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by: Miss Declan O'Hara


Miss Declan O'Hara
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Anthony Gill

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Anthony Gill
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miss Declan O'Hara on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL S 270 at University of Washington taught by Anthony Gill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/192683/pol-s-270-university-of-washington in Political Science at University of Washington.




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Date Created: 09/09/15
Collective Action Study Guide Pal S270 Study Guide POL S 270 Collective Action including lecture 8r Mancur Olson39s Logic The following study guide is to be used in conjunction with the readings lectures and section discussions Their purpose is to facilitate the learning process not substitute for it Some of the terms and questions presented in this study guide will not be discussed directly in class they can only be found in the readings Also some ofthe questions don t have de nitive answers but are presented to stimulate your thinking Important Terms De ne and identify the signi cance of each of the following terms From lecture paradox of cooperation game theory prisoners dilemma titfortat strategy public collective good nonuniqueness nonexcludability jointness of supply time horizons eXtemalities negative amp positive tragedy problem of the commons assurance game chicken game From Olson s The Logic 0fCallective Action cartels traditional group theory exclusive collective good and group casual variant group theory inclusive collective good and group formal variant group theory privileged group intermediate group latent group selective incentives inducements byproduct theory Farm Bureau jointness of supply nonexcludability of consumption closed shop righttowork laws Collective Action Study Guide Pol S270 Short Questions The following questions are designed to help you think more critically about the readings and lectures We may or may not discuss them in class They may or may not appear as exam questions In any event think your way through these questions and realize that many of the questions do not have a right answer Why might individuals pursuing their own selfinterest lead to suboptimal social outcomes What does this say about Adam Smith s invisible hand wherein the pursuit of selfinterest is considered the most efficient method of maximizing total social welfare Think back to my discussion on selling wooden statues vs chairs amp tables How can the aggregation of individual transitive preferences result in a socially intransitive set of preferences Why is any collective choice ie vote based upon intransitive social preferences unstable How can this instability be manipulated by politicians Given the theory of collective choice why is the person who sets the voting agenda so darn important What moralethicalphilosophical implications does this have for democracy What type of group is more likely to produce a public collective good without the use of coercion or selective inducements a large group a small heterogeneous group or a small homogenous group Why Even in such cases when coercion and selective incentives are not needed will the optimal amount of the collective good be supplied Explain Consider the lighthouse example used in class To what extent do these lighthouses represent a public good To what extent does a political hierarchy based solution need to be found for the provision of lighthouses Might a private market solution be more feasible Why Historical note The lighthouse example is the focus of a classic debate in political economy Paul Samuelson used lighthouses as an example of a pure public good in his oftenused introductory economics textbook In 1974 Ronald Coase wrote an article challenging this example and pointed out numerous examples in Britain where lighthouses were private forpro t businesses showing that a public good could be provided privately Samuelson later reluctantly agreed that such private lighthouses existed but claimed they were speci c to that era though he never explained why In his now classic work The Logic of Collective Action Mancur Olson says that in small groups there is a tendency for the exploitation of the great by the small What does he mean by this Why do groups behave either inclusively or exclusively Give examples of inclusive groups and exclusive groups Also provide an example of a group that may behave inclusively for some collective goods and exclusively for others Why are oligopolistic pricing arrangements difficult to maintain Collective Action Study Guide Pal S270 In 1973 and again in the late 1970s a small group of oil producing countries had a considerable impact on the world economy The Organization of OilExporting Countries OPEC successfully agreed to withhold production and raise oil prices setting off a chain reaction of events that in part accounted for stag ation in the US and Western Europe and the Third World Debt Crisis in the 1980s The success of the OPEC cartel in uenced numerous other commodity producing countries to form similar arrangements with each other to restrict production and raise world commodity prices The commodities involved included everything from aluminum bauxite to zinc All these groups failed to achieve their desired goals Even OPEC the paradigmatic commodity cartel watched helplessly as in ationadjusted oil prices dropped to historic lows in the late 1980s Why did these commodity cartels fail Why do labor unions need to be coercive towards their own members The term coercive means requiring compulsory membership in this conteXt It does not necessarily imply threat of physical violence During a recent Greyhound