Mid Term Notes
Mid Term Notes amh 2097
Popular in American History race and ethnicity
Popular in History
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AMH 2097 Spring 2016 Mid-Term Notes Intro Lecture: Race, Nationality and Ethnicity/ The History of Immigration Race: The assumption of differences based on real or imagined physical characteristics. “No such thing as race”, humans created race to divide people and link external characteristics to a stereotype (Superiority or Inferiority) The division was to create power. The individuals who founded this country wanted to keep their power (political undertone) Racism: The act of assuming someone is inferior or superior to you based on their race. When people are grouped into a race based on religion by the government, it can harm them. “Jews” from Germany or Brazil can both be categorized as “Jews” even though they’re completely different. Results in unequal rights. Ethnicity: A group that has something in common. Has nothing to do with where you’re from. Can be multiple similarities or just one. Nativism: When someone is assuming you’re inferior or superior based on your ethnicity Not racism “Anti-Immigrant” Nationality: Where you’re from. Citizenship: Used to be what your passport says (regardless of where you were actually born), but you can be a dual-citizen now. Practice Question: A Buddhist Seshwanian Chinese is what nationality? Ethnicity? Race? Answer: Chinese is there nationality, Buddhist is their ethnicity and Asian is their race. Identity: How you identify yourself Race, sex, ethnicity, nationality Family relations: “Truman”, daughter, mother, sister Sexual orientation: gay, bisexual, straight Name: “Liz” Profession/schooling Immigrants are being stripped of their identities, everything they are. WASPS created a hierarchy (Racial and Ethnic) to create the “other” (aka anyone who isn’t a WASP) WASPS are at the top of the hierarchy, the “others” are located variously at the bottom. The WASPS use this hierarchy to maintain their power. Groups of people can move up and down the hierarchy, their place on it isn’t permanent. Every country has a hierarchy, they’re all different. Ex: Sex hierarchy (America did the same thing) The History of Immigration: Waves of Immigration Wave: When a large group of people come into a country. 1. The “Formative Wave” (1607 “Jamestown” -1830) People that came from England to colonize (Pilgrims and Protestants) This wave of people didn’t consider themselves to be immigrants (Separated themselves from the start) Killed the Natives (Indians) Other people did come during the formative wave BUT the Africans aren’t considered immigrants because they aren’t considered human “Jews”, German and Irish also come over as well but have zero power. 2. The “First Wave” (1830-1880) Millions come over, “whites” no longer the majority by number. Huge group of Irish, Germans, and Chinese come. 3. The “Second Wave” (1880-1920) “Weirder People” Larger number of people (Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Chez, Russians (Jews and Ortho Christians), Japanese)) WASPS become meaner, scared st 1920: 1 major immigrant act passed (1,000,000 people allowed per year down to hundreds.) 4. The “Third Wave” (1965-today) Over 1,000,000 people a year in, everyone is coming. (60s large amount of Hispanics) Today-SE Asia largest groups The largest wave ever Congress want immigration laws to go back to the laws from the 1920s *Refugees aren’t counted during immigration (Cubans, holocaust. Etc.)* WHY do immigrants leave? Most immigrants don’t want to leave their country, they’re forced o Volunteer immigration is our lowest number Ex: Holocaust, civil war, famine, jobs, dictatorship, “push-factors”, genocide (Most cases more than one push-factor is involved) Most immigrants don’t want to stay. Some return, some don’t. America, is NOT most immigrant’s first choice. We are a stereotypical country. They come for opportunity, the American Dream, no other choice, other people here like them, & AMERICA LETS THEM IN (most liberal immigration system in the world). Push Factors: The factors that go into why people leave their country Process of Emigration (leaving) Possible Listing Question!!! 1. Decision to leave or not to leave Push and pull factors 2. Traveling to port or city Most immigrants are rural so the trip to the port may be a journey in and of itself. Might use up all their money just to get there. 3. Taking up temporary residence in the port city Large cities with low paying jobs How long their stay is depends on how far away they were and how long it takes them to find a job/raise the money again. 4. Crossing the ocean Could take up to half a year Had to pay extra for food, put themselves in more debt Terrible conditions, disease, sickness etc. 5. Taking up temporary or permanent residence in the city of arrival NY, Boston, & San Fran Some don’t ever leave the cities of arrival (Money issues) Competing for jobs with other residents 6. Trying to fit in with American Society Not always successful Push and Pull factors Factors in deciding to leave: Propaganda literature from America (made us look better than we really were) “Free land” “Jobs” “Voting Rights” (Not necessarily true) Traveling accounts/guidebooks (rich travelers that visited America would write literature on their experiences) “American Letters”, letters written by family members to their families in other countries Power of the returned immigrant (returned to their hometown after “making it”.) Anti-Immigration Forces: Upper class use of clergy (religious ministers) and journalists to report bad things about America Family’s use of “American Letters” if they had bad experiences. If you leave, you leave for good and family is a good reason to stay in their country. How Immigrants fit in: Assimilation: Completely giving up your culture to adopt the new dominant culture Anglo-Conformity: Conforming to being English (WASP); adopting the language as your main language, religion, way you dress etc. America wants it done instantly If you don’t assimilate you’re punished. Xenophobia: Taking an anti-immigrant stance and being irrational. Ex: Not giving individuals the right to vote, saying blacks are animals, sterilizing immigrants Fear of immigrants Making assimilation quicker: Possible Listing Question!! 