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SIU / History / HIST 101 / What do hunting and gathering mean?

What do hunting and gathering mean?

What do hunting and gathering mean?


Emergence of complex society in southern Asia, c. 2600­800 BCE

What do hunting and gathering mean?

I. Indus valley civilization c. 2600­1750 BCE

a. Harappa 

i. Had writing system

ii. Lots of major planned cities, 1000s of other sites

iii. Uses

1. Public water

2. Public sewer

3. Standardized weight system

4. Art

5. Priests

b. Decline and disappearance 

i. Dark ages and the Ganges river culture

ii. Conflicting explanations

1. Indo­European invasion: the “Aryans”

a. Indo­European languages

2. Long term continuity 

3. Migration and environmental change

a. Came in and mixed with the people that were 

already there.

What does agricultural revolution mean?

II. The Ganges river valley: “Vedic” culture, 1500 to 800 BCE a. The Vedas (books of knowledge)

i. Oral traditions and warrior society

ii. Language, gods, and castes

1. Language­Sanskrit 

2. Gods

a. Hindu religions come from Vedas

3. Castes

a. System of social stratification.

b. Brahmi , giants mouth

c. Warriors out of giants arm

d. Vaishya’s out of the legs

e. Workers out of the feet

III. The Ganges river valley c. 800 BCE

a. Kingdoms and warfare

i. Politically system

ii. Many cities that were independent from each other.

iii. All the cities began to fight with each other. b. Social complexity

What does the domestication of animals mean?

i. Writing, cities

ii. More complex social stratifications. 

Agricultural revolution and the cities of southwest Asia (Mesopotamia)

I. Pre-History We also discuss several other topics like What other factors affect supply?

a. Hunting and gathering- caught food, no farming, berries

i. Move along following food

ii. Sharing resources, no particular job, dispersed authority, shared  labor. If you want to learn more check out What is the main difference between cohabitation and marriage?

iii. 10,000 years ago people started figuring out things about plants and animals.

II. Agricultural Revolution- invention of agriculture

a. Domestication of plants

i. Growing big plants, enough plants to feed the community.

ii. Forces grower to stay in one area.  

iii. Fertigation, cross breeding

iv. Close water, rich soil.

b. Domestication of animals

i. Getting animals to work, labor power, provide food (meat, milk,  eggs), transportation.

ii. Control the source of food, you can feed more people. If you want to learn more check out How do you find the absolute minimum and maximum?

c. Social changes

i. Larger communities

1. More diseases spread.

ii. Food surplus

1. Feeding others who don’t create food.

2. Some grow food, some do other things.

iii. Divisions of labor

1. People to keep tract of jobs.

2. Decision makers.

3. Agriculturalist

4. Builders

iv. Social stratification

1. Migration for selling  

2. Transporting food

3. People telling people what to do.  

4. Highest status, low status We also discuss several other topics like What does the transmission mean?

5. Power- War leader, priest  

III. Emergence of civilization

a. Complex societies in southwest Asia

b. Jericho and Catal Huyuk c.6000

c. Mesopotamia and Sumer(Ur,Uruk), c. 3500 BCE

i. The Tigris and the Euphrates (rivers)

1. Transportation

2. Trading

3. Water source

4. Control

d. Characteristics of complex societies:

i. Urban centers

1. Food distributions

2. Control

ii. Complex religious institutions

1. Organized group of priests

iii. Monumental architecture

1. Temples for religious people(ziggurats) 2. Walls  

3. Statues

4. Pyramids

5. Dames

6. Arches

iv. Complex social stratification

1. People living in cities need things

2. Resources

3. Expeditions

v. Widespread trading networks

vi. Large scale military institutions

1. Training  

2. Army

3. Weapons

vii. Complex governmental institutions 1. Taxes

2. Justice system

viii. Writing

1. Record keeping

Diversity and Religious Change in Ancient India,  c. 800 BCE – c. 500 CE We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of binge eating disorder in eating disorders?


A. Diversity comes from India being involved in trade


A. Trading networks

1. Internal— and South

2. The Silk Road 

3. Indian Ocean sea trade. 

B. Wealth and Diversity



1. Vedic primary Gods: Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva

a. Spiritual life of the individual

2. Religious Change in the 600s BCE: Brahman and Maya 

3. New core ideas: Karma, transmigration, asceticism


1. Siddartha, 563­483 BCE

a. Northern India

b. Didn’t know anything except how to be royalty. If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of corporate bonds?

c. Went on elephant ride through the city, on that ride he noticed  human suffering. Asked himself why humans suffer.

d. Went looking to understand human suffering.(left wife and  children)

e. After this he began to call himself Buddha.

f. Eliminate suffering by eliminating desire

2. Buddha

3. Suffering, desire, and Nirvana 

a. ethical actions and moral discipline

b. Karma and transmigration

c. Release: Nirvana –the unknowable, indescribable, unity of all  things.


