FAD2230 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
FAD2230 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A lifespan development approach
Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Sung Bong Cho in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A lifespan development approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Family Development Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 7 Building Relationships Single – a person who has never married, is divorced, or is widowed There is a diff. between single by choice, or because of circumstance. Types or Singles: Voluntary Temporary Singles – unmarried adults who may be delaying marriage while pursuing education or establishing a career. Voluntary Stable Singles – unmarried adults desiring a single (unmarried) lifestyle Involuntary Temporary Singles – singles actively searching for a mate but unable to find a suitable one Involuntary Stable Singles – unmarried adults who can expect to be single for life even though they may not want to be Friendships: Provide valuable support while single and partnered o Female friendships – more intimate, relationship focused o Male friendships – less intimate/more instrumental, activity focused Crosssex friendships (strictly platonic): o Seen to be part of the developmental process of romantic engagement o More common today than in past generations o Some degree of romantic attraction (men women) o Can be complicated with tensions (ex: jealousy) o Lower level of satisfaction in one’s romantic relationship Friendships differ across social class and race/ethnicity o Working class seem to have longer friendships than other classes; Hispanic and African American adolescent friendships last longer than Asian due to cultural emphasis on social vs. academic priority Evolution of Dating Dating is a mechanism for finding a mate. th Calling – young man visiting a woman’s home; 18, 19 centuries Dating – occur in social settings outside of the home, can occur in pairs or in groups Cohabitating – committed couples who are living together but are not married Dating is influenced by technology, transportation, and social media. Macro Influences of dating: Gender o Dating “scripts”/expectations for women and men (ex: man pays, woman expects man to pick them up, p.120) Social class o Wealthy people segregate themselves by social class; their children should fall in love with the “right” kind of people Race/Ethnicity o Quinceñera – a coming out party for being allowed to begin dating, among Hispanic/Latino women and men at her/his 15 birthday. LGBT o Experience a difficult time meeting others due to the stigma; limited pool based on “gaydar” Dating Trends: 12 grade students are less likely to date than they were in 1991. Today, 33% of high school seniors spend 20+ hours per week texting friends; 65% spend up to 5hrs talking on a cell phone. o Technology allows people to communicate without having to meet and make official “dates” in person. Who do we date? Homogamy – people who are similar on characteristics such as ethnicity, social class, faith, and values (opposite is called patrogamy) Propinquity – geographic closeness Pool of eligible – pool of people from which we are able to choose mates o High incarceration and unemployment rates (ex: 1:15 black men incarcerated vs. 1:106 white men) o Unemployment/wage Where Dating Partners Meet: 38% work/school 34% through family/friends 13% nightclub, bar, café, etc. 3% Internet, etc. Cohabitation – living with a romantic partner without being married; increasing in number over time (nearly doubled in the last ten years) Men, blacks, people with some college, and those who are less religious are more likely to have cohabitated; ages from 3049 are more accepting of cohabiting than other age groups Thoughts on cohabitation: o Religious opposition (“it is a sin”) o Some believe “it makes financial and logical sense” o Temporary status before marriage “We are getting married in a few months” o An alternative to marriage/a testing ground for marriage Cohabitation and Marriage 44% of adults in the U.S. have currently or in the past have experienced cohabitation Research shows cohabitation is linked to: o Cohabitations leads to relationships that do not last very long o More likely to have unhappy marriages; more likely to divorce o WHY? Selection effect – characteristics of the person are more important than actual cohabitation; cohabiters are more likely to put convenience before commitment in the relationship Experience effect – the experience of one or more cohabitations is important; partners may not be fully dedicated to the relationship because they see it as an experience rather than a commitment Investment model of commitment: Satisfaction, Alternatives, Investments (influence) Commitment Level (which determines) Decision to Stay or Leave Cohabitation and Children 40% children are born in cohabiting unions Higher risk of living in poverty and food/housing insecurity Lower outcomes academically, psychologically, and socially compared to children with twomarried biological parents Homosexual Relationships The U.S. Congress, 1996: DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act) – defines marriage as a legal union of one MAN and one WOMAN as husband and wife; allowed