Bus strike scab drivers were frequently the target of violence Why Note A scab is a worker who decides to cross picket lines or is hired to replace striking workers Imagine yourself trying to set up a protest march for some worthy political cause eg higher salaries for professors or better food in the dorms To achieve this goal you will need a show of public force ie lots of supporters coming together in one place at a single time Now consider the collective action problem conceived of as a prisoners dilemma What obstacles are you up against in your task of mass mobilization What might you want to do to encourage people to show up for the protest march Consider the 1999 protests of the World Trade Organization in Seattle and subsequent protests against globalization How do you think protesters were able to gather such large crowds How successful do you think these groups will be in confronting the problems that they seek to solve To what eXtent are such large crowds sustainable over several years What might this say about the antiglobalization movement Think about other largescale protest movements that have more focused goals 7 eg the 1960s Civil Rights movement the antiVietnam movement the 1980s antinuclear movement etc How do groups with more narrow and focused goals compare with movements that have diffuse goals Which ones are likely to be more successful over time in generating collective action An interesting puzzle In 1979 Pope John Paul II visited MeXico a country that has long been known for having an anticlerical constitution limiting the power and in uence of the Catholic Church His visit was largely unadvertised in the media Nonetheless literally millions of people showed up wherever the pope went The MeXican government at the time found this rather astounding as the ruling party could barely muster a thousand people for most of their political rallies Why do you suppose the pope was more successful in attracting a crowd To what eXtent could the mobilization to see the pope have been turned into a political rally for some cause of interest to the Catholic Church Collective Action Study Guide Pal S270 Many people including your lovable professor have argued that religion has some of the same qualities of a public good The fundamental messages of the religion can be consumed by all people without them haVing to pay for it Church leaders especially those in the mainline denominations constantly complain about how few people contribute to their organizations Nonetheless religious organizations also provide private goods eg dating services personal counseling daycare and clu goods eg fellowship a network of friends and business contacts A club good is a good that has the properties of joint supply but it is possible to exclude the good from nonmembers One would imagine that as the costs of membership decreases in terms of time nancial contributions and energy church membership would increase the most successful religious would be the least costly However it is a well established empirical fact that the strictest religions tend to eXpand the fastest 7 eg Mormons and Jehovah s Witnesses in our contemporary world each of which imposes certain behavioral restrictions on individuals that act as costs Why would this be the case Tommns a Iemth Amy Genie Pol 5270 Study Guide POL S 270 Tommasi 8 lerulli Text The fbllawmg mdy gmde x to be med m EDWJIML IIDK thh the reading tech2 and warm xcwmm Thexrpmpaxe x m mlxmte the lemmngpmcexx he ubmme for 1 Same afthe Aka prexenled ta nmulate yaw hxhhhg Important Terms De ne and xdmufy the signi cance uf each quhe fulluwmg arms human capital market ethbnum mtaest guups surplus and enemy The Pmcexx afGawmmen hunk dead weight em extanalxues taste fur msmmauunquot elasnnty ef uent mmesquot Dawn39s Ah Ecammx Theory efDemeemey vuter xgqurznce ratmnal xgqurznce pulmcal endursements ecunumms er uppurtumty Bust rehguus human capital huusehuld cummudmes Input subsuutuuun mfurmanunal cascades lucahzed cunfumnty Tommasi amp Ierulli Study Guide Pol S 270 Short Questions The following questions are designed to help you think more critically about the readings and lectures We may or may not discuss them in class They may or may not appear as exam questions In any event think your way through these questions and realize that many of the questions do not have a right answer What is the classic economic view of government as presented by Zablotsky Discuss the basic argument presented in Zablotsky s article and present any critiques you think appropriate Do you think that Zablotsky is leaving out important factors If so what are they What is the key argument made by Arthur Bentley in his seminal work The Process of Government Even though Bentley propounded this thesis in 1908 is it still valid today If no eXplain why not If yes provide some examples of its applicability What does Gary Becker add to Bentley s thesis What variables are important for explaining the relative success of interest groups in the political arena Does Becker s conceptualization of the process of government as presented in the Zablotsky chapter help to eXplain the politics going on in the peanuts article How so Using Zablotsky s chapter as a theoretical base why are peanut farmers successful in keeping the price of peanuts high How might the various subsidies to peanut farmers discussed in the article be reversed The view of government presented by Zablotsky considers government and politicians to be largely neutral arbitrators in a competitive market for public policy Is this a reasonable assumption Why or why not If government actors eg politicians bureaucrats are not neutral what interests might they be pursuing How would this affect policy outcomes What are dead weight costs How might these costs arise Where might you be able to nd