Updated Exam 2 Study Guide
Updated Exam 2 Study Guide PSY-4073-5073-001
Arkansas Tech University
Popular in Cognitive Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-4073-5073-001 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Steven Andrew Berg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
Exam 2 study guide > Attention ● Semantics vs. physical characteristics of messages ○ Semantic features are like the meaning behind something, such as symbols. This is conceptual knowledge. Physical characteristics can be measured, such as pitch, color, loudness, direction, etc. They have to do with the talker: speaking rate, tone, etc. ● Broadbent’s “filter model” ○ Early processing model of attention. Of all the sensory input, some information is selected early for additional processing. Data is sorted into two streams; attended and unattended. Used to cope with overwhelming amount of incoming messages. ● Treisman’s “attenuation model” ○ This is a revision of Broadbent’s filter. It means to explain how unattended stimuli sometimes came to be processed in a more rigorous manner than what Broadbent’s filter could account for. Some unattended stimuli are attenuated instead of being filtered out completely. Some information from unattended channel gets through. “leaky filter model.” Perhaps you are grocery shopping and a pop song is playing but you don’t realize it. You find yourself singing it the next day with no idea why it is in your head. ● Dichotic listening method ○ Ability to focus and attend on one message and ignore all others (concentration on some environmental stimuli or neural event) Participants are usually asked to focus on one of two words and then ‘shadow’ it by repeating the attended word after a delay. (Suggests a limit set of resources for dealing with environmental stimuli, Attention is constrained.) ● Shadowing ○ Say what they hear out loud in the attended channel. To attend one channel over the other and repeat the word. ● The Stroop effect (1935) ○ Difficult to ignore the word that is presented. Orthographic word recognition causes a competing response. Interferes with processing of task. Inability to ignore meaning of word forms. Automatic processing interferes with intended processing; attentional resources are divided. ○ When naming the color of text left to right, takes longer the second time because it’s hard to ignore reading the words. ● Cognitive resources vs. cognitive load ○ Cognitive load refers to the amount of those resources necessary to accomplish tasks. ● What to expect with highload vs low load tasks ○ Capacity is limited when it comes to cognitive resources available for tasks (not directly measured.) ○ Cognitive load refers to the amount of those resources necessary to accomplish a task. ■ High load tasks uses many resources and leave few for other tasks. (complex) ■ Lowload tasks – uses few resources, leaves a lot left eating, while watching tv. ● Automatic processing ○ Automatic processing occurs without intention, but uses cognitive resources in the process. Practice helps make things automatic. Automaticity is a process of learning where the use of controlled processes that occupy working memory (slow and serial) is replaced by memorization and direct retrieval. ○ Often performed in parallel. It does not requires attention, like covering your mouth when coughing. ● The cocktail party effect ○ When a person hears their own name spoken by someone who was not the focus of attention. ● Early vs intermediate vs late selection models ○ Early All info pass from sensory memory to the filter to where only the attended message get through. ○ Intermediate some of the unattended messages get through. If unattended message contains important info then it is attended. ○ Late selection models selection of messages for final processing does not occur until after semantic information has been extracted for analysis. ○ Know when the semantic info comes into play > ShortTerm Memory ● Encoding vs. storage vs. retrieval – ○ Getting information into memory, retention of encoded info over time, process of recovery for info stored in memory. ○ Encoding is the initial processing that leads to formation of a mental representation. Storage is the retention of encoded information over time. Retrieval is the process of recovery for information stored in memory. ● Implicit memory vs. Explicit memory ○ Memory is said to be implicit when information is available without conscious effort. (what is wrong with this picture?) ○ Memory is said to be explicit when encoding and/or recall efforts are conscious. (what is missing from this picture?) ● Digit span – ○ 7+2 or 59 ○ A task that determines the longest list a person can repeat back in order immediately after presentation on %50 of all trials. ● Duration of STM ○ Limited capacity; holds 59 items for less than a minute. Typically consists of the stuff you’re actively conjuring, analyzing, imagining, etc. ○ Peterson and