NHM372test1studyguide.pdf NHM 372
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NHM 372 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Intro to Food Service Management in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Study Materials for Chapters 14 NHM 372 Test 1 Study Guide Test Date 9142015 Chapter 1 Systems Approach to a Foodservice Organization The Systems Concept MODEL conceptual simplification of a real situation in which extraneous information is excluded and analysis is simplified SYSTEM collection of interrelated parts or subsystems unified by design to obtain one or more objectives A system is designed to accomplish an objective Subsystems of a system have an established arrangement Interrelationships exist among the elements Flow of resources through a system is more important than basic elementsOrganization objectives are more important than those of the subsystems The Organization as a System INPUT any human physical or operational resource required to accomplish objectives of the system TRANSFORMATION action or activity to change inputs into outputs OUTPUT result of transforming input into achievement of a system s goal MEMORY all stored information that provides historical records of a system s operations ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS things outside the system that can impact operation of the system FEEDBACK processes by which a system continually receives information from its internal and external environment The control element ensures that resources are used effectively and efficiently in accomplishing organizational objectives ensures that the organization is Study Materials for Chapters 14 functioning within legal and regulatory constraints and provides standards to be used in evaluation operations Internal control External control the menu is a major from of control Characteristics of Open Systems OPEN SYSTEMS organizations that are in continual interactions with the environment Open systems are affected by other things INTERDEPENDENCY each part of the system affects performance of other parts of the system INTEGRATION parts are blended together into a unified whole SYNERGY working together can create greater outcomes than working individually DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM continuous response and adaptation of a system to its internal and external environment EOUIFINALITY same or similar output can be achieved by using different inputs or by varying the transformation process BOUNDARIES limits of a system that set the domain of organizational activity Permeability of boundaries is the characteristic of an open system that allows the system to be penetrated or affected by the changing external environment INTERFACE area where two systems or subsystems come in contact with each other HIERARCHY characteristic of a system that is composed of subsystems of a lower order and a suprasystem of a higher order SUBSYSTEM complete system within itself that is part of a larger system 3 Different Levels of an Organization technicaloperational employees organizational outputmeals Study Materials for Chapters 14 corporatepolicy meet standards A Foodservice Systems Model Inputs4 Types of Resources human labor and skills materials food and supplies facilities space and equipment operational money time utilities information Management Functions planning organizing staffing directing controlling ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING search for and acquisition of information about events and trends external to the organization Strategic Management Characteristics intent focused vision for where the organization isshould be going comprehensive views organization as part of a larger system opportunistic longterm oriented builds on past and present learns from past recognizes constraints of present hypothesis driven evaluates creative ideas in a sequential process COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE characteristics of a company that distinguish it from others Steps in Strategic Management Study Materials for Chapters 14 Analysis What is our missionvision Are they current Is this where we want to be Strengthsweaknessesopportunitiesregrets Consider outside sources STAKEHOLDER individuals or groups who are significantly affected by or can significantly influence a company s decisions COMPETITOR another organization selling a similar productservice to the same market segment VISION statement of where a company wants to be in the future MISSION STATEMENT describes what a company does differentiates it from others Implementation How are we going to do this STRATEGIES decisions and actions to assist a company to meet its objectives Cost Leadership being the lowest cost provider of a productservice Differentiation providing a productservice that is unique that customers value and that customers are willing to pay a higher price for Focus using a cost leadership or differentiation strategy to target a specific limited size market niche Evaluation Collect data Are things working Go back to analysis and repeat the cycle The Foodservice Industry ONSITE FOODSERVICE foodservice operations in which sale of foods is secondary to the goal of the organization typically not for profit ex foodservice in hospital or dining hall on university campus COMMERCIAL FOODSERVICE foodservice operations in which sale of food is the primary activity and a profit is desired ex restaurant Study Materials for Chapters 