POL 140 Quiz 3 Study Guide
POL 140 Quiz 3 Study Guide POL 140
Popular in Introduction to the Politics of Africa, Asia, and Latin America
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POL 140 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Osaore Aideyen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Politics of Africa, Asia, and Latin America in Political Science at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
POL 140 Section 04 – Introduction to the Politics of Africa, Asia & Latin America Quiz 3 Study Guide February 23, 2016 Our third quiz covers all of chapters five and seven of the course text. My expectation is that after diligent reading of the chapters we will be able to do the following: Chapter 5. Political Economy 1. Define political economy and understand the relationship between states and markets Political economy is the balance between political and market forces within a country and is critical in determining whether it will meet the minimal conditions to be a good society. States make market systems possible by making the ground rules that permit market systems to work at all, structuring how buying and selling takes place. (PAGE 112) 2. Distinguish between markets and market systems Markets have always been with us, but market systems have not. Markets are simply people engaging in exchange while the term market system refers to an economy in which production for profit is intended for and coordinated through private exchanges between buyers and sellers. (PAGES 109-110) 3. Understand the difference between the extensive and intensive growth of markets Extensive market systems are ones that diffuse over the entire globe (countries trading with each other) and intensive ones involve more social transactions. (PAGE 110) On this page also includes examples of rules states can make to promote or inhibit each type of growth. 4. Show why market systems need states in order to thrive In a completely free market, people respond to shifts in the market, in the balance between supply and demand, but no one controls it. Market systems need states to create a common currency to facilitate trade and exchange; to enforce contracts; and to supply public goods such as transportation networks and police networks that markets cannot furnish by themselves. States make market systems possible by making ground rules. (PAGE 111- 112) 5. Understand why the quality of the rules states make for markets determines why some countries have better economic performance than others Rules that states make reduce uncertainty that contracts will be honored, that money will retain its value, and that consumers will not be cheated but also steer economic goals. States create welfare systems to neutralize the natural tendency of markets toward inequality; they create regulations, such as pollutions controls, to minimize harmful spillover effects; and they use their budgetary powers and control the money supply to reduce the swings in the business cycle. The countries that tend to do the best are those who update the boundaries of what should be left to the market and what should be determined by the state depending on their needs. (PAGE 116-117) 6. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of market systems Advantages: they are extraordinarily dynamic, promoting the development of new products and more efficient production methods and technologies; very productive; they enhance the prospects of democracy and political rights. Disadvantages: highly volatile (do not remain in stable equilibrium); susceptible to boom and busts; they generate extraordinary inequality; create harmful spillover effects/externalities. (PAGE 113-116) 7. Show an understanding of the shifting balance between states and markets between 1970 and 2010 Prior to 1970, people had pointed out systematic market failures as the reason that state intervention was required but then it was argued that growth had slowed because the welfare state had undermined the work ethic, and other issues. Policies shifted to states being less inclined to direct markets than to support them. After the global recession of 2007 cast doubt on this model. George W. Bush and Barack Obama intervened dramatically in the economy by bailing out banks, buying shares in car companies, and investing in markets to prop them up. “Big government was back with a vengeance” and “Laissez-faire is finished…Self-regulation as a way of solving problems is finished.” (PAGE 118) 8. Explain the meaning of globalization and global production chains Globalization refers to the increasing flow of money, people, skills, ideas, and goods across borders (extensive development). Global production is where different steps in the manufacturing process may now take place in different countries. (PAGE 120) 9. Evaluate the debate between critics and supporters of the Washington Consensus Critics of the Washington Consensus call it “neoliberalism” and it’s a policy that required countries to balance their budgets by cutting spending, open their markets to foreign trade and investment, and sell off nationalized industries to private investors. This was supported by large multinational corporations. Supporters argued that balanced budgets were necessary to stabilize a country’s currency, that removing trade and investment controls was needed to attract foreign capital, and that privatizing state businesses was vital to increase competitiveness and efficiency. Critics charged that the Washington consensus hurt the poor by requiring cuts in social services in order to achieve balanced budgets, increased unemployment and drove out small businesses by requiring countries to open up their markets to imports and foreign competition, and weakened democracy by requiring countries to conform to IMF and World Bank conditions in order to receive assistance from them. (PAGE 122) 10. Explain the ways that states try to manage market systems: fiscal policy, monetary policy, regulation, and nationalization Fiscal policy: often set by the executive branch, which submits a budget, consolidating revenue and spending targets (setting overall levels of revenues and expenditures), to the legislature for approval. (PAGE 125) Monetary policy: manipulating interest rates regulates how much it costs to borrow money, largely determined by central banks (PAGE 126) Regulatory policy: States can issue regulations that set explicit rules of behavior that firms must follow (PAGE 127) Nationalization: states try to influence economic activity by nationalizing industries in which state own and control public enterprises (PAGE 128) 11. Explain with the help of diagrams whether countries in which market systems prevail do a better job of enhancing people’s capability than countries with heavy state intervention Look at pages 130-133 for examples! Chapter 7: Democracy 1. Define democracy and distinguish between direct and representative democracy Direct democracy: states in which people participated directly in making laws that governed them (unworkable for large, complex societies) Representative: virtually all citizens are eligible to vote on who will represent them in free, fair, and periodic elections. (Bottom of PAGE 169-170) 2. Explain how three waves of democracy spread democratic governance across the world First wave: roots in American and French revolutions, 18 century, gradually began to expand the right to vote to citizens who had been excluded, chief executives and their cabinets became responsible to elected assemblies. (PAGE 170) Second wave: the defeat of fascism in WWII, Germany, Austria, and Japan emerged from Allied occupation as democracies, many former European colonies took anti-fascist