these costs Consider the economics of discrimination Does this theory as discussed by Chiswick answer the question as to why people discriminate ie the origins of tastes for discrimination Or does it merely discuss the consequences of that discrimination What policies could one implement to eliminate or reduce discrimination Think both about the idea of competition put forth by Chiswick and the issues surrounding tastes for discrimination a Why are cartels needed to enforce discriminatory practices Can this help eXplain the way politics was conducted in the Deep South for most of US history Why did the Ku KluX Klan often resort to terrorist tactics not only against AfricanAmericans but whites as well What does this say about discrimination and government in general Remember discrimination is a fairly universal phenomenon that cuts across all cultures How does Friedman build a criminal justice system from the ground up When considering an answer for this question start with the basic goals of a criminal justice system Then consider alternative methods of monitoring and punishing criminals What are the various problemslimitations to these various methods of criminal justice How can another system be designed to deal with these shortcomings Tammasi amp Ierulli Study Guide Pal S 270 Consider Friedman s argument about the economics of crime police enforcement and the legal system Why are different crimes punished differently Why are rich people more likely to speed If the penalty for speeding was changed from monetary nes to imprisonment how would the behavior of the rich change Or would it Why are Internal Affairs Departments needed in large urban police forces An Internal Affairs Department is essentially a police force that polices the police For more information consult the movies Internal A airs Lethal Weapon 3 and Serpico Friedman concludes his chapter by stating that society may not want an a l3aaa ef cient criminal justice system This is surprising from an economist since economists tend to like ef ciency What is Friedman s reasoning behind having an inef cient justice system Do you agree Why Political pundits often disparage low voter turnout and voter ignorance in the United States However Matsusaka and other political economists say that these phenomena are perfectly predictable given the economic considerations of costs and bene ts Why do they say this What are the costs and bene ts associated with being a good citizen in a democracy Despite low voter turnout and voter ignorance Matsusaka avoids taking a cynical view of the democratic process in the United States Why is this Hint Consider the role of pressure groups and political endorsements What are the economics of political endorsements From an economic standpoint why are marriages among people of the same faith more efficient Given Iannaccone s theory of religious capital what type of people would be most attracted to religious cults Would you eXpect their association with such a cult to be long lasting Why or why not Today it is quite common for large megachurches to offer a wide array of nonreligious services such as sports clubs for children dining groups for adults etc These churches are mega in that they typically contain thousands of parishioners and worship services are held in auditoriumstyle buildings Also many of these churches are relatively nondenominational they typically are Christian in nature but are not associated with any traditional branch of Christianity 7 eg Lutheranism Presbyterianism etc Why do you suppose these churches are so successful at attracting members Tough question Why do you suppose this is not happening in Judaism How well might Iannaccone s model apply to religions outside of Christianity Why do fads occur What are the typical eXplanations given by economists and others for localized conformity How do these various theories t with your own conception of how quot fads arise Think about a current fad popular with college students today 7 eg sitting on agpoles What accounts for the popularity of this type of behavior V Why did Seattle become such a trendy place in the early 90s Hirshleifer introduces the concept of an informational cascade to help eXplain why people engage in such behavior Explain the logic behind an IL informational cascade How is his theory different than previous theories 3 What role might hip and trendy television programs eg CHiPs Eight Is Enough play in this model Tommasi amp Ierulli Study Guide Pol S 270 What do fads tell us about the role of information in rational choice theory Think about how people make choices under perfect information and then how they make choices under less than perfect information Just for Fun Not all the chapters of the Tommasi amp Ierulli text were assigned Nonetheless if you are interested in this type of economic analysis I recommend the following chapters James Coleman Property Rights in Children Kermit Daniel The Marriage Premium Thomas Philipson Public Health and Economic Epidemiology Robert Tamura Human Capital Fertility and Economic Growth Other recommended easy and funtoread economics books Gary S Becker and Guity Nashat Becker The Economics of Life Todd Buchholz New Ideas from Dead Economists David D Friedman Hidden Order Steven E Landsburg The Armchair Economist and Fair Play Also see his regular column at Slatecom Charles Wheelan Naked Economics Although Freakonomics is a NYT Bestseller Levitt s book tends to be more about measurement than economic theory It also tends to be more about Levitt himself than economics Admittedly I was caught up in the hype of the book but was disappointed in the actual text Trudee shay Glade Pol 5270 Study Guide POL S 270 Harold Winter39s mde0ffs The fallewmg mdy gm x to be med m Caryl415nm mm mg leaning tech2 and warm a cwrmn Thexrpmpaxe x m