14 Foodservice Industry Operating Practices Self Operations Mom and Pops one person owns Pannenng 2 people2 groups of people A contract is usually involved to dictate who is going to contribute what Contracting an outside organization will provide all foodservice for a price Franchising chain of restaurants that typically look and operate the same way an owner sometimes a corporate entity allows individual to buy the rights to use their labeling recipes etc franchisor owner franchisee buys franchise price of franchise varies franchisee pays an initial amount of money and then regularly pays an amount could be percentage of profits or something else Multidepartment Multisite Management Small Business Ownership ENTREPRENEUR a person who creates and assumes risk for a new venture or business SUSTAINABILITY ability to meet needs of today without compromising future generations ability to meet needs 4 categories according to the US Environmental Protection Agency built environment water ecosystems and agriculture energy and the environment materials and toxins Study Materials for Chapters 14 According to the ADA American Dietetic Association a sustainable food system is one that is ecologically sound socially acceptable economically viable 4 Stages of Sustainability Stage 1 Legal Approach light green organization does the minimum to meet the requirements Stage 2 Market Approach just more than minimum bc it makes customers happy Stage 3 Stakeholder Approach Stage 4 Activist Approach dark green committed as green as they can be GREENWASH inaccurate or misleading information distributed by an organization etc so as to present an environmentally responsible public image Chapter 2 Managing Quality Quality in the Foodservice System QUALITY characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs a product or service that is free of defects Achieving quality outputs requires attention to the quality of inputs and quality of the transformation process quality fits onto the control category of the model Approaches to Quality Deming Juran and Shewhart are important names in quality development Dr Deming s 14 Point System Study Materials for Chapters 14 4 areas of focus better design for better service higher levels of uniform product quality improvement in how products are tested as well as in research if you do all these things there will be more sales 1 Create consistency of purpose toward improvement of products and services 2 Adopt the new philosophy of quality 3 Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality 4 End the practice of choosing suppliers solely on price build relationships with good vendors who would supply good quality products 5 Improve constantly and forever the production and service systems 6 Institute extensive training on the job 7 Shift focus from production numbers to quality 8 Drive out fear of employees productivity and efficiency increases 9 Break down barriers among departments 10 Eliminate slogans and targets for the workplace eliminate ones that don39t mean anything implement ones that will be beneficial 11 Eliminate numeric quotas for the workforce 12 Remove barriers that rob employees of pride or workmanship and eliminate annual rating or merit systems fair systems of evaluation 13 Institute a vigorous program of education and selfimprovement for everyone employees are motivated when they know that a company is concerned about their wellbeing Study Materials for Chapters 14 14 Make sure everyone in the company is put to work to accomplish the preceding 13 points QUALITY ASSURANCE procedure that defines and ensures maintenance of standards within prescribed tolerances define measurable quality standards monitor the process find error after the fact TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT management philosophy in which processes are refined with goal of improving performance in response to customer needs and expectations improving customer service focus on the customer EMPOWERMENT level or degree to which managers allow employees to act independently within their job descriptions change of processes not people concern for continual improvement focus on process improvement in quality of everything the company does accurate measurement internal customers both affected by the product and belong to the organization that produces it vs external customers affected by the product but do not belong to the organization that produces it Continuous Quality Improvement Six Sigma a disciplined data driven approach for improving quality by removing defects and their causes DMAIC define the project goals measure the current performance of the process Study Materials for Chapters 14 analyze and determine the cause of defects improve the process by eliminating defects control and standardize future process performance Kaizen a Japanese philosophy emphasizing incremental and continuous improvement in every aspect of daily life Reengineering Lean make a changemanage quality with the least amount of inputs to get the desired outputs ex Toyota Theory of Constraints concentration on exploiting and elevating constraints that slow production or service CONSTRAINT something that limits an organization from reaching its goals Tools Used in Process Improvement BENCHMARKING comparison against best performance in the field Cause and Effect Diagrams also called fishbone or lshikawa categories environment materials methods people equipment other Pareto Analysis 80 of the