1. Mauryan Empire and Buddhism­­321­185 BCE

a. Asoka

i. Gave money for monumental buildings

ii. Stopped conquering and the empire fell apart.

2. Kushan Empire and Buddhism —c. 35 CE­c. 300 CE

a. Conquered

b. Were organized

c. Adopted Buddhism

d. Wore pants for people who wore horses

e. Promoting Buddhist art


a. Gupta Empire and Hinduism ­­ 320­550 CE

i. Adopted Hinduism 


1. Hinduism: Bhakti and Samskara

a) devotion and personal relationships

a. prayers are small offerings towards god

b) rites of passage­ritual that individually connects you to your  religion

a. naming­religious study­marriage­funerals

2. Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism

a) traditional Buddhism: monks, monasteries and isolation b) images of Buddha as human(god)

c) proselytizing and universal salvation

d) bodhisattvas and temples

3. The spread of Buddhism

a. monks on the Silk Road: China, Japan, Korea

b. sea trade routes: Indonesia and Southeast Asia

Cultural diffusion and empires in southwest Asia

I. Concepts and definitions

a. Cultural diffusion­when societies inherit things from other societies and cultures. b. Empire­ A society that conquers other smaller societal areas.

II. Southwest Asia in the second millennium BCE (2000 to 1000 BCE) a. Mesopotamian instability

b. First regional empires: cultural diffusion and unification

i. Babylonians and the code of Hammurabi,1792­1750 BCE

1. Wanted to maintain power in his empire.

ii. Hittites,c. 1600­1200 BCE

1. Conquered, built empire, and owned it.

2. Went to wars because they were trying to conquer.

3. Brought new technologies.( chariots & iron)

iii. Invasions and the fall of empires, c.1200 BCE

1. Many empires just fell apart during 1200 BCE. Due to some type 

of invasions. (Mystery)

III. Local independence and prosperity, c.1200­800 BCE

a. Phoenicians,1200­900 BCE

i. Group of city states. Common culture, common language.

ii. Cities made items, and created trade routes across the Mediterranean Sea. iii. Transferred writing, and religious aspects.

iv. Alphabets, Greece based on Phoenicians.

v. They migrated and colonized.

vi. Not only moves goods, they moved themselves.

b. Hebrews, c. 1200­800 BCE

i. Migrated in. became agriculturalist.

ii. Started to have kings

iii. Christianity ,Islamic, and Jewish

c. Syrians, c.1200­800 BCE

i. Land trading

ii. Language­ Aramaic (Jesus)

IV. Assyrian empire, 900­612 BCE

a. Geography

i. Conquered most area

b. New “tools of empire”.

i. Really harsh and repressive.

ii. Putting up artwork of harsh doing in places they conquered.

iii. Fear as a tool of empire.

iv. Deport the areas powerful people and move in.

v. Tear down the walls that the cities had for defense. 

c. Resistance, rebellion, and collapse

i. People started to join together and rebel again the Syrian.

V. The Persian empire, 550­334 BCE

a. Geography of conquest

b. Cultural adaption and diffusion

c. Emperors:

i. Cyrus, c. 550­530 BCE

1. Came and freed others

ii. Darius, c.522­486 BCE

1. Emperor administrative builder

2. Used old tools and new tools

3. Ideas lasted 200 years

4. Tried to build up the idea of Persian kings as almighty 5. King of kings, kings of this world far and wide.

6. Became incredibly wealthy

7. Mutilation, impalement, and crucifixion

iii. Zoroastrianism 

1. One god

2. Actually 2 gods, good god, evil god.

3. Adopted by Persian kings­ to promote their own power 4. Judgement day­work for the good instead of the bad. 5. Ahura Mazda­ god of good, god of truth.

d. Persian decline and defeat

i. Road from Sardis to Susa

ii. Built first road to communicate with the empire

iii. Pony express

iv. Conquered by the Greeks 330­320

Early African Complex Societies: Egypt & Nubia

I. Prehistoric Africa

A. Sahara­Sudan region

a. Not a barrier

b. Lots of cultural diffusion

c. Both came into a wet period, (fish forest grasslands) d. Sahara became to dry up