mhmle mg lemmngpmcexx he ubmtme for 1 Same afthe Aka prexenled ta nmulate yaw hmmg Important Terms De ne aha ldenhfy the elmseanee hf eaeh ufthe fulluwlng arms eeuffs custrb a s seelal welfare wealthm2x1mlzanun publl ehelee Lheuxy p mary Busts hehepeeumary Busts mdlffa mce pnvatevs sunal Busts h39znsacnun Busts market f E icl t a gems hem trade patmtcupyn 1 pmtechun pncevs value easelehl Lhe halluhal aaaleaeh hegahve extremalle phepmy nghts phepmy rule llablllty rule uffsetung behavlur unmtmded cunsequences mural hazard manufactunng defect pruducthablhty tun law TradeO s Study Guide Pol S 270 Short Questions The following questions are designed to help you think more critically about the readings and lectures We may or may not discuss them in class They may or may not appear as exam questions In any event think your way through these questions and realize that many ofthe questions do not have a right answer Should Ford have been held liable for deaths resulting from the design defect in their Pinto Winter doesn t discuss design defect vs manufacturing defect until Chapter 8 You may want to fast forward to that section What is the difference between value and price Discuss the Moore v Regents of the University of California case What are the basic details of the case What are the private and social tradeoffs involved How would you have decided the case True story Recently in a casual conversation Prof Gill got two people talking about their businesses and the conversation ended up in a business deal being negotiated Should Prof Gill demand some of the pro ts from this transactions How are prices determined in a market Why are music CDs commonly priced at 7 1800 circa 2005 Why are diamonds so expensive Why isn t an autographed copy of Prof Gill s book worth very much on eBay The musical artists collectively known as Metallica became advocates of shutting down intemet le sharing software commonly used for swapping music les such as Carpe Diem Baby If you were advising Metallica what arguments would you offer to support their claims of copyright protection Is copyright protection a good idea How might the music and lm industry reshape their marketing and pricing strategies in an age of easily shared media les What role should the government play if any Should the government regulate the price of new pharmaceuticals ie drugs What is an eXtemality What is a negative eXtemality What is a positive eXtemality Give examples of both negative and positive eXtemalities Relate this to the discussion of public goods that we had at the beginning of class and will resurrect when reading the Mancur Olson book What role should government play in regulating negative and positive eXtemalities Should smoking in public spaces eg parks government buildings be banned Should smoking in private spaces eg neighborhood bars and restaurants private homes and apartments be banned What role should the government play in this debate TradeO s Study Guide Pal S 270 V v In 2005 the US Supreme Court in Kelo v City ofNew London ruled J that local governments could use their eminent domain power to forcibly purchase private land that would then be given to other private interests In this case several longterm homeowners in New London CT were forced to sell their land to the city government which then turned it over to private development interests who are planning to build an of ce park hotel and several boutique stores Using Winter s book Trade O s as a framework discuss this case What kind of tradeoffs are involved in such situations What effects might the Kelo r case have on property rights and property values What is your normative understanding ie your opinion of this case Read Chapter 7 of Winter s T rade O s Think of several different examples of situations where offsetting behavior occurs Rock fans For those of you who like rock n roll take a look at the liner notes of Sugar Ray s Floored CD for an example Should rearm manufacturers be held liable if one person shoots another person with a gun that does not have any product defect Should fast food restaurants be held liable for a regular diner who develops cardiovascular disease Think of other examples similar to these to discuss Discuss these questions in terms of Winter s tradeoffs framework Tort reform aka malpractice reform as applied to doctors is hot political issue Should the government local state or federal place caps on punitive damages assessed in these cases Discuss in terms of Winter s tradeoffs framework What moral hazards might there be resulting from Hurricane Katrina and the ooding of New Orleans Why are there no solutions What is the proper role of the government in the economy This is perhaps the most central question in the study of political economy Markets and States Study Guide Pol S 270 Study Guide POL S 270 Markets amp States in Tropical Africa including some lecture material The following study guide is to be used in conjunction with the readings lectures and section discussions Their purpose is to facilitate the learning process not substitute for it Some of the terms and questions presented in this study guide will not be discussed directly in class they can only be found in the readings Also some ofthe questions don t have de nitive answers but are presented to stimulate your thinking Important Terms De ne and identify the signi cance of each of the following terms structuralfunctional explanations modernization theory dependency theory core and periphery marketing boards monopsony agricultural policy Bates de nition Arusha Declaration of 1967 nominal protection effective protection farm policy pricing strategy capital intensive industry farm policy nonprice strategies Kenya National Farmers Union commercial policy instruments administratively generated rent Le Malaise Paysan rent