each state to deny constitutional marital rights between persons of the same sex that have been recognized in another state o In 2013, U.S. Supreme Court found section 3 of DOMA unconstitutional: samesex couples could no longer be denied federal marriage benefits/protections (social security, retirement savings, filing joint tax returns). o In 2015, U.S. Supreme Court legalized same sex marriage. Homosexual and Heterosexual relationships are more alike than different. However… o Homosexual couples receive less family support, but receive more friend support. o Lesbian couples usually have the most equal and least sexualized relationships out of all homosexual and heterosexual couple types. Expectations of Relationships: Most issues that arise in relationships have something to do with expectations: Often, we do not know or communicate our expectations until they have been violated. Expectations are problematic when they are: 1. Unaware (partner doesn’t know how to satisfy the other) 2. Unreasonable (partner can’t agree with or meet the expectation) 3. Unspoken (partner doesn’t say what they want from the relationship) Common examples of clashes in expectations: Men’s vs. women’s roles Contact with previous partners Money Standards of cleanliness Time spent together Common UNREALISTIC Expectations: Mindreading is expected (be able to communicate concerns rather than assume the partner understands) Disagreement is destructive (disagreements can often be compromised) Sexual perfectionism (open communication about sex can help improve it) Partners/relationships cannot change (THEY CAN!) RELAISTIC Expectations: Loyalty/Fidelity Trust/Honesty Good communication Conflict in relationship (good to expect this) Safety (emotional, psychological, physical) Chapter 8: Love and Loving Relationships People believe love is made of: trust, care, honesty, friendship, respect, desire to promote the wellbeing of the other, loyalty, commitment, ACCEPTING THE OTHER WITHOUT WANTING TO CHANGE THEM, support, desire to be in the other’s company, consideration of and interest in the other. Love – a strong affection for one another arising out of kinship or personal ties; attraction based on sexual desire; and affection based on admiration, benevolence, or common interests. “Love is the will to extend one’s self for the purpose of nurturing one’s own or another’s spiritual growth… We do not have to love. We choose to love.” (M. Scott Peck) Attachment Theory – the way in which infants form attachment early in life will affect various aspects of life, such as interpersonal relationships, personality, emotional regulation, and selfconcept throughout later in life. Types of Attachment: Children Secure Attachment – A toddler will explore freely while the caregiver is present, typically engages with strangers is visibly upset when the caregiver departs, and is happy to see the caregiver return. o WANTS MOM, happy to see them again. Ambivalent Attachment – The child will typically explore little (in a strange environment) and is often wary of strangers, even when the caregiver is present. When the caregiver departs, the child is often highly distressed. The child is generally ambivalent when they return. o WANTS MOM, feels hurt and upset when she returns. Avoidant Attachment – A child will avoid or ignore the caregiver – giving little emotion when the caregiver departs or returns. The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there. o Child gives up trying to reach out to mom. Types of Attachment: Adults (adult romantic relationships correspond to the infant attachments) Secure Attachments – “I am comfortable depending on others and having others depend on me. I don’t worry about being alone or others not accepting me.” AnxiousAmbivalent Attachments – “I am uncomfortable being without close relationships, but I sometimes worry that others don’t value me as much as I value them.” Avoidant Attachment – “I am comfortable without close emotional relationships. I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me.” Images of Love in HISTORY: Romantic love and marriage were often not attached to each other. Ancient Greek and Roman mythology did not associate love with marriage. Early Christianity did not associate love with marriage. In the 12 century (Middle Ages) there were some precursors to our notion of romantic love in marriage. th th 18 and early 19 century: Ideas about romance expanded through the population. Valued similarities between partners, sexual expression and the emotional side of love. Romantic love includes: 1. Love at first sight 2. One “true love” for each person 3. Love conquers all 4. The beloved is perfect 5. We should marry for love Feminization of Lovth In the 19 century, love became associated with the private work of women in the home, i.e. nurturing and caring for family members. o Industrial Revolution: men go to work and experience the stresses of labor outside the home. The home becomes a “haven of rest” for men, and women become the keepers of it (caregiving and domesticity begin to become evidence of love). In the early 20 century, love and sexuality became mandatory for a good relationship. o Sexual expression/gratification was no longer just a component of love the very basis of love itself. Contemporary Ideas of