1. Marrying a white 2. Having family already there 3. Dressing like a WASP 4. Speaking English 5. Being a child (Easier to adapt) “Un-assimilate-able”: Unable to assimilate Caused by physical characteristics. Could look and speak the part but still be the “wrong color”. Acculturation: Not completely giving up your culture. Acting the part of assimilation in public but going home and participating in your own culture. Opposite of assimilation What most cultures do Not what America wants Cultural Pluralism: Liking people because they’re different. THE FORMATIVE WAVE (1607-1830) Establishing America Native People (16, 500 years ago) Norse Vikings (1000 AD) Spanish, Dutch, & French (1500s) o Columbus “discovers” America (Portugal) England last to colonize (1607) o Jamestown, Virginia (First colony) English want to be considered the first so they need to eliminate the natives who were actually there first. The English Not a homogenous group (purely white) o England has been controlled by many groups (Anglo Saxons, celts, Britons, Normans, romans, Vikings) o A real melting pot where eventually everyone becomes essentially the same. America is not a real melting pot. Not “English” but came from England. Had a very powerful empire, controlled almost the entire globe Factors leading to Immigration of the English: 1. Economic o The lower class made up about 80% of England Note: Class wasn’t based on money. Class was based on who you were born into. (Royalty, land owner, or neither) o Incredibly small upper class o Doctors not even considered upper class o Middle class may be wealthier than someone in the upper class but still may not be able to purchase land (Ex. Doctors) o No hope for lower classes, can’t change the class you’re born into. o Upper Class: 1 son inherits everything. Other sons have little option. Other sons can either join the military, join the clergy, wait for family members ahead of them to die, or move to America. SO, Second and third sons move to America to buy land and become wealthy However, these “gentlemen” don’t work with their hands & NEED workers So, the lower class comes over to America as well as indentured servants. The second and third sons pay for their trip over and the servant has to work for them to pay off their debt. Usually takes around 5 to 7 years. Move to America because they will eventually be able to buy land for themselves. No reason to keep them alive, reasons to keep slaves alive Indentured servants get freedom dues, the clothes on their back and some money to get started once they’re freed. 1. Religious Persecution Pilgrims, Puritans and Quakers. Not the dominant religion so they didn’t receive religious rights (Church of England was). Came over to America and created “New England” to practice freedom of religion & be on top. 2. Convicts Prisons were emptied and sent over to USA Convicts worked off their sentence, free labor! Georgia completely formed by convicts 3. Kidnapped White slaves, women, workers, doctors etc. Could have been anyone seen as useful. Ideas on Immigration andNaturalization (Citizenship) Three different models: (How the US begins w/ naturalization) 1. Pro-Immigration for labor/ Anti-rights: “The Virginia Model” or “The labor model” for the 2 & 3 sons Africans come in as slaves. o Ex: Seasonal workers on farms today. 2. Exclude all but those like us: “Massachusetts model” Puritans and pilgrims You get rights BUT you have to be exactly like us Have to pass a test to get in and they reserve the right to kick you out (or kill you) if they feel it’s necessary o Ex: 9/11 scare 3. Pluralism: “Pennsylvania model” Said yes to immigration and yes to rights! Formed by Quakers whose religion was based on the equality of all. People of all religions and cultures allowed in Immigrationand the Formationof the UnitedStates of America 1776- Constitution Written, we decide who has rights and who doesn’t Immigration discussed in Article 1, section 8 (Witten in the very beginning so very important to them) Congress has overall decision over immigration Three positions: 1. No limits to immigration 1/3 We want to expand to take over, need larger population, need workers etc. 2. Period of Assimilation 1/3 They can come in but they don’t get rights until they assimilate, “trial period” before they become a citizen 3. Restriction 1/3 No, no immigration at all Congress has to decide which policy to use. 1790- Congress decides on policy #2: Periods of assimilation Naturalization Statues Citizenship is granted to “Free white persons” including their children born abroad. o Allows for manipulation If you weren’t born in the states, you had to “declare allegiance” (aka give up old citizenship and become 100% American on paper) and have “good moral character” (aka if you committed a major crime, you’re not allowed to come to America and become a citizen.) Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 (Xenophobic laws) If you’re considered “dangerous” America has the right to deport you (Never allowed back) “Power to restrain or remove alien enemies in case of war” o Ex: Muslim camps, homeland security arrest people arresting people based on religion “False, scandalous and malicious writing against the US president” No freedom of speech, can get kicked out for it. After the Wave Invention of the “White” race: Pure, godly, and clean No longer the majority in numbers. 