noncompetitive rent administratively generated rent Markets and States Study Guide Pol S 270 Short Questions The following questions are designed to help you think more critically about the readings and lectures We may or may not discuss them in class They may or may not appear as exam questions In any event think your way through these questions and realize that many of the questions do not have a right answer What were some of the previous theoretical explanations or frameworks for economic development and underdevelopment What were their shortcomings How does the rational choice or new political economy approach to international political economy IPE differ from older perspectives of the IPE How would each of the major theoretical perspectives of IPE view the economic development of Africa and other nations in the South Are multinational corporations MNCs only interested in nding the lowest wage rates in the world when they locate their businesses Is most MNC investment in the poorest countries of the world What other interests 39 might be involved Identify all the relevant actors and their interests preferences in Bates book Which groups have an incentive to ally with one another Which groups are in actual or potential opposition Are the preferences of the main actors in Bates book the same for similar actors in other parts of the world Explain When reading Bates Markets and States in Tropical Africa try to identify some of the major themes we ve discussed in class What assumptions implicit or explicit does Bates make Does he rely on the assumptions of rational choice theory and the theoretical implications of those assumptions Economists often are frustrated by bad economic policy it seems politicians consistently disregard their best advice and choose policies which knowingly harm overall economic growth and social welfare Economists frequently complain that people display both economic shrewdness and political stupidity Bates 1981 2 Why is this a troubling maxim for political economists How does Bates resolve this paradox How does Bates de ne agricultural policy What are the three components of S this policy Is this a broader de nition of agricultural policy than one typically thinks Is it a valid de nition Why or why not What does Bates model ie his assumptions and logic say about the universality assumption in the rational choice perspective Interesting thought experiment Alter his assumptions andor logic so as to violate the universality assumption How would this help explain the observed agricultural policies in SubSaharan Africa Is it possible that the internationalization of economic relations affected the norms values and behavior of countries outside of the USWestem Europe Why do African governments tax and then subsidize farmers Why not just reduce taxes which if lower than the real tax rate of the general population acts as a subsidy Markets and States Study Guide Pal S 270 How is income redistributed in many African countries according to Bates What major sectors of society are income distributed to an from Discuss the various economic policies African governments pursue towards the different sectors of the economy eg urban workers rural peasants industrial bourgeoisie Whose interests do politicians most represent If African agricultural policy injures peasants so much why don t peasants rebel What groups 9 in African society are more likely to rebelprotest effectively Don t forget to 39 consider the industrial bourgeoisie in your answer Although business owners rarely take to the streets they do protest government policy How Short of organized rebellion or other forms of collective action what can peasants do to protest farm policies they don t like What is the role of the state in Bates model In other words what role do politicians play in the economy Re ect back upon our three perspectives Think back to the article on peanuts How does US farm policy differ from African farm policy How is it the same What might account for these differences and similarities What role if any does the international economy play in the Bates book Note It may not be stated explicitly Is Bates insensitive to the fact that Africa was under the imperial control of Europe until the l950s60s Does he downplay the lingering imperial impact that Europe has had on Africa If so how How damaging are these omissions to his explanation of agricultural policy in tropical Africa What does Bates model as an example of new political economy say about the modernization and dependency paradigms Is his model of politics speci c to Africa Or can it or parts of it be generalized to explain politics elsewhere in the world What does this say if anything about the homogeneity of human economic and political behavior Discuss According to Bates why have the Asian newly industrializing countries eg South Korea Taiwan etc been so successful at industrializing while African countries have not How do African farmers use the market against the state Why do they use the market against the state What is the operational de nition of corruption in Bates According to Bates what are the sources of political favoritism and corruption in Africa Is corruption the result of bad or T immora people occupying power Or is corruption the result of the way incentives are structured Imagine that all African politicians were saints Would 5 agriculture policy be the same or roughly the same Why or why not I l 1 K HI Is there an example of an Olsonian privileged group in Bates If so what is it speci cally Can the vicious cycle of political and economic instability in tropical Africa be broken If so how Rational Choice Study Guide PalS270 Study Guide POL S 270 Rational Choice Lectures The following study guide is to be used in conjunction with the readings lectures and section discussions