II. Complex society in Egypt

A. Origins

a. Became fertile ability to grow plants Was under water b. 4000 BCE agriculture started

c. 3200  BCE complex societies 

a. Writing 

b. Monumental statues

B. The Nile river

a. Flooded regularly

b. Build canals, to spread the water

C. Unification and kingship

a. Upper and lower Egypt

b. The old kingdom, 2600­2200 BCE

i. String of dynasties 

ii. Built huge building to symbolize kingships

iii. Pyramids­ giant tombs for the kings

D. Conflict: pharaohs, priests and nobles

a. Everybody got along, then it fell apart.

E. Empire building in the second millennium

a. The new kingdom, 1600 to c. 1000 BCE

i. Nubians were conquered (to the south)

ii. Abu Simbal was built to show how mighty they were

b. Contact and conquest in the near east and nubia

III. Complex society in nubia

A. Origins and settlement

B. Egyptian influence and domination, 1500 ­1000

a. Wasn’t able to control

C. The kingdom of Kush 700 BCE­650 BCE

a. Invaded Egypt , and conquered

D. The kingdom of Meroe and iron, 350 BCE to 300 bce

a. Learned iron working from Hittites.

b. Anti­Egyptians

c. Replaced Egyptian gods, writing system, and etc. d. Became very involved in trade. From Nubian to china.  Nubia to red sea. Nubia to India.

Continuity and change in the Han Empire

I. The Han empire: 203 BCE­220 CE

a. Han Gaozu

i. Leader of the peasant rebellion.

ii. Claimed that his mother had sex with a dragon. “Son of the  Dragon”

b. Former Han (203bce­9ce)

i. Really big changes and consolidation.

c. Latter Han (25­220ce)

i. Peace and prosperity lasted until it fail.

II. Forces of continuity

a. Agricultural & technology

i. Plow and ox.

ii. Huge population growth.

iii. Had a quarter of the world’s population.

iv. People who don’t make food live in cities.

1. Think, write, get educated, invent.

v. Big technology center

1. Bronze working

2. Irrigation innovations

3. Textile innovations

4. Dishes 

b. Political structure and ideals

i. Structure was long lasting.

ii. Strong government system.

iii. Fulfilled mandate of heaven.

iv. Structure continued after failing.

v. Education for the government and everyone else.

1. Human ability the way to prove virtue.

c. Confucianism and legalism

i. This empire mixed both together.

ii. Promoted Confucianism and education, but exercised legalism. III. The scholar gentry

a. Scholarly bureaucrats

i. Educated in Confucianism, became government.

ii. Came from big wealthy family.

iii. Anyone with marrate can get education and serve government.

iv. Began building universities. (Learned how to do governmental  jobs. Then took test to be in the scholar gentry.)

v. Biggest problem was money.

vi. Gentry land owning.

vii. Scholar getting education.

b. Landowning gentry

i. Families in the country could go to city, families in the cities  could go to country for protection.

c. Elite cultural standards

i. Protection

1. Everything closed off for protection

2. Focus on the middle.

ii. Standards

1. Tortoise ink grinder

2. Literacy

3. Tortoise water dropper

4. Silk print

5. Riding around in carriages

6. Jade burial suit

7. Eye covers

8. Horses

d. Social structure

i. Deference

ii. Everybody was expected to bow down.

1. If you didn’t you were violating the principle.

2. Be punished.

iii. Brought attendants for force peasants to bow.

1. If not they would beat them up.

iv. Scholar gentry could only

1. Wear silk

2. Have weapons

3. Ride in carriages

IV. Han Success and failure

a. Expansion, trade, and cultural diffusion: Han Wudi (140­86bce) i. Expanded to the west­ silk roads (China, India, and Arabia.) b. Peasant rebellions

i. No relation with government

ii. Taxes

iii. Rent increase

iv. Military

v. Secret societies

1. Secret symbols

a. Clothing

b. Colors

2. Financial supports

vi. Brought Han dynasty down

Political unification in ancient china, c. 1784­206 BCE

I. Geography

a. Northeast: Huang He (Yellow) River Valley

b. Central: Yangtze River Valley

c. Southeast : Rice and tea agriculture

II. The Shang Dynasty: 1784-1050 bce

a. First historically dynasty

b. Complex society

i. Technological society

ii. Aristocrats, priests and kings

iii. Knives, chariots,  

iv. Shang oracle bone- believed they could communicate with their  ancestors with it.

v. Aristocrats and nobles are the same thing.

c. Weak central rule

III. The western Zhou dynasty c. 1000-771 BCE

a. Political mythologies

i. Explained emergence of complex society, and change from  

Shang dynasty to western Zhou dynasty.

ii. Explained where kings came from.

