Comprehensive midterm study guide
Comprehensive midterm study guide 3365
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3365 at University of Utah taught by Mariko Lin Frame in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Global Sustainability in Environmental Science at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Mid-term Review part one. • Know the stance of free market environmentalists, ecological economists, and Marxist ecologists on the following issues: a) Technology as a solution to environmental issues Human ingenuity and technological advances will solve issues we face with resources and environmental issues. Private property will ensure responsibility over resources. NOTASOLUTION OR OPTION. Technological advances can undercut the real issues at stake, and as long as capitalism is running the means for growth of technology, we will not be able to solve these issues. b) The market as the solution to environmental issues Market prices and profit will keep us moving forward. Decentralized control will create more room for human drive for profit to bring about resolutions within the market. Not with a capitalist market where only growth and GDP matter. There needs to be a system where sustainability can be accounted for and resources can be more properly distributed. NEVER. Marx is VERY anti-capitalist. The capitalist market does nothing but create a dualistic society where human labor is sellable and nature is a commodity. Our market will only make environmental issues worse. c) The market as the problem of environmental issues None of this is a problem. Need for water is becoming less and less. We are not running out of food either. The environment has improved actually. Population growth will just bring more clever minds to solve world environmental issues. In capitalism, the economy grows bigger than the ecology of the Earth can handle. The Earth is looked at as a subset of the bigger economy, leading to a “full world.” We need to look at the economy as a subset of a bigger whole, being the Earth to have an empty world where resources are used more wisely and sustainability is a point of focus.Also, growth should not just be a part of development, sustainability and natural capital should also be considered. Yes, very much so. When a profitable market are the only means to an end, the economy can expand forever and ever. Economies of scale cause the bigger producers to be able to sell cheap goods and under cut the competition. We are all selfishly competing, creating dangerous class structures that harm people and the environment. d) The government’s role in solving environmental issues Less governmental regulation is better. The government should only impose property rights so that property owners can take good, disciplined care of their land. Decentralized control will bring about better results than bureaucratic involvement. The government allows capitalism to have endless growth and destruction of resources. This needs to be recognized and curbed. We cannot survive or thrive in a full world. The industrial age was supposed to help us and now we are completely reliant upon fossil fuels and we are working more hours than ever. The government needs to make some changes in policy to address these issues. If the government could ever move away from a capitalist economy, then it would be greatly the governments concern to begin solving these environmental issues. Equality among humans and labor distribution is a huge one. Relieving the dualistic society is also important so that the bourgeoisie cannot use up all the resources leaving the laborers with nothing. Capitalism messes with the way we as americans view the world. It will be very hard to solve these issues with a capitalist mind set. • Know how globalization relates to trade and foreign investment: globalization is the integration of world markets through trade and foreign investment. Globalization is defined by trade that began in the colonial era when european countries sought out new lands and restructured their local economies to put slaves or laborers to work making cash crops to be exported. This created a globalized political economy of governance. Foreign investment is a kind of modern colonialism where a northern country can buy great amounts of land in southern countries to exploit for profit with out regulation. Globalization of knowledge should also be addressed in terms of culture, information, technology, the spread of democracy, the World Bank and the IMF. and what policies make trade and foreign investment more ‘liberalized.’: Free o market policies make trade and foreign investment seem ‘liberalized’because there are no regulations or governmental pressures. Tariffs and governmental protection are removed so that these places are more vulnerable. o Have an understanding of how free trade and foreign investment impact the environment: Free trade is very harmful to the countries of the global south that have been colonized solely to extract resources. These countries cannot control their own markets or economies because they are paying back years and years of debt due to trying to develop and industrialize. We can make a lot more stuff through specialization and trade. This means endless production and consumption of goods creating not only waste but also degrading land where resources are extracted. (watch youtube video on comparative advantage for review). Foreign investment is extremely harmful to land and indigenous people because a different country’s firm has bough the land and has the freedom to exploit that land for profit within the free market. • Know Bhagwati’s argument for why free trade is a good thing for the environment o Bagwhati gives a global North perspective on why free trade is good. First off, growth is good because then the government can raise taxes that can in turn be used to protect the environment. Rich countries have so many environmental groups that are successful in sorts. We shouldn’t fear the race to the bottom because different countries will start making different environmental standards for their own cultures. People can vote on their ethics with their dollar and environmentalists should stop imposing beliefs on governmental policies and let the market make decisions. Environmentalists and governments should never put ethics above the right of people. • Know Daly’s rejoinder, that free trade is problematic for the environment o We should always favor domestic production over foreign imports. International trade should never put a country’s environment at risk. Instead of just getting excited about free trade, we should focus on what kind of regulations and and goals are appropriate for globalization. Pro free traders will argue that after we grow from trade, we can clean up the environment- but free traders tend to seek profit with out regard to environmental and social consequences. WE SHOULD CALL FREE TRADE “DEREGULATED INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE.” • Understand the following terms for: o colonialism: parts ofAsia,Africa and theAmericas were being colonized by Europea countries and a competitive race between countries for world resources began. Little thought was given to the development of these colonies as capitalism was the main push to create profit for mother countries. Its lasting effects included severe demographic crisis, forced labour, diseases, violent struggles and slavery. All of these play into these environmental crisis today due to a loss of population, culture and labor in native countries. o economic nationalism: Domestic governance and control over labor and resources happens as a response to neo-colonialism through out the third world. Rejection of liberal economics because free market is the ideology of the repressors. Import substitution is introduced where imported goods have high tariffs so that local industries have a chance to grow. o neoliberal