LOVE: Romantic love – type of love that is characterized by passion, melodrama, and excitement (receives a lot of media attention). o When romantic love no longer exists, people may end their marriages. Companionate Love – type of love that grows over time, based on strong commitment, friendship, and trust. o Long term and loving couples have a shared history, sense of community, and likely have children together. Theoretical Perspectives on Love: Sociobiology – evolutionary view that all humans have an instinctive impulse to pass on their genetic material and drawing them into longterm relationship to raise children. o Men vs. Women (men desire to have children; women are more selective about who they have children with) Biochemical Perspectives with Love – suggest humans are attracted to certain types of people (attractive/desirable) at which point the brain releases natural chemicals that give us a rush we experience as sexual attraction. Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love: Love has three elements/components: 1. Intimacy – closeness and sharing 2. Passion – intense physical and emotional drive 3. Commitment – decision to be in relationship Lee’s Styles of Love: Eros – passionate, strong physical attraction Storge – companionate, mutual love, resprect, trust Pragma – practical, sensible Ludus – playful, carefree, casual Agape – altruistic, kind, patient Mania – Obsessive, possessive, intense Reiss’s Wheel Theory of Love: A developmental theory that shows relationships moving from the establishment of rapport, to self revelation, mutual dependence, and finally, need fulfillment. Rapport – building relationship based on mutual trust and respect Selfrevelation – sharing intimate information about oneself Mutual Dependency – desire to spend more time together Personality Need Fulfillment – satisfy a majority of each other’s emotional needs Needs gone wrong… Martyring – maintaining a relationship by consistently ignoring ones own legitimate needs; while trying to satisfy all of the partner’s needs (legitimate and illegitimately) Manipulating – seeking to control the feelings, attitudes, and behavior of your partners How We Experience Love Sex, Gender, and Love: Men are more likely than women to be in or looking for committed relationships. Men report falling in love sooner and with more people than do women. Men are more ludic (playful), whereas women are more storge (commitment) and pragma (rational). Samesex Love: Often same as heterosexual couple’s love Primary difference is the prejudice and discrimination experienced Unrequited love – when one’s person’s feelings are not reciprocated by the other person in the relationship The Downside to Relationships and Love Jealousy: Can be rational or irrational (if irrational, it comes from our insecurities) Men are more likely to deny their jealous feelings, while women are more likely to acknowledge them Breaking up is hard to do: Nothing about love is guaranteed; most dating relationships end within a few years Some couples break up relationships for the same reason they were attracted to each other o Considerate unwilling to open up and be honest o Strong personalities stubborn o Exciting scary, etc. Unequal emotional involvement o 75% one person (of the couple) said at their relationship was unequal in emotional involvement; and 56% of both partners agreed their relationship was unequal in emotional involvement o More likely to break up within 3 years Romantic relationship during adolescence o Girls: in a shortterm sexual relationships, girls had an increased risk of experiencing depression (not found in stable romantic relationships) Chapter 9: Sexual Identity, Behavior, and Relationships Sex – biological characteristics (male and female anatomy) determined at birth Gender – “scripts” or expectations of what it means to be masculine or feminine as if these were opposite; learned behaviors and attitudes Intersexed – those born with genitalia that do not clearly identify them as unambiguously male or female; 12 out of 1000 births Transgender – when a person feels as comfortable if not more so, in expressing gendered traits that are associated with the other sex Transexual – an individual who undergoes sex reassignment surgery and hormone treatments Sexual Orientation – the sexual and romantic pattern of partners of choice; gender(s) to which one is sexually, physically, emotionally, and spiritually o Heterosexual – having an attraction and preferences for developing romantic and sexual relationships with the opposite sex o Homosexual – having an attraction and preference for relationships with members of one’s own sex o Bisexual – an orientation in which a person is attracted to both males and females Construction of Homosexual Identities: Troiden model: Sensitization – recognizing that one is maybe homosexual Identity confusion – feeling conflicted about homosexual identity Identity assumption – sharing with close family and friends that one is homosexual Commitment – openly living homosexual lifestyle Sexual Orientation What determines sexual orientation? Biology? Social/environmental factors? Personal choice? Mental disorder or emotional problem? Attitudes toward LGBT Homophobia (or antigay prejudice): Having very strong negative feelings toward homosexuality