Their purpose is to facilitate the learning process not substitute for it Some of the terms and questions presented in this study guide will not be discussed directly in class they can only befound in the readings There is also a chance we won t cover all the terms depending on the progress of the class Also some of the questions don t have de nitive answers but are presented to stimulate your thinking Important Terms De ne and identify the signi cance of each of the following terms politics political economy dead weight costs production possibility frontier indifference curves public goods preferences assumptions of rational choice thin rationality consistency requirement risk transitivity framing methodological individualism paradox of not voting Schwartz s solution to paradox of not voting rent economic rent economics markets extemalities Pareto optimal price mechanism principalagent problem instrumental rationality utility maximization thick rationality expected value uncertainty money pump prospect theory homogeneity universality assumption consumption value of voting Ordeshook s D price discrimination Rational Choice Study Guide Pol S 270 Short Questions The following questions are designed to help you think more critically about the readings and lectures We may or may not discuss them in class They may or may not appear as exam questions In any event think your way through these questions and realize that many of the questions do not have a right answer What is the political economy of peanut butter What other examples of this phenomenon come to mind What is your de nition of political economy What things do you think of when you hear the words political economy How does your de nition and conceptualization of political economy differ from that presented in class Discuss the principalagent problem Who is a principal Who is an agent What is the relationship between the principal and agent Come up with several examples of principalagent problems What mechanisms e g rules institutions technology exist to solve those principalagent problems What is rational choice theory What are the major alternatives to rational choice theory Are these alternative theories of human behavior completely contrary to the rational choice microeconomic or are they complimentary How are they complimentary Please note These are very profound questions that occupy the minds of many leading social scientists today While I do not expect you to provide a definitive answer to these questions you should keep in mind that rational choice is one of several theoretical perspectives to explain human behavior and it has its limitations What are the major assumptions of rational choice theory Discuss each assumption in some detail and provide an example of how a specific assumption might be used to explain human behavior To what extent are these assumptions unrealistic How might this affect the application of rational choice to the study of human behavior Rational choice theorists take preferences or tastes goals etc as given 7 ie they don t care why people have various preferences To what extent is this practice useful in studying human behavior Does rational choice theory need a theory of preference formation and change to be more effective Why is it important in rational choice analysis to hold preferences stable Describe the divide the dollars game1 What are the rules of the game What is the most rational thin rationality for the first player What is the most rational response by player 2 Why don t the actual results of this game mirror what thin rationality would predict What does that tell us about thin rationality What does this tell us about our own society and the people in our political economy class 1 Also known as the ultimatum game Rational Choice Study Guide Pal S 270 Read the optional reading on the divide the dollars game on Prof Gill s website What type of societies or communities did you expect would have the more equitable distribution in the game What type of societies did you expect would have the more thinly rational responses What were the empirical results from the crossnational or crosssocietal experiments Did they fit with your a priori expectations What might explain the patterns observed by the group of scholars who conducted these experiments Discuss the rules and results of the policy choice game that was played in class Or consider the series of experiments conducted by Amos Tversky and his Nobel Laureate colleague Daniel Kahneman What does this tell us about the transitivity assumption in rational choice What does this tell us about the power of campaign advertising and the news media When might framing play a greater or lesser role in an individual s decision making process How might you use all of this information to your own personal advantage Insert nefarious laugh here Do the limitations on the assumptions of rational choice theory negate the usefulness of the theory In other words given various cultural and psychological realities can we still use rational choice theory to understand political and social life Why do people leave tips at restaurants they know they will never return to What type of restaurants are more likely to generate higher tips for their wait staffs If the government mandated a gratuity into the price of food service a rather odd proposal but one that has been implemented in some European countries would people still tip 3 Q Why does popcorn cost so much at movie theaters Why do people give each other gifts during holidays or for birthdays instead of cash Think of one of your second order relatives e g aunt cousin Would you rather get a gift from this person or cash Why How did Prof Gill apply rational choice theory to his and his wife s wedding


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