4 Majority: No longer about number, majority now defined by power. After the Wave, in order for the WASPS to keep their power, more groups of people had to be added to the definition of “white”. First, “white” was light colored skin and protestant Then light colored skin and other religions were considered white “White Hispanics” later added (whites afraid of Hispanic wave) Forced Movement of Africans Types of Migration: 1. Economic Migration: Moving for a better life/economic opportunities 2. Voluntary Migration: Moving just because (A more recent trend) 3. Forced Migration: A migration against their will (kidnapping). Makes you want to keep your culture even more (not assimilate) Africans were our first “racial” immigration UNIQUE to the Africans th European “Discovery” of Africa – 15 Century Africa already had thousands of civilizations; highly sophisticated, highly advanced Largest civilizations in the world Had elected King & Queen (not born into it, run like democracy) Islamic, Christian & Judaic religion (monotheistic, very common to western civilization) West Africa had the trans-Saharan trade o Made them incredibly advanced, knew many languages, made them wealthy o Also traded slaves (every sex & race) helped spark our idea. 16 Century Change due to Christopher Columbus Discovery of new world opens up new world for Europeans to take over Land seen as opportunity to grow sugar and other crops o However, sons & land owners need agricultural workers Turn to the native Indians at first to grow their crops 80% of Natives die from European disease 20% retreat to the mountains and other areas when Europeans try to enslave them Europeans randomly decide to steal people from West Africa (can’t keep our own alive, disease environment & climate) West Africans used to equatorial environment o West Africans brought to Caribbean only live about two years Did Europeans bring slavery to West Africa? No, slavery there already existed. However, it was class based and not permanent, your children weren’t born into it. (Class based not racial based) How did you fall into slavery? Criminal offense o Now sentenced to pay it off with work. Still a citizen with rights. Can take a person to court for abuse. Possible to go from a slave to a King/Queen!! o you can buy your way out Murder o If charged with murder, you are enslaved for life. (Can’t buy your way out) o Murderers sold to US as slaves War o When African cities went into war, whoever lost got sold as slaves “Pan-African”/”African Myth”: The belief that all Africans love each other and that they all get along. Didn’t all get along, fought for women, sex, land, power etc. W. Africans help Europeans with trade (lasts 400 years) Europeans bought the slaves at first, they weren’t taken. The Africans however believed the Europeans would obey/respect their laws –Europeans don’t. o Once W. Africa realizes this, they stop selling slaves to the Europeans o The Europeans don’t take this lightly & go over to steal them themselves W. Africans help Europeans steal other W. Africans Africans on the coast want to keep their kingdom and other kingdoms want their location Coastal kingdoms sign a contract “the right to enslave” saying that Europeans could enslave anyone but them. Europeans agree so that they don’t die and don’t lose the right to enslave. (Worth trillions of $) Every slave is taxed Every African city has a contract with a European City, slaves being kidnapped from every W. African city. African Guides: Africans that helped guide Europeans to enslave Africans from the inlands. Took around 20 men to retrieve 1 slave African Guides were one of the highest paying jobs in the world at the time, steady job. Guides would take anybody, even their own family members Why Enslavement? Why did they think it was okay? Stereotypes about Africans: o “Black”: dirty, evil, impure, death, violence o “Savage”: Europeans find the one uncivilized group of Africans and publish them. The men wore jewelry, we said that their men were feminine and gross (justified slavery) o “Animality”:Belief that Africans are animals (The missing link between monkeys and human, aka not quite human Slavery lasts for almost 400 years Triangle trade members included: Europe, West Africa, and the New World Anyone who could get involved does & gets a boat Puts finished goods on these boats that they believe W. Africans might want; largest good was guns Europeans paid for this right Unloaded guns, loaded slaves Number one money maker in the world at this time Middle Passage: Africa to New World: Africa gave New World slaves in exchange for finished goods New World to Europe: New World gave Europe raw materials such as rum, tobacco, sugar Africans within the trade STEP 1: Being Kidnapped Africans were very aware of the slave trade, they know what’s going on and what could happen to them. When it’s happening to them, they fight for their life, attempt to escape They’re shackled and muzzled STEP 2: March to the Coast One chance to escape Whites learn from their mistakes, shackles become more sophisticated Shackled together but don’t speak the same language so can’t communicate to band together and escape Slaves at this time are such an abundance, they aren’t worth anything at this stage o Trouble makers are killed and NOT removed from the shackles. Serves as an example to the others to obey. o Burial is very important in their religion, shows that they’re cattle and irrelevant As slave trade continues, kidnappers have to go further and further out to retrieve slaves. Eventually have to go 1000 miles out and can take a year or more to retrieve a slave. 