outcome is based on 20 of your input Study Materials for Chapters 14 Root Cause Analysis ask why things happened until you get to the root cause of the outcome Flowcharts graphical representations of the steps in a process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis identification of potential failures that might occur in a process Value Stream Map flowchart documenting processes and flows to help a manager determine which processes add value and which do not Check Sheets collecting data about observations Histograms bar graphs that are used to display graphically the frequency distribution of data Control Charts graphical records of process performance over a period of time Scatter Diagrams provide a visual way to examine possible relationships between two variables PlanDoCheckAct PDCA cycle plan to improve operations do changes checkresuHs act to implement permanently Quality Standards Quality standards are published by professional organizations and industry groups 10 Study Materials for Chapters 14 ISO 9000 series of standards individual but related international standards on quality management International Organization for Standardization ISO Keys to Excellence child nutrition programs The Joint Commission for patient care you do not have to participate voluntary tracer methodology look at patients and trace their care throughout their stay admittance to discharge Was everything up to standards External Recognition of Quality Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Improvement Act of 1987 was established as an annual US national quality award leadership strategic planning customer and market focus process management measurement analysis and knowledge management human resource focus business results Chapter 3 The Menu The Menu MENU list of items available for selection by a customer and the most important internal control of the foodservice system Menu Trends 11 Study Materials for Chapters 14 sustainability farm to tableorganic ethnic menus takeout grazing healthier Menu Presentation SPOKEN MENU menu that is presented by the technician orally to the patient room service menu restaurant style menu TABLE D HOTE several food items grouped together and sold for one price A LA CARTE food items priced individually MENU PSYCHOLOGY designing and laying out a menu in such a way as to to influence the sale of foods served on that menu eye gaze motion The eye will travel in a set pattern when viewing a menu high profit items should go in the center and corners of the menu primacy and recency Position menu items you want to sell more of in the first and last positions within a category as the first and last things a customer reads The items in these positions are more likely to be chosen font size and style color and brightness spacing and grouping Menu Pattern STATIC MENU same menu items are offered every day that is a restaurant type menu CYCLE MENU series of menus offering different items daily on a weekly biweekly or some other basis after which the menus are repeated 12 length of cycle depends on kind of operation 13 Study Materials for Chapters 14 found in hospitals school systems consistency with purchasing production SINGLEUSE MENU menu that is planned for service on a particular day and not used in the exact form a second time banquets weddings etc Menu Structure The menu is the sales tool make sure it looks good The menu must make accurate claims about qualitycharacteristics of food ex New England lobster MUST be from New England grazing flexibility frequency food Breakfast most missed meal 20 of restaurant sales typically fast Lunch difficult to deliver because of time constraints togo items are increasing most often eaten away from home catering has become a bigger business bring the food to the customer noncommercial foodservices mimic commercial foodservices ex university dining halls Dinner the appetizer section is growing one or two appetizers may replace a traditional entree Factors Affecting Menu Planning customer satisfaction 14 Study Materials for Chapters 14 feedback facial hedonic scale smiley faces plate waste observation selfreported consumption sociocultural factors what you39re planning should be compatible with demographics beliefs etc of community food habits and preferences food habits practices and associated attitudes that predetermine what when why and how a person will eat food preferences express the degree of liking for a food item nutritional influence DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS recommendations for good health developed by the USDA and the US Department of Health and Human Services RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE recommendations for dietary intake of nutrients for healthy growth balance variety aesthetic factors plan menu with combination of foods so that they are appealing and have a variety of textures colors and shapes sustainability use of locally grownproduced items use of in season foods use of sustainable seafood limited use of processed foods 15 Study Materials for Chapters 14 replacement of meat entrees with vegetarian entrees government regulations ex school lunch Management Decisions food cost amount spent on food divided by total revenue production capability do we have the storeroomrefrigeratorfreezer space do we have the applianceequipment capacity to produce the food on the menu do we have the labor type of service availability of foods are you going to be able to get