1. Chaos because nobody knew who their family was.

2. King came up with last names.

3. Taught agriculture and how to write

iii. Zhou kings became kings because last Shang kings where  

monsters who ignored the peasants needed. Zhou kings came  

and conquered.

iv. Mandate of heaven  

1. If the mandate was supporting you, you would get  


2. Kings had a duty to look out for the people because they  

were accounted by heaven.

b. Political fragmentation

IV. Warring states period c.500-221 bce

a. Warfare and political insatiability

i. No central government

ii. A lot of violence, all cities fought each other.

b. Social and cultural changes

i. Agricultural increased

ii. Huge social structure changed.

1. Owned a lot of land.

2. Owned a lot luxury items.(clothes, dishes, jewelry.)

3. Got their statuses from wealth, having land.

4. Monopoly on armed force.

5. Aristocracy-Defined by birth. (Disappearance of  


a. Married each other.

b. Destroyed because of increase of agriculture.

c. Lost their monopoly on land owning.

d. Warfare changed.

i. Arisocrates had to give military shares to  


6. The smaller states needed more government

a. Not only aristocrats could earn education to  

become a governmental person.

7. All the wars contributed to damaging aristocrats.

c. New schools of thought: (both totally different)


i. Confucianism  

1. Confucius:551-479 bce

2. Social harmony

3. Social order=hierarchy  

4. Ruler-minister, father-son, husband-wife, older-younger  

brother, friend-friend

5. Promoted education

6. Doing rituals in the correct way.

7. Helped undermine aristocracy.  

ii. Legalism

1. Only thing you should care about what building up the  


2. Fundamental reason states existed

a. Agriculture

b. War

V. The Qin dynasty, 221-206 bce

a. Emperor Qin Shihuangdi

i. Regional king

ii. Good at being a king and military  

iii. Defeated mostly all states

iv. Used superficial to put governmental system in place

v. Issued standard weights and coins.

vi. Standardized writing system.

vii. Used forced peasant labor to inforce and finish the Great Wall of  China. (defensive wall)

viii. Took 150 people and moved them, killed most of them.

ix. Buried with army, fake people.  

x. Ordered all books to be burned.

b. Legalism and centralization

c. Suppression of aristocrats

d. Imperial expansion

e. Intellectual repression

Greek Culture and the eastern Mediterranean

I. The near eastern context: Persia and cultural diffusion

a. Archaic Greece was a complex society before Persians conquered. II. Archaic Greece: 800­500 bce

a. The polis: oligarchies

i. All cities were independent, with similar forms.

ii. Oligarchy­ ruled by a group.

iii. Ruled by land owners.

b. Land shortage and colonization

i. Greece had so many mountains, there wasn’t enough land. ii. More people, less land.

iii. Began to kick people out of the Polis.

iv. 15,000 new cities.

1. Cultural diffusion

2. Trade

c. Commoners vs aristocrats: political reforms

i. Military innovations: hoplites and the phalanx

1. Commoners wanted rights and land.

2. Political reform­change in military practice.

3. Aristocrat’s warfare: hand to hand combat, chariots, 


4. War became more important and desperate. 

5. Hoplite­ people who can arm themselves.

6. Phalanx­ going to battle as a unit.

7. The navy

ii. Athenian democracy

1. Commoners were no longer left out.

2. Free males could only participate.

3. Assembly­40,000 people

d. Greek slavery

i. From reforms.

ii. Debt bondage.

iii. Freedom with state­Free­Unfree

iv. Only enslave people that weren’t Greek.

III. Classical Greece: 500­350 bce

a. Persian wars, 490­480 bce

i. Greece came together to defeat the Persians.

b. Athenian golden age

c. The Peloponnesian war: Athens v. Sparta

i. Athens lost.