25% of Africans die during this March to the coast due to malnutrition, punishment etc. o Bodies removed from shackles if death was from sickness STEP 3: Waiting for Boat Once arrived at the shore, there wasn’t always a boat readily available until much later in the trade. Africans must be held at shore for weeks to months until a boat arrives o Little food or water. o About 10% death rate. Longer the wait, larger the death rate o As trade goes on, wait lessens STEP 4: Middle Passage 3-6 months on boat, 25% death rate (larger death rate if boat was packed tighter) Two types of ship captains: “Tight Packers” and “lose packers” Tight Packers were aware of death rate so would pack as many as possible to make up for the ones that would die Lose packers were aware of death rate so they would pack less men to try and reduce the death rate. Weather can prolong ship voyage. Causes sea sickness (very deadly) *Beginning of slave trade tight packing was more common (don’t care, large supply), near the end lose packing was more common (less men, more valuable) Slave Trade throughFilm: Roots and Amistad Slaves committed suicide Forced to dance and have sex Didn’t have enough food, food was given to slaves most likely to survive or to slaves that were worth more (men) Slave babies would take position of their mother in terms of freedom Washed and oiled before auction Wealthy WASPs hired people to go to auction for them Everyone that could be in the slave trade got involved in some way. Almost the entire world was involved including the church, upper, middle and lower class Upper class owned the boats Rich countries ran/owned slave companies in competition with the upper class The middle class provided goods, law services, bankers loaned money, doctors Lower class does the dirty work (worked on ships etc. ) FACTS & FIGURES TO KNOW 75% of slaves were male o Believed to be better farmers even though women were actually the farmers in Africa (Only took men in the beginning and then started to run out) 75% of slaves were adults (18-26) over 30 was considered elderly o Reason they only want adults and not children is because they only last around two years o Elderly are past their prime (100% adult in beginning but changes as trade continues) Destination: Caribbean: “Death machine” (Slaves only last about two years here). 40% of slaves come here Brazil: Had slaves the longest, life span around 2 years here as well, 38% of slaves came here North America: Only 4% of slaves came here. Small percentage but they live longer here. By civil war, they had a natural increase to 6 million *completely devastated Africa-took entire population African’s Arrival to the New World Slave Auction: all slaves went through it o Slave was owned by ship captain until sold to his master at the auction nd rd o 2 & 3 sons have agents that do the buying for them Owners do “picking and poking” up close to slave before officially buying them White woman allowed to touch them, seen as normal because they aren’t seen as other men they’re seen as animals or “cattle” What goes into the price of a slave? Age (Adults worth the most) Gender (Men almost always worth more) Health/ physique o Always oiled to look more appealing o Coal used to color grey hairs in order to look younger Skills (Skilled females worth a lot) o Know medicine (may use plants as a remedy) o Good at building (Buildings on plantations always built by the slaves) o Cook (female cook) Skilled slaves could teach others Slaves want their skill shown so that they’re treated better Market (scarcity market, price goes up) Summing it up: STEPS OF THE SLAVE TRADE 1. Kidnapping 2. Shackled & Walked 3. Waiting for a boat 4. “Middle Passage” 5. Slave Auction a. Gender b. Age c. Physique/health d. Skills e. Market 6. Seasoning Seasoning Process of making an African into a slave Seasoning is a full time job on the plantation o Provided a lot of work in the Caribbean o Could be white, could be another slave STEPS OF SEASONING 1. Teach slave what their job will be (ex. How to farm) 2. How to convey the language on the plantation a. 1 word learned is “yes” b. 2 “Master” c. Never taught “No” d. (Chance for them to reveal a skill they possess) 3. Break the will of the African a. Tell them that they’re going to be a slave & that they’re an animal b. Forced assimilation c. Every African will resist d. Break them down with torture e. They will eventually say “yes master” but they’ll never believe it f. Some Africans never say yes, these are resold (Usually sent to America) Branding Animals and slaves were branded so that if they escaped, they could be returned Dehumanized them End of slave trade and seasoning Africans: Individual from Africa, personally went through trade and seasoning African-American: African background/decent but born in the United States Never been free Born into slavery Was slavery the same everywhere at every time? No, it differed with time and location. The three periods of slavery: 1. Formative/Colonial period 2. Revolutionary Period 3. Antebellum Period FIRST PERIOD OF SLAVERY: Formative/ Colonial Period: South; “Age of Flexibility” First slaves come in Can’t be sold, too expensive, people have indentured servants Want to get rid of slaves, only charge $5 o 2 and 3 sons treat them like indentured servants o After a few years they’re freed and given land (Before we knew the concept of slavery) o FREE BLACK POPULATION!! (ONLY in North America, not Caribbean (In Caribbean every black is a slave)) Free blacks/Age of Flexibility ends in 1680 because : 1. Indentured servants stopped coming 2. Tobacco = $$ a. 2 and 3 sons