as topical except for a few things Motivation to listen why should audience care Problem + solution idea (make problem connect to them) Establishing significance of topic Cite a source supporting why audience should care ETHOS CREDIBILITY o Competence: amount of knowledge, degree of involvement, and extent of experience you display o Charactertrustworthiness o Charisma: appeal or attractiveness that audience Hardest to master; must practice being conversational nd 2 BIG STAR CONCEPT: SPEECH ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERNS Problemsolution order o Main Point 1: documents existence of a problem o Main Point 2: presents a solution o DO NOT SAY “so & so” is a problem and this is the solution Change the language Prove the existence of a problem Argue for a solution Problemcausesolution order o Main point 1: problem (prove it) o Main point 2: cause (connect to audience) o Main point 3: solution (argue your claim) Comparative advantage o Main point 1: problem o Main point 2: solution A o Main point 3: solution B o Main point 4: solution C Compare the solutions: Here’s A too expensive so here’s B too time consuming so C is best Monroe’s Motivated Sequence 1. Attention gain attention of audience 2. Need show need for change 3. Satisfaction provide solution to need 4. Visualization intensify desire for solution by visualizing it’s benefits 5. Action urge audience to take action o So what does this look like? o So you’ve called your parents because you’re concerned about your GPA. Luckily, you’ve thought about it and 1 you have a plan. You tell them that you all agreed that when you left for college, your focus was mostly academic and that you would pull your weight a little financially by getting a job. But the issue is youre working 20 hours a week and you’re doing poor in school b/c you have no time for tutoring/office hours/SI. So you say I could work only 10 hours and the other 10 I could dedicate to school. And I’ve looked at it. I’ve looked at the syllabus and if I start now, there’s still time for redemption. I still have bills to pay however so I would need you to send me money because I lost 10 5 hours of work. Counterarguments: your audience is going to naturally think of things that go against what you’re trying to “sell” them o So it’s your job as the speaker to address any counterarguments that may arise If you don’t shut down their potential counterarguments the audience will dismiss your speech rd 3 SUPER BIG STAR QUESTION: FALLACIES A fallacy is an error in reasoning causes you to lose credibility Examples: o Questionable cause unethical cause o Hasty generalization takes one piece of evidence and makes a huge claim out of it. o False cause no connection to actual cause o Fact vs. opinion cite an opinion as a fact o Red herring pull attention away from big issue o Ad hominem attacking the human vs. attacking the argument o Eitheror reasoning there might be more options but only 2 are presented o Slippery slope snowball effect Guidelines for persuasive Speakers o Establish yourself as an ethical communicator (cite!) o Use repetition and restatement to help your listeners o Use appropriate organizational patterns o Select appropriate support o Use sound reasoning support your claim with evidence and show how they connect Chapter 15 Group and Team Communication What is a group? o A collection of individual who influence one another, have a common purpose, take on roles, are interdependent, and interact 57 people depending on the assignment STAR QUESTION: Forming a Group o 5 important stages: Forming: 1 meeting where everyone gets their 1 st impressions; exchange contact info and read the assignment/goal Storming: want to go through the brainstorming (a big dark cloud) so that there can be challenges that are overcome Norming: work through most of the differences and begin to work well for most of the time Performing: high group collaboration (working well together) Adjourning: completely done Group culture group norms: the expected and shared ways in which a group members behave Being able to work in groups/teams is important because future employers need you to be able to do this see it as ways to save $$ and make more of it STAR QUESTION: Group Think o Group think is the idea that harmony is more important that new ideas o o Overestimation of the groups power and morality, closed mindedness, and pressures toward conformity lead to group think o Basically, it is the idea that the goal needs to be completed and completed on time and it doesn’t matter how good it is Quality is important o How to avoid group think (pg. 421) Assign a devil’s advocate who will intentionally ask questions and criticize group actions “Encourage members to ‘kick the problem around’” Ensure equal opportunity Encourage members to express disagreement Set guidelines so that the leader(s) don’t dominate Invite outside experts to participate in group or review the conclusions the group has made Group work is: o Time consuming o Hard to get everyone to participate equally o Sometimes there are unfair workloads o There’s pressure to just get it done, but not necessarily done well o There’s a potential for grouphate some people just hate working in groups Chapter 16 Participating in Groups and Teams Benefits: easy communication, more flexible (topic wise), interpersonal relationships/team environment Frustrations: scheduling, stalemates in convo. Leadership: an influence process that includes any behavior that helps clarify a group’s purpose or guide the group to achieve it’s goals STAR QUESTION: What determines a Leader’s success or failure? o Procedural needs: the leader helps take care of procedural things (rooms in the library, equipment, meeting times) o Task needs: needs related to the content of the job to be done and all behaviors that lead to the completion of it (all about getting the problem solved) o Maintenance needs: related to organizing and developing a group so that the members can realize personal satisfaction from working together Maintaining interpersonal needs Atmosphere of the group you need to want to work with them again/not dread working with them STAR QUESTION: Leadership styles and Behaviors o Leadership and Task or Relationship Orientation Initiating structure focuses on getting the job done (task orientated) Consideration focuses on establishing good interpersonal relationships and on being liked by group (relationship orientated) o Leadership and Power Distributions Autocratic: leader has complete control and makes decisions completely on their own Democratic: leader shares control and makes decisions in consultation with group Laissezfaire: no true leader, very passivis o It is very important to realize that when the exam asks for you to figure out the leadership power distribution type that you DO NOT think of some other power distribution type YOU’RE GIVEN THREE SO CHOOSE FROM THESE THREE Planning and Managing a meeting o have a purpose and an agenda (no agenda = no meeting) invite only who’s needed stick to time (have a time tracker) decide followup actions avoid unnecessary meetings don’t let people drag on no convo wandering use ethical behavior in conflict follow up STAR QUESTION: Problem solving and decision making: Dewey’s Reflective Thinking Model o Anytime you are faced with a problem use the Dewey model Identify and define the problem as a group Analyze the problem Identify alternative solutions brainstorming Evaluate solutions and decide based off criteria that was already set Choose and implement best decision Combine the ideas from all the group members if possible Implement agreedupon decision STAR QUESTION: brainstorming/consensus o Brainstorming: generate as many ideas as possible within a limited time o Reaching a group consensus Assumes that all group members have been able to express how they feel and think about alternatives o 3 recommendations for reaching consensus: Realize that members have a tendency to change topics and to get off track so be prepared to stay on task Members should be otheroriented and sensitive to all ideas Promote group member interaction and dialogue Seiler,W. J., Beall, M. L., & Mazer, J. P. (2013). Communication: Making Connections, (9 ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Clemson University Custom Edition
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