POLS 155 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
POLS 155 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE POLS 155 - 01
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brie Evans on Wednesday March 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 155 - 01 at California State University Chico taught by Kathryn Sylvia in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 246 views. For similar materials see Amer Gov: National/State/Local Lecture in Political Science at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 03/02/16
EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE ** Review your notes from lectures and readings! ** Exam will cover lecture material and readings from Chapters 1 through 4 of our class textbook AND current event discussions from class. This is only a GUIDE. Exam material may not cover all of this, and there may be a question not represented by information on this study guide. FORMAT: The exam will be 50 multiple choice and true/false questions. You will need a scantron form 882-E and a pencil for the exam. Chapter One: 1. What are the three purposes of government? Be able to define and provide examples of each. 2. What is the difference between politics, government, and political science? 3. Know the difference between Thomas Hobbes and John Locke’s understanding of human nature. 4. Be able to define and explain the values of Freedom, Order, and Equality. What are some examples of each? 5. What is the original dilemma of government? What is the modern dilemma? Be able to explain both. 6. What is the majoritarian model of government? What are the pros and cons of this model? 7. What is the pluralist model of government? What are the pros and cons of this model? 8. What kind of democracy do we have in the United States? Why? Chapter Two: 1. The constitution is a contract between whom? Why do we call it a “rule book”? 2. Know the general history that led to the Declaration of Independence. 3. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? What philosopher’s ideas were borrowed? Be familiar with some of the basic wording of the Declaration of Independence. 4. What is a social contract theory and why was it important to the colonists? 5. What does it mean to consent to being governed? 6. What were the Articles of Confederation? What are the reasons the Articles failed? 7. What was the Constitutional Convention? 8. What is republicanism? What is federalism? 9. What does separation of powers mean? Why do we need it? Which branch has which power? 10. What does checks and balances mean? Why do we need it? 11. Be familiar with the language in the Preamble to the Constitution. 12. What is Article I? Article II? Article III? Why did the framers purposely choose the legislative branch as Article I? Why is Article III so vague? 13. What is the Bill of Rights? What do they do? Why were they added on to the constitution? 14. How can the constitution be amended? Is it an easy process? 15. How does the California Constitution compare to the Federal Constitution? Chapter Three: 1. What is federalism? Be able to provide a conceptual understanding of this term like the one used in class for city/county/state/country. 2. What is the debate between values and representation under federalism? How does freedom v. order and freedom v. equality play into this debate? 3. What is dual federalism? Be able to define and explain. 4. What is the 10 tamendment to the constitution and how does it relate to dual federalism? Explain. 5. What is the cake metaphor used to describe dual federalism? Why? 6. What are some modern day examples that we talked about in class for dual federalism? 7. What is cooperative federalism? Be able to define and explain. 8. What is Article I, Section 8 of the constitution and how does it relate to cooperative federalism? What about Article VI? Explain. 9. What is the “elastic clause”? How does it relate to cooperative federalism? 10. What is the cake metaphor used to describe cooperative federalism? Why? 11. What are some examples, both historical and modern, that we talked about in class that demonstrate cooperative federalism? Chapter Four: 1. What is public opinion? What are some characteristics of public opinion in the United States? 2. How is public opinion measured? What is meant by a random sample? 3. What is political socialization? 4. What are some agents of political socialization? 5. What are some of the factors that shape political values? 6. Why are moral issues “easier” to form opinions on? 7. W at is the self-interest principle? 8. When do we use “cues” used to form opinions? What are these cues? 9. What is private ownership of the media? What does this mean? What are some pros and cons of this? 10. Why is the media referred to as “gate keepers”? What does this mean? 11. What is horse race journalism? 12. How does the media shape public opinion? 