become rich and can now afford slaves 3. South Carolina is formed by English that lived in Caribbean a. Strict slave laws b. Slave Codes Slave Codes: 700 page guide on how to punish your slaves (only for slaves, not all blacks) Chattle Slavery: The idea that all Africans are animals Formative/ Colonial Period: North : People that moved to America for religious purposes Business, ports etc. (vs. South with agriculture, tobacco, sugar etc.) If they needed labor they hired someone Slaves at this time existed as status symbols If you owned a slave, you only owned one MAYBE two. Didn’t have the money to cook extra food or build extra housing: Family slavery. Family Slavery: Slaves that live and eat with their owner. Usually pre-seasoned Weren’t treated like animals, like a member of the family Lonely life for the slave (no companionship or culture) Most common form of slavery Manumission: When an owner frees their slave Happened often in the north, family would get attached and feel guilty Never happened in south SECOND PERIOD OF SLAVERY: The Revolutionary Period Gradual Emancipation Laws (Began in 1776): o In constitution, slavery solidified. o Founding fathers often from south and always owned slaves North began realizing they no longer wanted slavery & gradually let it go Slaves were property however and you can’t take property away Emancipation: When the state says slavery is illegal “Slavery will be illegal in two years” o You could sell your slaves o Free your slaves o Work your slaves dry Some states won’t take property away and say that all current slaves will be slaves for the rest of their life, BUT new slaves can’t be born, they will be free However founding fathers love slavery and put “property laws” in the constitution Property Laws: 1. 3/5 clause: solidifies animality & institutionalized cattle slavery 2. Atlantic Slave Trade Renewal for 20 years (we take more slaves in those 20 years than ever before) 3. Fugitive Slave Clause: If you find an escaped slave it’s your civil duty to return them to their owner 4. Power to put down Domestic Rebellions: military will take care of it How many southerners owned slaves? ONLY 25% OF SOUTH OWNED SLAVES Most people in the south were “po” Most of the 25% only owned 1 or 2 slaves and they were family slaves Only 1% owned 50+ slaves Farmers who owned slaves: Worked on farm, family slavery Slavery in the City: (port cities) Slaves owned by an actual cooperation Loaded boats, worked in factories Paid a low wage, just enough to survive Slaves had no choices but could choose how to spend their wage o Could spend it on food/housing/clothing o Could save wage and buy freedom House Slavery: When a slave lives inside plantation house with master (Two types of house slavery) 1. You can live on a plantation w/ field slaves where you live in the actual house 2. Slave lives in master/mistresses city home (only the rich 1%) Lighter skinned & incredibly good looking (Status symbol) Could be a maid, nanny, cook etc. Could be brought into the house for a skill, reward or sex If a slave get pregnant by master (child will become slave, possibly for the white children) Miscegenation: Sex between different races Is being a house slave a privilege? Inside, dressed well, eating well, healthy Whites and field slaves think they’re lucky However, they work 24/7 whereas the field slaves are off once the sun sets Sleep at the end of the white’s bed just in case they wake up and need anything No culture, always around whites and other assimilated slaves Mistress may punish you extra if her husband has a liking for you Active VS. Passive Resistance Active Resistance Poison master, burn house down, murder master, running away etc. Didn’t happen often. Only 4 major cases in 200 years Very selfish, causes chain reactions and your family is punished If you rebel you’re killed Running away was the most common form of active rebellion but your family will be continuously punished until you return Slaves with no family rebel the most Passive Resistance Whites don’t realize you’re resisting “Putting one over on the master” pretending to not know what you’re doing in order to get your master to do the work. Taking advantage of your stereotypes. “Slowing down” Getting your master in his pocket book, working slower so that the yield for the day is thousands of dollars short Other forms include: acting sick, breaking tools, using tools improperly Keeping your culture, most common form of passive resistance Were all African Americans slaves? Free blacks: were slaves at one time but were freed Blacks from the age of flexibility were freed Blacks born from a white mother were free Blacks that bought their freedom were free Slaves freed by manumission Slaves freed by emancipation Upper Class Blacks Freed blacks from Age of Flexibility & given land Have families OWNED SLAVES Why Did Blacks own slaves? Antebellum Period, if you’re rich, you own slaves. Blacks do it to fit in & get invited to white parties Black slave owners consider themselves a “different kind of black” Only care about the color green, all about class, whites justify this Lighter skinned = better off economically African Americans In Freedom Civil war: South wants to separate from America, mad at North for wanting to end slavery (North Wins & ends slavery) o Blacks want to fight for North to obtain freedom o Blacks want to fight for South for possible escape plan or because plantation owners promised them their freedom o People’s idea of blacks change during the war, realize they aren’t so animal like o Blacks serve mostly on North side o North passes the 13 Amendment to end slavery o Southern states needed north to help them recover but weren’t allowed back into th US without accepting