certain foods will they be in your budget Menu Planning team approach prepare and serve acceptable food at a cost consents with the objectives of the operation truth in advertising ex New England lobster Planning Process Onsite 1 2 3 4 5 6 plan the dinner meats or other entrees for the entire cycle select the luncheon entrees or main dishes decide on the starch item appropriate to serve with each item select salads accompaniments and appetizers plan desserts for both lunch and dinner plan breakfast and any others Study Materials for Chapters 14 7 review the entire day as a unit and evaluate if clientele governmental regulations and managerial considerations have been met Planning Commercial make sure the menu is the sales tool Emergency Preparedness Menu Planning have food on hand for several days use refrigerated items first then canned items must have drinking water generally require minimal staffing for preparation and serving Chapter 4 Food Product Flow and Kitchen Design 16 This is a component of the Transportation pert of the foodservice model Flow of Food Food is the primary resource in the foodservice system FOOD PRODUCT FLOW alternative paths within foodservice operations that food and menu items may follow beginning with receiving and ending with service to the customer Types of Foodservices CONVENTIONAL FOODSERVICE foods are purchased in different stages of preparation for an individual operation and production distribution and service are completed on the same premises Menu items are prepared as near to service time as possible Food may vary from no processing to complete processing procurement gt production gt service to customer hospHak procurement gt production gt hot holding gt meal assembly gt transportation gt service to customer CENTRALIZED SERVICE plates or trays are assembled in area close to production 17 Study Materials for Chapters 14 DECENTRALIZED SERVICE food is transported in bulk to a location separate from production and plates or trays of food are assembled in that loca on READY PREPARED FOODSERVICE menu items are produced and held chilled or frozen until heated for serving procurement gt production gt chillingchilled storage gt bulk reheating gt hot holding gt meal assembly gt service to customer uses bulk reheating procurement gt production gt chillingchilled storage gt meal assembly gt transportation gt meal reheating gt service to customer characteristic of a hospital with centralized tray assembly and decentralized rehea ng COOKCHILL method in which menu items are partially cooked rapidly chilled held in chilled storage and reheated just prior to service COOKFREEZE method in which menu items are partially cooked rapidly frozen held in freezer storage and reheated just prior to service SOUS VIDE a process of sealing raw fresh food items in plastic pouches to allow chilled storage and then cooking in boiling water prior to service COMMISSARY FOODSERVICE centralized procurement and production facilities with distribution of prepared menu items to several remote areas for final preparation and service procurement gt production gt hot transportation gt hot holding gt meal assembly gt service to customer hot transport of food procurement gt production gt chillingchilled storage gt transportation gt bulk reheating gt hot holding gt meal assembly gt service to customer cookchill and reheat food on site after transporting ASSEMBLYSERVE menu items are purchased prepared and require minimal cooking before service procurement gt transportation gt meal assembly gt meal reheating gt service to customer 18 Study Materials for Chapters 14 using preportioned meals procurement gt bulk reheating gt hot holding gt meal assembly gt service to customer using bulk reheating Kitchen Design and Layout DESIGN defining the size shape style and decoration of a space LAYOUT refers to the detailed arrangement of the equipment floor space and counter space FLOW movement of product or people through an operation Materialshandling rules in relation to flow store at point of first use allow for economy of motion store products based on use with those used most often within normal reach store heavier products lower and lighter products higher use space economically by providing for specific sizes minimize handling and storage systemize organize storage area group like products in close proximity to each other use good handling practices communicate CHARRETTE collaborative planning session Components of a Foodservice Design DIRECT LIGHTING lighting aimed at a certain place INDIRECT LIGHTING lighting shining over a space rather than a certain place Study Materials for Chapters 14 LUMEN amount of light generated when 1 footcandle of light shines from a source FOOTCANDLE measurement of illumination equal to 1 lumen of light on 1 square foot of space VENTILATION the circulation fresh air in a space Materials GAUGE the weight of material per square foot This study guide was uploaded on Wednesday September 9th The instructor has not finished covering the material for chapter 4 however I have included definitions and notes from the book If you would like the extra information on chapter 4 I will have it available after class on Friday Feel free to email me and I will get it to you You can reach me at regandoughertygmailcom rmdougherty1crimsonuaedu through Backboard messaging Let me know if you have any questions Good luck and happy studying 19
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