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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carmela Kilback on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 165 at University of Washington taught by James Mayer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/192539/chem-165-university-of-washington in Chemistry at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Cheml65 Topics since the 2nd Midterm Exam 1 Covalent bonding A Polar bonds are stronger than nonpolar bonds B Nonpolar bond strengths parallel bond lengths less overlap bonds become weaker on descending in the Periodic Table C 7 bonding is only strong for bonds involving C N and 0 II The elements redox chemistry A main group redox trends crudely parallel electronegativity 1 CH4 quite reducing easily oxidized C02 not oxidizing hard to reduce 2 NH3 mildly reducing HNO3 fairly oxidizing 3 at the extreme F2 HClO4 extremely oxidizing high positive E HF HCl not reducing B Redox trends for metals 1 some parallel With electronegativity Li Cs very reducing easy to oxidize to M very negative E 2 thermochemical analysis of redox potentials thermodynamic cycle includes AHamm ionization energies and heats of hydration III The elements themselves 1 main group elements A Only C N and 0 have elemental forms With 7 bonds due to IC B Because of the octet rule group 14 elements make 4 bonds group 15 elements form 3 bonds group 16 elements 2 bonds etc C Therefore group 16 elements form chains and rings group 14 elements form 3 dimensional diamond structures etc D Heats of atomization for covalent elements are well predicted by the number of bonds made times the strength of each bond IV The metals 1 Band structure A What are bands and Why do they form B Most bonding at the bottom most antibonding at the top The highest occupied level is the Fermi level C Metals have a partially lled band With substantial numbers of electrons at the Fermi level and empty orbitals just above that level V Band structure 2 See solids sheet A covalent and ionic solids band gaps B semiconductors small band gaps C Band structure and properties metals are shiny and have good electrical and heat conduction because of their partly lled band VI The metals 2 Structures A Close packing of spheres hexagonal close packed hcp and cubic close packedface centered cubic ccpfcc B Body centered cubic bcc also very close in energy Chem I 65 VII Ionic solids A most common simple AX structures NaCl rock salt structure sixcoordinate ions CsCl structure eightcoordinate ions ZnS structures zinc blend and wurtzite fourcoordinate ions B Thermochemistry l Lattice energies thermochemical cycles compare IIB2 2 Structure choice Madelung constants radius ratio rules C Another view anions larger than cations anions form a lattice Cations fit in the holes in the anion lattice Close packed structures have tetrahedral holes ZnS and octahedral holes NaCl VIII Nonstoichiometry deviations from Dalton s law A isomorphous substitution in ionic solids same charge similar size B solid solutions Metals Alloys brass bronze etc NaK etc Nonmetals SixGe1x 7 band gap varies smoothly as X varies from 01 C Variable valence nonstoichiometry for instance solids With both Fe2 and Fey examples oxides MxOy highTc superconductor YBazCu3O7x D Note When writing chemical formulae all materials are electrically neutral 7 anything solid liquid or gas that you could put in a bottle IX Defects and Doping A Intrinsic vs extrinsic defects Effect of defects on physical properties B Effects of very small amounts of impurities ndoping and pdoping in semiconductors
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