the 13 amendment o South is dragging their feet by not freeing their slaves and sending people back to congress. Angers north. What can north do to piss south off? th o North passes 15 amendment giving black males the right to vote. This pisses off the south extremely but the north is still holding the southern territory at gunpoint so south can’t so anything. Southerners want to backlash and have “fake slavery” Free blacks need work Plantation owners are broke (All their money was in their slaves) “Share-Cropping” invented o Plantation owners lend land, seed, cattle etc. to freed-blacks and all they ask for in return is a share of the crops (All contracted) o Problem: you owe your share of crops at the end no matter what. o If weather conditions were bad (drought) you still owe 80% o This creates major debt o Debt carries onto children o Traps generations of “freed blacks” into basically being owned and not allowed to leave o Replaced by tenant farming: same idea but money was exchanged instead of crop portion. Political Backlash North and South Limitations to voting: age, citizenship Extra Legal Organizations control the legal system; never get in trouble bc they are the law o Ku Klux Klan “Circle of Friends” Would lynch people (violent ways of killing people in public, hanging, drowning etc.) “Fake Trials” Kidnapped someone who wanted to vote Burn down blacks home to scare them from voting All illegal but couldn’t do anything about it Not just blacks, could have been anyone that whites didn’t like Legal ways of Restricting Blacks Voting Rights 1. Poll Tax: Charging people to vote a. some black families would starve for a week just to vote b. 80% of whites in south couldn’t afford it 2. Literacy Test: Having to pass a test to vote a. Most blacks have been in slavery and can’t pass (no education) b. Problem: Poor southern whites can’t pass bc public schooling didn’t reach the south until post-civil war c. More blacks can read than pay (Worse than poll tax) 3. Grandfather Clause: If your grandfather voted in the 1865 election, you can vote. (Allows poor whites to vote but no blacks) a. Didn’t check for proof unless you were black b. Date changes as time passes Jim Crow Laws / Black Codes Segregation of Blacks and Whites Blacks have a Curfew of 9pm Can’t congregate in groups larger than 3 Cant “loiter” on a street corner Exception for rich blacks at first then taken away Started in South but eventually spread to North Great Migration Blacks moving from south to the north, calling it the “promise land” Begins as soon as slavery is abolished Largest US migration in history Moved to be treated better and to find work other than share cropping People that moved never started share cropping This large movement to North is why north adopts the Jim Crow Laws (afraid of losing power) Reason for the civil rights movement (would’ve only been a problem for the south) FIRST WAVE Irish (North) Chinese (West Coast) Germans (North) The 3 Major US Movements 1. Nativist Movement 2. Temperance Movement 3. Evangelicalism Movement The Nativist Movement Nativism: Hating all outsiders People begin calling themselves “Native Americans” Don’t believe they’re immigrants Want to limit immigration and citizenship Want to eliminate anyone who isn’t a WASP, don’t want “tanning” of America The Temperance Movement Anti-alcohol and immoral substance Came about from the German and Irish immigrants who brought alcohol Believe that Americans can handle their alcohol but others can’t so it’s for the betterment of the country Eventually worked: Prohibition The EvangelismMovement Protestant movement Also called “Second great Awakening” Wants to turn everyone into a protestant, no one should be anything else Problem for all immigrants Succession Factors inAmerica 1. Money 2. Numbers (small #s, immigrants had no control over this) 3. Location 4. Stereotypes (good ones; be hard working, educated etc.) 5. Assimilation Immigrants From Ireland Two Push Factors that Made the Irish leave Ireland 1. Problems with England They HATE each other English believe the Irish are “sub-human”, equated them with blacks England keeps invading Ireland o 1 English invasion “Norman Invasion” , wants to expand kingdom, uses military nd th o 2 invasion “Re-Conquest of Ireland” w/ Henry the 8 ; uses culture and religion aka forced assimilation Force them to speak English Make Irish traditions illegal Burns catholic churches and forces them to join the church of England Still doesn’t work England creates the “PlantationSystem” o Because military & culture don’t work, the English military takes all their land and money to create one giant plantation. Fenced it in, harvested sheep England largest textile manufacturer at the time Problem: needed lots of land but little to no workers o Tremendous unemployment Plantation System resulted in: 1. Tenant Farming a. Tending land that’s not yours anymore for no money. “Irish Slavery” b. All forced to tend their own land! 2. Penal Laws a. Irish Slave Codes Catholicism is outlawed b. Can’t vote c. Can’t go to school, causes high illiteracy (education is the key out) d. Curfew e. Can’t Congregate in groups more than three 3. Overpopulation a. Government can’t support its people b. Starvation c. HUGE unemployment 2. The Problem with the Potato Not allowed to grow on government land Wouldn’t notice potatoes (underground) The floors in their homes were dirt, could hide them there Had potatoes for breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks, and sides and 1 lb of meat for a week Malnourishment Potato Blight o America sends ship of infected potatoes that infects all of Europe (Destroys potatoes) o Causes the “Great Hunger”/Gotra Mor How Ireland divides its history Causes