Heterosexism: A system of attitudes, behaviors, cultural norms, and institutional practices which target and subordinate gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals because of their orientation; based on the “normalcy” of hetero sexuality Sexual Scripts: The norms or rules regarding sexual behavior; shaped by social and cultural factors. (Who, what, where, when, how, and why we have sex) We learn sexual scripts from: The culture in which we live (parents, friends, media, and religion) The interpersonal communication between us and our partner Our personal views Double Standard: The idea that men have been allowed far more permissiveness in sexual behavior than women (For example: seeking or expressing sexual behavior) Constructions of Homosexual Identities: Sensitization: recognizing that one is may be homosexual Identity confusion: feeling conflicted about homosexual identity Identity assumption: sharing with close family and friends that one is homosexual Commitment: openly living homosexual lifestyle Sexual Expressions in Childhood Between ages of 26: Children may touch their genitals. Children may touch their mothers’ breasts. Children may also attempt to observe others undressing. Children may also play doctor and examine each other. Early childhood develop understanding of gendered behavior Sexual behavior in children peaks at age 5. Then it declines and manifests itself around 11 or 12. Middle childhood experiment with masturbation Children are maturing sexually earlier than before. Why? Pregnancy and Abortion 330,000 teenagers (1519) gave births in 2011 Teenage parents are disadvantaged: Unprepared financially, socially, and psychologically Teenage mother are more likely to die in childbirth; to drop out of school; considerably poorer receive welfare; have less prepared for childrearing; to be depressed. Infants are more likely to be of low birth weight and die w/in the first month of life Nonmarital Sex Standards of Nonmarital Sex: Abstinence Permissiveness with affection Permissiveness without affection 59% of Americans reported nonmarital sex is OK Hooking up: Sexual interactions without commitment or even affection for one another. Nonmarital Sex in Media: One in ten sex scenes shown were b/w married couples. Six times as many scenes of nonmarital sex Extramarital sex was portrayed four times as often as sex in marriage. But, most married couples are sexually active. Extramarital Sex (Affair, adultery, infidelity, being unfaithful) “Beliefs” 78% says it is always wrong; 15 % almost always wrong. § 2% says it is not wrong at all. 2/3 say that they would not forgive their spouse... “Behaviors” 34% married people have a sexual partner other than spouse in a given year. 15% of women and 22% of men have had affair while married. 37% of men (ages 50 – 59) have had extramarital sex. Sex Over the Lifespan : Spouses in Middle Age: Sexual frequency declines, but sex is still important. More relationship reaffirming: closeness, tenderness, love, and companionship. Marital satisfaction associated with sexual frequency. Older Partners: Physical changes associated with aging affect sexuality. Disease; Medications; Energy levels It is quite likely that they are still sexually active. Regular sexual activity is important: “Use it or lose it.” Sex and Boredom: Habituation: decreased interest in sex because, Increased access to sex partner. Predictability of sexual activity with that partner over time. What else could explain decreases in interest in sex throughout marriage? Sexual Satisfaction in Committed Relationships Both quality and quantity of sex is associated with feelings of love for one’s spouse or partner. Men are more likely to feel that a poor sex life undermines the entire relationship. Women are more likely to feel that a relationship can still be good even if the sex life is not so great. Among women, increased relationship satisfaction leads to increased sexual satisfaction, but among men, increased sexual satisfaction leads to increased relationship satisfaction. Among singles, married, and cohabitating persons: Cohabitating and married persons had highest and equal levels of physical pleasure. Married people had greatest emotional satisfaction with sex. Chapter 10: Communication What is communication? It is the process of exchanging and interpreting ideas and feelings. What are some characteristics of communication? Verbal and nonverbal Same content can be interpreted differently o Ex: The phrase “I did not tell Pam that Jim is stupid” changes meaning with emphasis on different words. General concepts of communication: Communication is a TRANSACTION; all behavior is a continuous exchange o Partners are simultaneously senders and receivers of messages Communication is a process; dynamic and always changing o Culture, race/ethnicity, and sex are critical Communication includes coconstruction of meanings o Speaks a language and interprets meanings different (ex: “Let’s have fun together!” has different meanings coming from your father and your friend.) Communication uses symbols (ex: body language) Elements of Communication: 1. The Communicator – the person who creates and sends the message An individual is a total system; our clothes, body language, facial expressions, mannerisms, and tone of voice are all forms of information about the communicator. 