Peterson (1959) exposure task: It’s not simple decay in STM. Old information interferes with processing of new information. Memories do not decay or burnout; rather, memories get interfered with by new information that has been added to storage. We are bound to have memory interference. ● Sensory memory – ○ Very brief process and holds all incoming information from various sources of input, but does so for less than a second. These processes are typically not conscious. (lighting, sparker trail) ● Iconic memory – ○ Sperling (1960). Present array of 12 letters (4x3 grid) on screen for very brief period. There were 3 experimental conditions: Whole report, Partial report with immediate tone, and Partial report with delayed tone. ○ Whole report Participants asked to report all letters 3.5 out 12 letters recalled suggests limited perceptual space. ○ Partial report with immediate tone 50ms visual presentation, participants hears a tone indicating which row of letters to report 3.54 letters. ○ Partial report with delayed tone Same as previous condition but tone is delayed for one sec. results are same as whole report. ○ It seems all possibilities are briefly available. The icon deteriorates rapidly. Sensory span may be less limited than STM. ○ For a very short period of time, we can take in way more information than we can report. ● Chunking – ○ Configuring a larger set of information into smaller sets based on some organizing principle. We can remember a greater number of basic elements by chunking. Chunking depends on knowledge and experience with tobechunked items. Chess masters could no better remember a chess board with random illegally placed pieces than a beginner. However, when the pieces were placed in legal positions, the chess master remembered the board four times as well in the five second time span. ● Control processes (rehearsal) – ○ Keep repeating info in your mind so that it does not leave STM ● Proactive interference ○ Old memories proactively jumping forward to influence or interfere with your ability to encode new info. (Ex. old phone number interferes with learning of new phone number by popping into your memory.) ● Retroactive interference ○ New memories interfere with the ability to retrieve old information (difficult to access.) (Ex. a sports fan has trouble recalling the names of players on a team from his youth because there have been so many players since.) ● Shortterm memory vs. working memory (know major distinctions) – ○ Working memory is a set of storage capabilities and process for immediate or primary memory. Resources in working memory are used to accomplish reasoning tasks, comprehend language, and learn. ○ WM differs from STM in that it has multi part with active processes. STM holds info for short period of time. WM manipulates info during complex cognition. ○ 4 main components of working memory – ■ Phonological loopHolds speech based info. (Pronunciation) listening to telephone # over and again is making use of phonological loop. ■ Visuospatial sketchpad Holds visual and spatial information to form a mental image that can be inspected. Like picturing my bedroom. Visuospatial working memory preserves spatial relations found in visual perception and real world. ■ Central executive (the boss) Directs attention, coordinates Information from phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, controls suppression of irrelevant info. ■ Episodic buffer Allows you to grab bits of information from your permanent memory and combine it with new information coming into the system. It integrates current situation with past experiences. ● Suppressing irrelevant information – ○ Caused by the central executive. (Good suppressors had less brain activity while ignoring irrelevant info.) (Poor suppressors (the peekers) had more.) ○ Working memory tuning out some info while taking in others ● Articulatory suppression ○ Is observed when reader is kept from rehearsing info as phonological loop is occupied. Reduces memory span. Eliminates word length effort. > LongTerm Memory ● Episodic memory (basic type of declarative LTM) ○ Code the subjective experience of events and the context in which they occur. (Music at last part was louder than usual.) ● Procedural memory ○ Part of LTM that is responsible for knowing how to do things, also known as motor skills (walking, talking, and riding a bike.) ○ General like semantic, not about a specific incident ● Semantic memory (basic type of declarative LTM) ○ Code general information and categorical knowledge. (Ex. meanings of words and concepts.) Organization of categories and semantic relationships among concepts is a major focus of research on memory and cognition. ● Encoding specificity (ask in class) ○ Memories are most available when the context at the time of retrieval matches context at the time of coding. Semantic processing and semantic cue yield highest level of recall. If you learned it in this environment, being in this