development: neoliberalism was a tern used to criticize structural adjustment policies from the World Bank and IMF. • In relation to the following: a) International division of labor: each country is specializing in certain exports so countries become dependent upon one another. International labor is divided in the sense that Cambodians supply our clothing, middle easterners supply our oil, central americans supply coffee, etc. b) Primary commodities: as a facet of colonialism, primary commodities begin to grow as main exports of developing countries. These commodities can be anything from fruit to oil to metals and textiles. We in the developed world become very deeply dependent on these exports for our day to day lives. In the developing countries that are the specialized primary exporters, they become financially dependent on their mother countries. Many have tried economic nationalism, but are crippled under their debts and cannot succeed. c) Tariffs: taxes imposed on imports and exports so that local commodities can be more valued in the domestic market. d) Import-substitutions: replacing foreign imports with domestic products in attempts to reduce a country’s dependance on foreign imports. Sometimes this is really good for a developing country, other times is is really harmful i.e when the UK industrialized a textile production in india and then later on substituted their textiles with local textiles therefore handicapping a country that they had originally exploited… I think. e) Export-led development: this strategy is used by developing countries in the world market to find their niche in the global economy so that they may stimulate their own economy through primary commodity exports. Promoted by the IMF to help countries pay back their debts. (opposite of import substitutions). f) IMF and World Bank: IMF established in 1945 to promote international monetary stability. One role of both has been lending to countries facing financial hardship. Preconditioning for receiving loans (typically in developing countries) were that they had to follow structural adjustment policies (SAP’s) that radically restructure their economies along free market lines.Along with no more regulations or tariffs, they aso had to open economies to foreign investors.As a result, 41 of the most indebted countries experienced extreme deforestation between 1990-1995. Most of these policies actually worsened poverty. Pretty much, if you want help from the IMF, you will have to give up your land’s resources and denigrate your environment to make up for the cash. g) Free trade: an economic approach for world economies to lift any regulations, policies or rules. No government intervention and no tariffs. Keeps things simple through the market. h) Comparative advantage: specialization of production in each country. Who ever can produce the best and most has the comparative advantage against the rest of the economy and will be better off. i) Currency devaluation: the IMF told them when they received the loans in SAP’s if you want your exports to be competitive they have to be affordable to those valuing them. Devalue your currency so that foreign investors will be more interested in buying. j) Austerity measures: cutting back on government spending when it gets out of control, typically social and environmental cuts. • Understand how IMF and World Bank policies have impacted deforestation and biodiversity o countries that went into great debt in the late 80’s thanks to neocolonialism had to take out loans with the IMF that required them to make SAP’s which allowed foreign investment and pressured extraction of resources and commodities for exports to help the economy. It mostly killed the local environments. o reduce enviro spending o promote export led growth o increase foreign investment poverty conditions worsened o • Be able to list the three levels of biodiversity o Genetic, Species and Ecosystem biodiversity. • Be able to list the major human activities that threaten biodiversity o production and consumption, extraction. • Be able to list the ways in which biodiversity is important Stabilizes the globe, ecosystem services, buffering of carbon, balancing of o weather and wildlife, security of resources, food and land. • Be able to list the ways in which the trans-pacific partnership poses threats to the environment through its investor protections o the TPP is a type of “free trade agreement” that would connect the economies of multiple countries in the world making up about 40% of the world’s GDP. It’s mostly focused on theAmericas and countries surrounding China to weaken the growing Chinese economy. This would greatly increase world trade and lift all kinds of regulations and tariffs that would not only harm domestic industries but also harm the consumers because there will be less health, food and environmental regulations with in a business. Corporations will actually be able to sue a country for imposing restrictions or regulations that harm their profits. Removal of environmental regulations makes biomes of the world extremely vulnerable and the people who live there- helpless to their own rights. o ensures that companies that lose profit due to environmental regulations can be paid back or can sue for the regulations to be changed. • Understand the ‘carbon prisoner’s dilemma’ o we all want to reduce our carbon inputs and make collective action. While the US is a carbon economy, it will be very hard for us to reduce carbon and it will greatly affect our economy. Developing countries that have a small carbon footprint but want to develop and use carbon to help their economies. It’s all very unfair because we aren’t all equally using carbon but we all need to reduce no matter what. • Understand the variety of market-based solutions posed for resolving the issue of climate change, and the criticisms against them o Green carbon consumption example one: people can pay factories a fee to reduce their emissions. They can vote with their wallet and only buy climate safe products. o Cap and Trade: imposes a collective limit of emissions on a group of firms that will own a specific number of units of emissions aloud. If you release fewer emissions you can sell the units to those who need more. o REDD: (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) allows carbon emitters to pay developing low footprint countries to protect their environments ▪ criticisms of market based approaches: companies must increase consumption and profit levels bc capitalism is expansionary. production costs must be kept low. Issues of justice are ignored like emission impacts, economic development and separation of those who caused climate change and those who bear the negative effects. o innovative freedom in the free market. command and control: regulations allowing government to enforce rules within o the market. • Understand the main problems with the Kyoto Protocol o Kyoto protocol is a non-binding document with many loopholes. o Rich countries can move carbon industries off shore to meet their targets. o Only binding to nations that chose to ratify it. does not include china india and the US o • Understand the main ways in which the Paris Climate Summit makes progress over past climate treaties goal to hold global temperatures to no more than 2 degrees C above preindustrial o values. o China, India and the US were involved. o 185/195 countries submitted INDC’s o 5 year cycle reviews to ratchet up targets o ecological debts paid by the global north to developing countries. • Understand the main challenges of the Paris Climate Summit in solving the climate issue o its all voluntary for each country agriculture and deforestation need to be addressed o o public involvement is necessary o current goals do not keep us below 2 degrees. o $100 billion a year to developing countries isn’t enough and does money really fix everything?
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