2. The Message – the unit of information transmitted between sender and receiver Message may contain thoughts, feelings, ideas, suggestions, or commands. Prepared/encoded by the communicator. 3. The Medium – the way a message is presented to the recipient. Talking, television, text message, note, email, etc. Message is often determined, to a degree, by the medium. (ex: message “ttyl” only thru text messaging) 4. The Recipient – the receiver of the message The receiver interprets the message, based on his/her personality, life experiences, and the relational context. (ex: Teacher’s daughter says she’s hungry he gets the message to get her food; Teacher’s student’s say they’re hungry he gets the message they want class to end early to get something to eat) Listening – the process of giving thoughtful attention to what we hear Active listening – you are extremely attentive, use good eye contact, body language, and encourage the other person to continue talking Gender Differences : Rapport talk – speaking to gain or reinforce rapport or intimacy (women usually engage in this form of communication) Report talk – conversation aimed mainly at conveying information (men usually engage in this form of communication) Femaledemand/male withdraw pattern: Women are attuned to emotional quality of relationship Men try to minimize conflict Goals of men and women: Women try to resolve the conflict with understanding Men avoid a “blowup” or big conflict What men can do in a relationship… Do not escalate the argument with defensiveness or contempt Try to share power in the relationship: accept influence What women can do in a relationship… Use positivity; shared humor, expressions of affection Soften the way she brings up complaint Taking a TimeOut: When the argument gets too heated, both partners should take a “timeout” to deescalate the situation. In the mean time, do something relaxing and DON’T think too much about it… then, time back in. Conflict, Communication and Problem Solving: 4 Types of Conflict (in order of easiest to most difficult to manage): PseudoConflict – falsely perceiving that our partner is interfering with our goals or has incompatible goals Content Conflict – a type of conflict where individuals disagree about information Value Conflict – a type of conflict that results from differing opinions on subjects that relate to personal values and issues of right or wrong Ego Conflict – a type of conflict where individuals believe they must win at all costs to save face Personal Conflict Styles: Avoiding – LoseLose approach; “Just leave me alone” can reduce intense emotions but increased relational tension and nothing is resolved Accommodating – LoseWin approach; “Whatever you say” can be effective when used with unimportant issues, but may lead to being taken advantage of Competing – WinLose; “It’s my way or the highway!” can be effective in emergency situations when you are concerned with partner’s well being, but can damage a relationship Compromising – LoseLose; “I’ll do some of this if you do some of that” can be effective when not enough time to collaborate, but lose a portion of what we desire Collaboration – WinWin; “Let’s work on finding the best solution for both of us” goals of both self and other are achieved, but takes time and knowledge of winwin conflict Intimacy, Communication, and Conflict Are All Conflicts Solvable? Solvable – conflict/problem that has a solution (ex: cutting the grass) Perpetual – conflict or problem that within a relationship can never be “solved” (ex: having children) Regulating couples – couples who use communication to promote closeness and intimacy Nonregulated couples – couples who have many negative communication exchanges Criticism, Defensiveness, Contempt and Stonewalling destroy relationships: Criticism – making negative evaluations of your spouse’s behavior or feelings; attacking personality rather than the specific behavior Defensiveness – defending yourself from a perceived attack; doing this will escalate the argument Contempt – characterized by the intent to insult or abuse your partner emotionally, feeling superior to your partner (ex: rolling your eyes, mocking) Stonewalling – a person refuses to listen to their partner’s complains or stories (physically and emotionally)—a withdrawal technique Belligerence – a behavior that is provocative and that challenges the spouse’s power and authority (ex: one partner expresses concern or wants to talk and is ignored by the other partner) Chapter 11: Marriage Marriage – a close intimate union; a relationship between husband and wife; a legally and socially recognized relationship that includes sexual, economic, and social rights and responsibilities for partners (considered the basis of a family unit) As a law: a legal contract upon a voluntary private agreement by an man and a woman to become husband and wife ** Marriage is vital to the preservation of morals and civilization. Changes in U.S. Marriage: Colonial America – a freechoice, heterosexual union; husband centered; no right to vote or own property for women th 19 Century – still unequal, but women’s movement for equal partnership and social, economic, and legal opportunities began; also had polygamy in this period After the Industrial