rhetoric to heart and developed democratic constitutions after achieving independence. (PAGE 171) Third wave: appeared before the 2nd completely receded, the democratic wave started in Portugal, then Greece and Spain, then Latin America, in India and the Philippines, and then Eastern Europe as the Berlin Wall fell. Only the Middle East and Africa resisted the democratic surge. (PAGE 172) 3. Explain what is meant by “No bourgeoisie, no democracy” Said by Barrington Moore Jr., attributed the transition to democracy in those countries where it was established to the presence of an independent, self- confident, vigorous commercial middle class. Where the middle class is weak, its members feared that democracy would empower the lower class to take their property and redistribute their wealth. (PAGE 170) 4. Evaluate culture, education, and economic development as causes of democracy Countries with large Muslim populations are less likely to be democratic, while those with higher levels of education are likely to be more democratic. Some analysts find economic explanations for persuasive, arguing that economic development promotes democracy across the board. Or, for example, economic development like the “curse of oil” where authoritarian rules using oil revenues to pacify their citizens with low taxes, subsidized essentials, and reinforced security forces. Instead, we might argue that economic development causes democratic stability, not democratization. (PAGE 172-173) 5. Explain the difference between presidential and parliamentary democracy and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each In presidential systems the executive and legislative branches are separated from each other (checks and balances between them). Presidents are popularly elected and they serve for a fixed term. In parliamentary democracies the legislature is the only institution directly elected by voters. Legislatures then delegate power to the executive, which they elect. Prime minister and his or her cabinet are executive and are fused together with the legislative. Unlike presidents, prime ministers don't need to worry much about having their policies rejected by the legislature. Fusion of the executive and legislative tends to concentrate power in the prime minister. Presidential systems suffer from gridlock (legislative and executive disagree) and may be unrepresentative since the president may have won by narrow plurality of the vote but assumes all the power. Parliamentary systems offer less in terms of accountability, voters can hold presidents accountable but in parliamentary the chief executive is selected by the legislature. (PAGE 175- 177) 6. Distinguish between singlemember and multimember districts Single-member districts: such as in the US, where only one legislator is elected from each district. Multimember districts: the number of legislators from each district depends on their size. (PAGE 178) 7. Differentiate among plurality vote, double ballot election, and proportional representation Plurality: whoever get the most wins, such as in US and the U.K. where candidate with the most votes is declared the winner. (PAGE 178) Double-ballot elections: guarantees that winning candidates must have majority support (more than 50%), since if no candidate wins a majority in the first election, a run-off is held between the two candidates who received the highest number of votes in the first round. (PAGE 178) Proportional representation: once parties attain a certain threshold of votes, they are awarded seats in the legislature based on the percentage of the vote they receive. (PAGE 179) 8. Explain how different electoral rules create biases toward twoparty or multiparty systems Winner takes all (plurality) tends towards two-party systems since people don’t want to waste their vote on a candidate that doesn’t have a good chance of winning. However, proportional representation create multi-party systems since it offers voters a broader range of candidates who have a real chance of being elected. Voters can vote their conscience for minor parties that will lose, knowing they will be awarded some seats anyway. How votes are counted matters as much as how many votes candidates receive. (PAGE 181) 9. Evaluate the hypothesis that ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity are barriers to democracy The authors found that, contrary to revailing wisdom, diversity or fractionalization did not hinder democracy. Holding constant other factors that might affect their results, Fish and Brooks found that fractionalization or diversity had little impact on the prospects for democracy. (PAGE 174-175) 10. Evaluate the hypothesis that democracies are more successful at promoting economic development than authoritarian political systems According to some political scientists, authoritarian regimes can better invest society’s limited resources where they will do the most good. They do not succumb to the temptation to aim for more votes. It permits the government to ignore demands to spend money that will be consumed immediately and instead direct the country’s limited savings toward investments that will pay off in the future. Others argue that democracy is an advantage in promoting economic growth. They claim that democracies enjoy the rule of law that creates a predictable environment. Allows more access to information, more responsiveness, enabling them to act effectively when things go wrong. The record of democracies and authoritarian governments is mixed. Although neither democracy nor dictatorship can take credit for economic growth, democratic systems do have two advantages: greater range of choices open to women, and democracies have a better record of steady economic performance. (PAGE 182-183) 11. Evaluate the hypothesis that democracies do more to enhance citizens’ capabilities than authoritarian political systems Democracies average infant mortality rates of 12.53 per 1000 live births, semi-democracies recorded an average of 45.52, and authoritarian political system 27.57. Literacy rates were actually higher on average in authoritarian states than in democracies while semi-authoritarian was in last place with 66.68% Finally, the most authoritarian states had the best record when it came to safety as measured by homicide rates. Democracies were close behind, followed by semi-democracies, and finally semi-authoritarian. (PAGE 184-186) 12. Evaluate the hypothesis that ethnic, linguistic, and religious divisions create major obstacles to democracy in developing countries using a case study and results of a statistical study in the course text Mauritius, and island nation off the southeast coast of Africa is ethnically and religiously diverse but has been a democracy since gaining independence in 1968. Scholars attribute Mauritius’s democratic success to a vibrant and healthy civil society that cuts across ethnic cleavages. They have many bridging organizations that cross religious and ethnic boundaries. (PAGE 171). The comparative political analysis on (PAGE 174) shows statistically that diversity did not hinder democracy when other factors were held constant. 13. Evaluate whether democracies are more successful than authoritarian political systems at enhancing citizens’ physical wellbeing, informed decisionmaking, and safety The book found that only at the highest levels of democracy actually improve the quality of people’s lives. It begs the questions of whether democracy may have value in and of itself. It does not appear that democracy itself is the answer for all public problems. Some democracies have a relatively poor record (like India) (PAGE 186)
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