environment will improve recall. ○ We do better with a match vs a mismatch ○ Chewing gum while studying and again taking exam ● Levels of processing theory ○ A continuum from shallow to deep. Shallow processing of messages gives you traces that are susceptible to rapid decay. Shallow processing is usually just physical characteristics such as color, direction etc. Deep processing (semantic processing) gives you deeper traces that are more likely to remain less susceptible to decay. ○ Related to recall; familiarity, specificity of processing, and the selfreference effect (information relating to the subject) can all improve recall value. ● Recall ○ You provide information. ○ A method of memory retrieval in which the individual reproduces information that is already in stored LTM. ● Recognition ○ Information already provided and you recall. ○ A method of memory retrieval in which individuals identify a stimulus as one that has been experienced previously. ● Schemas ○ Package of knowledge or general frameworks for objects, people, places, and events. What you know about it. ● Serial position effect ○ Better recall memory for words at beginning and end of list than middle. ● Primacy effect ○ Improved memory recall value for items at the beginning. ● Recency effect ○ Improved memory recall value for items at the end. ● Selfreference effect ○ Have better recall when asked how does the word describe you? (ask questions) ● Phonological similarity effect ○ Words that sound similar are harder to recall when listed together as opposed to totally dissimilar words. ● Wordlength effect ○ Memory for lists of words is compared for short words vs long words. (Ex. bat, card, glue vs amplifier, cardiology, scientific.) Length can be considered in terms of syllables or as reading time the relation is linear. It takes longer to rehearse long words and to produce them during recall, because it is harder to keep themn in phonological loop. Short words are recalled more easily. ● Forgetting ○ Much of forgetting occurs shortly after info was learned. ● Anterograde Amnesia ○ Loss of ability to form new explicit memory for events occurring after brain damage. ● Retrograde amnesia ○ Loss of ability to retrieve memories from period of time prior to brain damage (most lost is autobiographical info.) > Memory Errors and Other Topics ● Amnesia ○ Characterized by memory failure over a long period of time and is caused by physical injury, drug use or psychological trauma. ● Forgetting ○ Mechanisms (theories) of forgetting. ■ Decay With lack of usage, the memory trace reverts to the state before learning (no evidence of this in humans.) ■ Interference Retrieval of information fails because other information intercepts process or other info has overwritten (or blended) with the original. ■ The retrieval process is interrupted, not the encoding process. ■ Forgetting curve: almost right after you learn something, you begin forgetting within a few days whatever information you are going to forget ● Autobiographical memory ○ Perspective. ■ Memory can be from our own, individual perspective (the way the information was originally encountered.) This is a field memory. ● Field perspective: recent memories, seen the way you would see it in present. ■ Alternatively, we can retrieve memory from an outside perspective, called the observer perspective. ● Remote memories, see yourself in the events. ● Flashbulb memory ○ Named to conjure the notion of taking a photograph. Flashbulb memories are those that retain information how you were first informed of some shocking, emotionally charged events. Often retained for long periods of time and with vivid detail, but not necessarily accurate. ● Source monitoring ○ Process of determining origin of information stored in LTM (knowledge, beliefs, etc.) ● Prospective memory ○ Memory for the future. ■ Need to remember: ● What you want to do. ● When you want to do it. ○ Familiarity, mental control processes, and experiences with tasks all play crucial roles. ● Eyewitness memory and the misinformation effect ○ The misinformation effect falls under the power of suggestion. Misleading post event information presented after a person has witnessed an event can influence their descriptions of the event at a later time. Ex. Participants view naturalistic event such as a car accident via video. After they view the video, they are asked a series of manipulated questions. “How fast were the cars going when they smashed/collided/bumped/hit?” When smashed was used, P’s reported cars going 40 mph and 16% reported broken glass. When hit was used, P’s reported cars going 30 mph and 7% reported broken glass. One manipulated word caused a 10 mph increase in speed estimation and doubled the amount of reported broken glass, when there was in fact none. Suggested questioning and positive and negative feedback may increase or decrease confidence in eyewitness memory.
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