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by: Carmela Kilback


Carmela Kilback
GPA 3.92

Pradipsinh Rathod

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Pradipsinh Rathod
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carmela Kilback on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 239 at University of Washington taught by Pradipsinh Rathod in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/192543/chem-239-university-of-washington in Chemistry at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
CHEM 239 RATHOD FINAL EXAM Themes to know CARBOXYLIC ACIDS STRUCTURES Understand ionization tendencies Understand salt formation Understand detergent properties DETERMINANTS OF pK Effects of substituents Know approximate sz Dicarboxylic acids Know pK perturbations REACTIONS Know common synthesis routes and reagents Know common modi cations Mechanisms of esteriflcation Lactones dbromination reaction CARBOXYLIC ACID DERIVATIVES MAJOR CLASSES Know acyl chlorides anhydrides thioesters esters amides nitriles Know relative reactivities of the above ACYL TRANSFER REACTIONS Know mechanisms intermediates Acid vs Base catalysis SYNTHESIS OF IMPORTANT DERIVATIVES Amides lactams Nitriles ESTER ENOLATES PREPARATION ROUTES Keto esters Claisen condensation Reaction Mechanism The Dieckmann Rxn Mixed substrates Acylation of ketones Ketone synthesis Via bKeto esters Intermediates for ketone synthesis Acetoacetic esters to Ketones Malonic esters to Carboxylic acids Study hints Know sz next to carbonyl groups Know the need for strong bases to start reactions Understand when decarboxylations are unavoidable Recognize and know relationship between end products key intermediates and starting materials Focus on reactions discussed in class AMINES Know major routes of synthesis Know major reactions involving amines Study hints No short cuts here Use ash cards Know reactions as well as reagents ARYL HALIDES Know major routes of synthesis Know major reactions involving amines Study hints No short cuts here Use ash cards Know reactions as well as reagents Know additionelimination mechanism for NAS Know eliminationaddition mechanism for NAS Know which one applies when Know reagents used to drive these reactions Focus on reactions discussed in class PHENOLS Know major routes of synthesis Know major reactions involving phenols Focus on reactions discussed in class Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution and Acylation CARBOHYDRATES Know application of DL notations Know different representations of carbohydrates Know cyclization reactions Understand naming of unusual sugarse g 2 deoxy Know glycosidic linkages Know major reactions involving sugars Know reagents used for reactions Focus on reactions discussed in class Study hints For the nal you don t need to remember all sugar structures Learn the most common ones glyceraldehyde glucose fructose In setting prioroties pay attention to the amount of time spent of particular reactions or concepts LIPIDS STRUCTURES Know acetyl CoA and its reactivity Know nature of fats and oils Know difference between fatty acids phospholipids triacylglycerol PROSTAGLANDINS Recognize key precursors and products Arachidonic acid thromboxane A2 prostacyclin 12 Leukotriene C4 TERPENES Know Isoprene unit its origin and its active form Know reaction tendencies of isoprene units Know common oligomers Geranyl Farnesyl Geranylgeraniol CHOLESTEROL AND STEROIDS Recognize structure of Cholesterol Vitamin D3 cortisol testosterone estradiol AMINO ACIDS PEPTIDES PROTEINS Amino acids REPRESENTATIONS Fisher projections and DL notation 20 common amino acids Names and structures Unique physical aspects Unique biological importance Recognize important modi cations CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Ionization charge properties effects of pH SYNTHESIS Common chemical routes and biological routes REACTIONS Common organic modi cations Common biochemical modi cations Mechanisms for amino acid metabolism Peptides and proteins Amino acid composition in peptides Sequencing of peptides and proteins Peptide synthesis strategy reagents Forces driving folding and higher order protein structures NUCLEOSIDES NUCLEOTIDES AND NUCLEIC ACIDS STRUCTURES Know structures of standard purines Know structures of standard pyrimidines Know glycosidic linkages Know phospho diester linkages ATP Know structure Know role in phosphorylation Know role in biological acyl transfer reactions POLYMERS Know orientation of nucleic acid strands Know chemistry of chain extension APPLICATIONS Utility of deoxynucleotides in chain termination Use of nucleosides as drugs


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