great genocide. England believes this is an “act of God” 1 million die IMMIGRATION FROM IRELAND How do they afford to move to America? ChainMigration: Choosing an anchor migrant and using the entire town’s money to get them to a port. That one person Is the “anchor immigrant” o Anchor immigrant would send all of money back in order to send more immigrants to America o Usually single, 18, male, strong PORT/ CITY LIFE Dublin doesn’t have a port large enough so England (the people they hate the most) is their only option for a transatlantic ship If they can’t find work in the England port city than indebting themselves is their only option, sold to a debt collector in America Some boats were old slave ships Death caused by sea sickness, already malnourished Have to pay for food, indebt themselves even greater They eat as little as possible causing disease Boats nicknamed “CoffinShips” due to high death rate TB and “ship fever” spread which were highly contagious; sometimes entire ship would die o Village gives them a wake before they even leave LOCATION Ethnic Enclave: Where a group of one ethnicity settles together in one place Problem: not assimilating Had two enclaves: 1. “Five Points” in NYC 2. “Southie” in South Boston, MA HOUSING “Ghetto” outside city limits where there’s cheap housing Blacks and Irish are living together 1. A “Lien too” , something leaned up against a wall and used as a house 2. Tenements Cheap housing built by WASPs, very low quality, very compact, one hole outside served as toilet for entire building. Windows didn’t open, used coal for warmth. a. About 20 residents per room (on factory scheduling) so only 10 there per time approx. Women come eventually to start families, 80% infant mortality rate ANTI IRSIH STEREOTYPES 1. Religion (2) a. Protestants had misunderstanding of catholic church b. Catholics celebrate communion every day, prots only once in awhile c. Transubstantiation When a priest LITERALLY (not literally) turns bread and wine into the blood and body of Christ d. Priest doesn’t face congregation, burns incents, stain glass windows, only Catholics allowed in e. Protestants believe that Catholics are cannibals that eat babies (the 80% that are dying) and Jesus’s flesh and are Vampires that suck the blood of male WASPs f. Protestants believe the Catholics are “brainwashed by the pope” i. Prots think the pope caused the potato famine so that all the Catholics would be forced to move to America and spread Catholicism 2. Inferior Race a. “Black Irish” The belief that Irish are black on the inside but not ballsey enough to show it 3. Violent a. Americans learn this from England bc of Irish rebellions; Irish accidentally reinforced this stereotype with b. “Bare Knuckle Boxing” No rules, fight until someone hits the ground back ally fighting i. WASPs would gamble on these ii. Irish agreed to do it for $$, got hired by WASP agents iii. WASPs recruited strong Irish men from the ports iv. Highest paying job an Irish man could get c. Irish don’t get their rights after five years of residency and become violent. i. New York Draft Riots You could buy yourself out but only WASPs could afford it. Forces Blacks and Irish to fight America’s war Irish drafted as soon as they get off boat Irish can’t fight the WASPs so they take their anger out on the blacks. Ends when they burn a black orphanage to the ground. d. Organized Crime i. Way for Irish to make money ii. Irish Create gangs “The Dead Rabbits” and “Irish mob” iii. Have connections to alcohol in the Prohibition for the WASPs 4. Drunks a. Irish Pub Culture, normal to have families in a pub (Women and Children). Normal to go to pub for breakfast, their beer was thick like a meal, filling and affordable b. Irish treat American bars like pubs (which they aren’t) and go for breakfast, bring their wives and children and have to drink 3-4 beers to fill themselves up (so thin) c. Made them look like drunks, made wives look like whores. Names of people who went to the bars were recorded and put in the newspaper. IRISH IN CARTOONS “Bridgette and Paddy” o Shown as fat, ape like, large ECONOMIC DISCRIMINATION Don’t want Irish working in their factories “No Irish need apply”; in this way, blacks sometimes got better treatment Received an “Irish wage”; about ½ of a white’s pay JOBS FOR THE IRISH Men: Day laborers, Bare knuckle boxers, mills, mines, steady factory position Men also joined the Trans-continental Railroad o Got them to disperse, away from WASPs o Paid well but very deadly o Most popular job Women: Irish notice the major employer was the mill factories (Woman’s work), men took the job originally but as soon as women came they took it over. Women enter domestic work, perfect for chain migration Irish realize women are a better candidate and send EQUAL amounts of men and women over to America Women can also become prostitutes (2 types) st o 1 : “Street Walker” independent or have a pimp; can always find work o 2 live in a “Brothel” o VERY high paying jobs HOW IRISH-AMERICANS RESISTED 1. INSTITUTIONALIZED CATHOLIC CHURCH Use their stereotype to their advantage Create their own private schooling called “Parochial Schooling” Private banking to send money back Went to church as often as possible Priest switched often to preserve the “irishness” , helped them resist assimilation, kept culture separate from WASPs Church sets up social system: half way houses, adoption clinic, job finder etc. Saturday night parties so Catholics could mate with other Catholics Church heavily influences their votes which leads to 2. VOTING BLOCKS Voting blocksWhen a certain group of people in the same area all vote the same way, minority becomes more powerful. WASPs make the Irish “white” In order to influence