IV. Alexander and the Hellenistic kingdoms.

a. Alexander the great ruler 336—323 bce

b. Conquered entire Persian Empire. (11 years.)

c. Named cities after himself.

d. Spreading Greek culture and his greatness.

e. After death, his empire split into 3. (Hellenistic kingdoms)

The Roman Empire: conquest and Christianity

I. Western Mediterranean ­900 to 500 bce

a. Phoenician colonies

i. Sent people away to expand.

ii. Started to have a local culture

iii. Started own trade coast of Africa. 

b. Greek colonies

i. Also sent people away to expand

c. The Etruscans

i. No one knows where they came from

ii. Migrated from eastern Mediterranean. 

II. Roman republic: expansion, 500­31 bce

a. Oligarchy

i. Conquered many city states.

ii. How to control, feed, etc. the conquered people.

iii. Took land from other people in your society.

iv. Didn’t have a king.

v. Ruled by aristocrats, made all decisions. 

vi. Farmer/Soldier

b. Constant warfare 400­31 bce

i. Got wealth from warfare

ii. Richer people got richer. Common people went to war. iii. Conquered all of Italy.

iv. Two wars with Carhtages.

v. Enslaved war captives.

c. The social effects of conquest

i. Farmers lost their land while in war.

ii. Aristocrats had large villas and houses in the city

1. Owned slaves

iii. Slave trader tombstones

1. Showed the slaves being bossed around.

iv. Farmers move to the city

d. Civil wars,133­31 bce

i. Slave rebellions, farmer rebellions against government. ii. One person came and was in charge.

e. The emperor Augustus

i. 31 bce last conquering.

III. Pax Romana: 31 bce­c. 180 ce

a. Spread of roman culture

i. Aqueducts

ii. Roads made to move army around, but also got trade.

iii. Art

iv. Mummies

v. Silk Road, Rome­China. 

IV. Christians in the roman worlds

a. Jesus and Judaea

i. Judaea was ruled by Hebrew kings. 1,000 years before.

ii. People going around with new messages.

iii. Jesus was born and started preaching around the age of 30. 1. Preached about the kingdom of God.

2. Told about the change in people’s ways.

3. Went and made a scene in roman, got killed. 

4. Followers didn’t know what to do.

b. Paul and a universal religion

i. New leader St Paul

ii. Went to Christian communities with ideas on how to continue  Jesus’s message.

iii. Said that message was not just for Jews.

iv. Went out of area to preach in other places.

c. Christian communities

i. Christianity became illegal.

ii. Christians started places

d. Institutionalization

i. Did everything in secret.

ii. Worshiped in catacombs, because it was illegal

iii. Anti­Christian art graffiti

iv. Romans began to kill Christians, made then sacrifice to the  roman gods.

e. Constantines’s conversion

i. First Christian emperor.

ii. Didn’t get baptized till almost dead. 

iii. Gave Christians money.

iv. Made Christianity legal.

v. Spent money on churches. (basilica)

f. An imperial religion

i. Went after people who weren’t Christians ii. Used law to inforce Christianity.

iii. Emperor Theodosius outlawed other religions.

Olmec Traditions and cultural diffusions in Mesopotamia c.1500­ c. 300 bce

I. Origins of complex society

a. Migration­c 40,000 bce to 12,000 bce?

i. Set migration from Asia 

b. Agriculture’s. 3000 bce

c. From villages to civilization 30,000­18,000 bce

i. Population growth

ii. Complex society

iii. More surplus, ability to feed society

II. Mesoamerica

a. Geography

i. Some of north America mostly

ii. Rain forest, Plateau, Mountains

b. Cultural Diversity

i. 200 different languages

III. Shared traditions

a. Status symbols

i. Clothing

ii. Jewelry

iii. Land

iv. Nobles displayed that they were a part of a network with other  nobles far away. (Luxury items made somewhere else.)

v. Marry someone from a different place.

vi. Jade

b. Cultural diffusion

IV. Olmec culture­ c.15000 to 300 bce

a. La Venta

i. Found artifacts and sculptures,

b. Monuments and realism

i. Realism in art, and giant heads.

c. Were­jaguars

i. Many jaguars inside the art. (clothing)

ii. Half man, half jaguar­were jaguar

d. Ball games

i. First team sport, the ball game

ii. Hit the rubber ball with your hip, to get through a hoop.

e. Diffusion of Olmec styles

i. Ball game traveled to other empires.

V. Monte Alban 500 bc

a. Built into a city state

b. Tried to spread influence and power

c. Center of trade and power

d. Zapata

e. Had war captives.

VI. Valley of Mexico

a. 100 bce ­750 ce

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