13. What does it mean to say that the media sets the political agenda? There will be TEN current event questions on the exam. If you have been in class for class discussions related to current events, you will do fine on this portion of the exam. If you have had spotty attendance, you will want to be sure to review some recent current events related to politics that have been discussed in the news. Please consult RELIABLE news sources. POLS 155 EXAM STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1: 1. a) aintain Order- Constitution b) rovide Public Goods- roads, schools, etc c) Promote Equality- income, social 2. Politics: conflicts over having to share government leadership, conflicts about how the government is organized, and conflicts about what the policies of government will be. “Power Struggle” Government: generally used to describe the formal institutions through which a land and its people are “guided” Political Science: the bjective and academic study of all of the above 3. Thomas Hobbes: believed in a very trong government, ideally a monarchy. Man is inherently evil John Locke: believed government is only required to protect life and property and should be l imite Man is inherently good-hearted 4. Freedom: How much freedom must we surrender to the government? Order: How much order is enough? Ex. Patriot Act Equality: clashes with public opinions. Ex. Gay Marriage 5. The Original Dilemma: reedom vs Order (How much freedom should we surrender to our government in order to keep order) The Modern Dilemma: reedom vs Equality (these values clash when the government enacts policies to promote social equality) 6. Majoritarian: governed in or believing in decision by majority (Cons: small parties have no chance of being elected, under representation) 7. Pluralist condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist (Cons: interest groups interfere with democracy) 8. Representative Democracy: founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people CHAPTER 2: 1. Citizens and the government. Both sides are held accountable to the rules. 3. Thomas Jefferson: wrote The Declaration of Independance. Borrowed ideas from Locke. 4. Social Contract Theory: originating during the Age of Enlightenment, typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual (colonists wanted liberty) 5. the authority of a government should depend on the c onsent of the people, as expressed by votes in elections 6. Articles of Confederation(1777): loose association of the states, aimed to form a government for the United States (F ailed: no power to tax, no national leader, no regulation of commerce, hard to amend) 7. Constitutional Convention: 13 state leaders called upon each other where many plans on how to govern were formed, however, there was no easy consensus 8. Republicanism: power resides in the people Federalism: central/federal government a nd state governments that will “share” power 9. Powers are separated into 3 for the United States, so that one branch doesn’t become stronger than the others Legislative: law-making Executive: l aw-enforcing Judicial: law-interpreting 10. Each branch checks and balances out the powers of the other two 12. Article I egislative Articl First because law-making is the most important Article II xecutive Article Article III udicial Artic Purposely vague for flexibility 13. Bill of Rights: collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. serves as the cornerstone for basic American freedoms. The Constitution lacked this feature prior. 14. All 27 Amendments have been ratified after two-thirds of the House and Senate approve of the proposal and send it to the states for a vote. Then, three-fourths of the states must affirm the proposed Amendment. This is an extremely difficult process. CHAPTER 3: 1. Federalism: division of power between central government and regional governments. Two or more governments exercise power over the s ame eople and the same territory. 2. Debate over how to balance power between nation and states and counties. Different values~representation. 3. Dual Federalism: the powers of the national government are fixed and limited. Relationships between states and national governments is characterized by t ension 4. 10th Amendment: “powers not delegated to the U.S. by the Constitution… are reserved to the States, or to the people…” O ur state, we know what is best for o ur people 5. Layered Cake Metaphor: powers and functions of national and state governments are as separate as the layers of a cake 6. Recreational Marijuana, Plastic Bag Bans, Vaccinations, Labor Laws, Immigration 7. Cooperative Federalism: ational, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems. Characterized by c ooperation 8. Article I, Section 8: “The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States” Article VI “This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding” 9. Elastic Clause: llows Congress to make laws it needs to carry out its own powers 10. Marbled Cake Metaphor: powers are mixed together 11. Grants. National Income Tax. CHAPTER 4: 1. Public Opinion: the c ollective attitudes of citizens on a given issue or question. Vary over time, citizens are willing to give un-backed opinions and uneducated guess/assumptions, poll data is not always reliable 2. Random sample of citizens are polled. It must be reflective of the entire country 3. Political Socialization: complex process by which people acquire their political values 4. Family, friends, school, community, media 5. Education, income, region, ethnicity/race, religion, gender 6. Most people are uneducated about politics and form opinions based on their morals 7. Self Interest Principle: people choose what benefits them personally 8. Cues: Mental shortcuts that require hardly any information. People use cues to describe controversial situations to gain the public’s approval 9. Private Ownership of the Media: gives news industry political freedom, makes the media more dependant on advertising. Must appeal to the audience they serve. 10. “Gatekeepers”: they selectively choose what is published/broadcasted. They are in charge of everything put out into the media 11. Horse Race Journalism: media coverage becomes a matter of which candidate is leading in the polls and who raised the most money 12. Most people base their political knowledge upon selectively chosen news learned from the media. 13. Whatever the media publishes will be what has people’s attention, therefore setting up current events and their significance
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