their vote Irish move out of enclaves and spread all over US to increase their voting power 3. WESTWARD EXPANSION “Land Rushes” America needed to occupy territory so gave land in Oklahoma away for free. Bad place to live but got the Irish to move and the Irish finally got their land. Trans-continental railroad Industrialization 4. LABOR UNIONS Labor Union joined force of workers who pay fees and make sure they’re receiving equal rights Strikes HOW DO THE IRISH MOVE UP THE HEIRARCHY 1. Assimilation a. Some Irish think life’s too hard and just assimilate immediately b. Children are born here, they help Irish assimilate quicker 2. Voting Blocks a. Whites need their help politically 3. Children 4. Other Immigrants that are “Worse” Immigration from China *Unique trait of group: Only group we pass specific exclusion laws against 19 Century China Extremely Advanced, way ahead of everyone No migration, no one needed to “Old Nation” vs. “New Nation” “Old Nation” Older nation by dates and China respects the elderly. The older the better. Always concerned with the past. “New Nation” Newly founded, only concerned with youth, old people are senile, know nothing. Always concerned with present and future. FAMILY IN CHINA VS. USA China has a clan; entire family, not just who you live with “Patriarchal” society : meaning men rule Eldest male rules entire family, every aspect USA family is who you live with Dad runs family COLLECTIVISIM VS. INIDIVIDUALISM China, last name and rarely surname Never think of themselves, family first EMIGRATION FROM CHINA “Guadong” or Canton Providence o Sole place Chinese immigrate from o Huge trading providence o Fireworks o Advance, multi-lingual o Toishan/Taishan Port City Main city in the providence they came from CHINEESE PUSH FACTORS 1. Government a. Emperor trying to gain control over everything in China, huge disaster b. Threatening elders, using TAX DOLLARS to pay military to take over people’s lives, kill any who disobey c. Overpopulation 2. Imperialism a. European countries see a weakness in government control, see opportunity to take over (want china’s goods, don’t want to pay prices, China has monopoly on rice, silk, opium, tea, fireworks) b. Creates “OpiumWars” ; Europe wins & splits china up c. Reinforces overpopulation d. English force assimilate; would keep your culture better if you left… 3. Weather a. Series of floods and droughts b. Reinforces overpopulation c. Two tsunamis, devastates coastal cities 4. War and Rebellion a. Opium wars b. Elders rebelling against military c. 2 major wars, one against Russia and one against Japan i. 10 million die, helps overpopulation :-/ Why did Chinese come to US? 1. Gold “Gold Mountain” or “Gum Saan” a. Heavily influenced by lying propaganda b. Had to actually own the land to mine 2. Work a. Chinese were actually skilled unlike Irish IMMIGRATION TO AMERICA Port Town- “British Hong Kong” Got money from: Clan if it had any left Chinese lenders (Keeping money in China but clan can take over debt if you die) o More money, less interest Credit-Ticket Systems (borrowing from US) o Families who can’t get loans in china o Borrow from ship captains Boat Ride: Chinese are healthy; lower disease/death rate ½ year, extremely expensive Rough ride (Atlantic) Most passengers live Return Migration: Most usually go back “Sojourner”migrator, goes back and forth every 5 years 1 man supports 20-30 people Result: aren’t assimilating Move to California No immigrants in cali, locals didn’t understand them No government yet just booze and guns Small buildings/tents Typical Chinese immigrant Male Short Silk gown, capris, slippers Long braided hair, look like women “Appear to be single” WASP call them gay and hate them CHINESE IN AMERICA In debt Don’t come in a large number but all go to one place that isn’t heavily populated so it seems worse than the 4million irish; make up 1/10 of cali Built ethnic enclave called Chinatown in San Fran, Ca o All Chinese, no WASPs o No assimilation THE SIX COMPANIES “Kongsi” Been trading for years, already had warehouses in California, just didn’t reside there Each company is ran by an elder Becomes your new elder, represents your family IS the law in Chinatown, No WASP power (Pisses WASPs off) All they ask for in return for their service is respect and honor Not every immigrant did this, not all had families or connections “Chinese Controlled Benevolent Society” : Once you left Chinatown, the 6 companies no longer had power over you. Used this society to represent immigrants that had to leave Chinatown for work (railroad) Tongs Groups of immigrants with no family that came to escape the family based society. Created their own support system by grouping together. However, get to America and it’s run by elders so they’re still outcasts and can’t find work. Must result in… ORGANIZED CRIME Reinforces company’s idea that they’re scum WASPs now think all Chinese are criminals Opium dens Sex Slaves JOBS FOR THE CHINESE 1. Gold Miners 2. Domestics a. Women do house work b. Men start first take-out food, must have 3+ to start business 3. Fisherman a. Work for their own country 4. Trans-Continental Railroad a. Lighters 5. Migrant Farm Work a. Best job for return migration, seasonal, allows them to return 6. Prostitution a. NOT paid for this, kidnapped and forced to have sex CHINESE STEREOTYPES 1. Inferior Race a. Scientific Racism 2. Un-assimilate-able a. Perpetual Foreigner b. Dress-Queue illegal for them to cut their hair c. Misunderstood culture/religion 3. Violence a. Tongs/criminals b. Opium c. Prostitution 4. Unsanitary, Sickly, Dirty, “yellow” a. “GermTheory” 5. Yellow Peril a. A WASP idea that Chinese are taking over the world
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