Revolution – changing experiences of youth; sexual revolution began early 1900s (more liberal and open communication of sex); changing lifecourse pattern (more people marrying later than older relationships) Why is marriage becoming more and more delayed? Two perspectives: Marital Decline Perspective: the view that the institution of marriage is increasingly being threatened by hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of longterm commitment Marital Resilience Perspective: the view that overall, marriage is no weaker than in the past, but that all families need an increase in structure supports over time (society doesn’t provide enough support for people to get married and start a family) Types of Marriages: Homogamous marriage (NOT HOMOSEXUAL) – a type of marriage in which spouses share certain social characteristics such as race, ethnicity religion, education, age, and social class Heterogamous marriage – type of marriage in which spouses do not share these characteristics (ex: interracial and interethnic marriages) o Interracial Marriage – a type of marriage which spouses come from different racial groups Antimiscegenation Laws – laws forbidding interracial marriage, which existed at the state level until 1967 (ex: white and black people could not marry) o Interethnic Marriages – a type of marriage in which spouses come from different countries or have different cultural, religious, or ethnic backgrounds Laws regarding Marriage: All states limit one living husband or wife at a time Can only remarry if widowed, divorced, or annulled; each state sets regulations on age and close relationships Samesex marriage is legalized in the U.S. o Before the law was passed, some states had domestic partner laws: o Civil union – a public policy designed to extend some benefits to partners who are not legally married o Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) – allowed states to refuse to grant reciprocity concerning samesex marriage The Benefits of Marriage vs. Civil Union: better child/spousal support, medical decisions, immigration, etc. laws for married couples Changing Attitude of Marriage: Purpose for marriage is happiness and love rather than for creating a family Age of marriage is becoming older Gay and Lesbian marriage is more accepted Society is more open to nonmarital sex, cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, and shared breadwinning (division of household labor) Marriage Premium: The Marriage Premium: the concept that married people are happier, healthier, and financially better off than those who are not married (MARRIAGE brings those things) Selection Effect: the hypothesis that people who marry may be different from those who do not marry (the PERSON THEMSELF is responsible for being happier, healthier, and financially better) Psychological wellbeing and happiness: more likely to be “happy”; lower rates of depression; higher selfesteem, closer relationships Health: healthier (esp. men); live longer, less likely to smoke/drink heavily, use drugs, be depressed, etc. Economic Security: Wage premium – working harder and less housework Social capital – the goods and services that are byproducts of social relationships Who does marriage benefit? Married individuals are healthier and live longer than unmarried individuals o Less likely to have depression/anxiety o Better health habits, health insurance, and receive more regular health care Men especially benefit from marriage o Less risky behaviors; wife monitors health Not just the status, but the marriage must be satisfying: o Unhappy marriages are linked to depression, hostility, and anger more than happy marriages 5 Types of marriages: 1. Conflict Habituated – constant battle over almost everything 2. Devitalized – married several years without much passion left 3. Passive/Congenial – partners never expected emotional closeness; also little conflict 4. Vital – physical and emotional intimacy are valued; satisfying and enjoyable relationship 5. Total – like vital, but almost everything is done happily together Marital satisfaction: Married without children had the HIGHEST satisfaction When they bear children, marriage satisfaction goes down o Is lowest when children are teenagers and becomes more satisfying when children leave the home Most important factors of marriage: 90% say faithfulness 70% say good sexual relationship 3 most important is sharing household chores, etc. Least important factors of marriage: agreement on politics and children Marriage Premise – the couple’s acceptance of responsibility to work hard to ensure the relationship continues; based on two expectations: Expectations of Permanence – mutual affection and commitment Expectations of Primariness – often includes sexual exclusivity Peer marriages – relationships in which spouses consider themselves to have equal status or standing in the relationship, in sharing breadwinning, housework, and childrearing (50/50 and up to 60/40 sharing of responsibilities and power) Nearpeer marriages – equality is important, but the husband participates in less than 40 percent of domestic tasks Traditional marriages – male holds more power and authority in the relationship, and both spouses were satisfied with this arrangement
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