BIOL 2170 Exam One Study Guide
BIOL 2170 Exam One Study Guide BIOL 2170
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by chelsea1023 on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2170 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Deborah Chadee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 845 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Life Science: Biomolecules, cells, and Inheritence in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Exam One Review and Study Guide Chapters 15 Chapter One life Chemical Cellular and Evolutionary Functions Biology the science of how life works The scienti c method observations hypothesis predictions experiments theory Characteristics of living organisms complex able to respond to environment able to reproduce able to evolve Both earth and the human body are primarily composed of oxygen First law of thermodynamics energy is not created or destroyed Second law of thermodynamics entropy disorder is increasing in the universe Francisco Redi used meat in jars with and without lids and covers to demonstrate that life is not spontaneous it must come from preexisting life Louis Pasteur used straight and swan necked asks to demonstrate that the straight neck ask is easier to contaminate even after sterilized Cell the simplest selfreplicating entity that can exist as an independent unit of life Essential Features of a Cell 0 Can store and transmit information 0 Has plasma membrane 0 Can harness energy from the environment Genetic information ows from DNA to RNA to proteins using the central dogma Francis Crick helped create model of DNA with Watson Plasma membrane protects the inside organelles of the cell from the stuff on the outside of the cell Energy can be harnessed from food or from the sun Viruses aren t considered living because they can not harness their own energy Evolution change over time Variation can be genetic mutation or environmental conditional Nodes indicate a common ancestor in a phylogenetic tree Ecology the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their environment Chapter Two The Molecules Of Life Elements pure substances that can t be broken down farther Atomic number number of protons Each orbital can hold two electrons each shell can hold eight except for the rst shell can hold two Noble gases do not react Types of bonds Covalent two nonmetals share electrons Polar covalent Hydrogen hydrogen bonds with N O or F Ionic metal and nonmetal A chemical reaction is the forming and breaking of bonds VVater pH7 pobr good solvent Water is denser than ice Ice is structures with bonds holding stable Carbon is one of the most important elements of life Carbons can also form double bonds with one another lsomers same chemical formula different structures Building blocks of carbon based molecules 0 proteins nucleic acids carbs lipids nitrogen containing bases Adenine thymine guanine cytosine uracil Pyrimidines thymine cytosine uracil Purines Guanine adenine Nucleic acids are bonded with a sugar phosphate backbone Monosaccharides contain one sugar Disaccharides contain two sugars Polysaccharides contain many sugars Complex carbs are chains of monosaccharides Glycosidic bonds are covalent Lipids are amphipathic a polar and a nonpolar region in a molecule Unsaturated fatty acid one or more double bonds Saturated fatty acid all single bonds Phospholipids phosphate group head fatty acid tail Chapter Three Nucleic Acids and the Encoding of Biological Information Grif th Injected mice with different types of bacteria to see what effect they each have on the mice Nonvirulent mouse stays healthy Virulent mouse dies 0 Killed virulent mouse stays healthy 0 Killed virulent and nonvirulent mouse dies Replication copying genetic information from one DNA into another DNA Central dogma DNAgt Transcription nucleusgt RNA gt Translation cytoplasm gt Protein Nucleotides contain a phosphate group and a deoxyribose sugar Purines adenine and guanine Pyrimidenes thymine and cytosine Adenine and thymine pair by a double bond cytosine and guanine pair by a triple bond Sugarbase nucleoside Sugerbasephosphate nucleotide Nucleotides are ALWAYS added to the 3 end Chargaff found which bases pair with which AT CG DNA replication parental strands give a template for daughter strands to be synthesized also known as semiconservative replication Chromatin is composed of histones and DNA histones bind to the DNA RNA is more unstable than DNA DNA VS RNA DNA Deoxyribose A C T G Monophosphate Very large 0 Double strand Ribose A C U G Triphosphate Small 0 Single stranded Initiation and termination factors are needed for transcription RNA polymerase 2 adds nucleotides to 3 end The ponA tail is added to the 3 end ghapter Four Translation and Protein Structure 0Amino acids consist of 0 An amino group 0 An alpha carbon 0 A carboxyl group 0 A side chain 0 A hydrogen 0 The structure is tetrahedral around the alpha carbon 0 Some amino acids are hydrophobic and some are hydrophilic and some are special Hydrophobic Alanine Valine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Phenylalanine Tryptophan Tyrosine rophilic Lysine Arginine Histidine Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Asparagine Glutamine Senne Threonine Special 0 Glycine o Proline o Cysteine oHy OOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOOO Peptide Bonds 0 Contain an Nterminus and a Cterminus Have to undergo a dehydration reaction to form Can have primary secondary tertiary and quaternary structures Alpha helix and beta sheet secondary structure Tertiary structures have function Denaturation loss of structure which results in loss of function Quaternary proteins that consist of more than one polypeptide Central Dogma DNAgtTranscriptiongt RNAgtTranslationgt Protein 0 Components needed for translation 0 Ribosomes tRNA Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases Initiation factors Elongation factors Release factors 0 mRNA Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase binds to one uncharged tRNA and one OOOOO corresponding amino acid 0 Base pairing in DNA 0 Adenine always pairs with thymine o Cytosine always pairs with guanine 0 There is a full genetic code used to determine which codon matches with which amino acid 0 Process of translation 0 lnitiationgt elongationgt termination Initiation factors bind to the 5 cap They also bring up tRNA They scan for the start AUG codon Elongation codons are added to the existing strand of tRNA Termination bond connecting polypeptide to tRNA breaks OOOOO Chapter Five Organizing Principles lipids Membranes ano ell Compar1men Robert Hooke used corks to discover cells Cell Theory Organisms are all composed of cells 0 Cells are the fundamental unit of life 0 Cells aren t spontaneously created they come from preexisting cells 0 Schleidon Schwann and Virchow are credited with the creation of the cell theory Phospholipids Amphipathic have both polar and nonpolar regions 0 Have a phosphate head and a fatty acid tail Saturated no double bonds are present Unsaturated only one double bond present Polyunsaturated more than one double bond present Cholesterol has an effect on uidity Integral membrane proteins span entire membrane Peripheral membrane proteins are temporary FRAP Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching Fluid Mosaic Model lipids and proteins form a mosaic in the membrane They move laterally creating a uid motion Diffusion moves from high solute concentration to low solute concentration Passive transport does not require energy Osmosis water moves from areas of high water concentration to areas of low water concentration The Na K pump is an example of an antiporter Primary active transport and secondary active transport require energy to work Hypertonic solution higher concentration outside cells shrink sotonic solution same inside and out cells are normal Hypotonic solution higher concentration inside cells swell up Very hypotonic solution ces burst Turgor pressure causes movement of water in plant cells imperative to the wellbeing of the plant Prokaryotes No nucleus or organelles Transcription and translation occur in cytoplasm Small in size 0 High surface area to volume ratio Euka ryotes Has nucleus and organelles Transcription occurs in nucleus translation occurs in cytoplasm Large in size 0 Low surface area to volume ratio Features of an animal cell Nucleus stores genetic info Mitochondria produce ATP 0 Plasma membrane regulates passage of materials into and out of cell Cytoskeleton provides structure to the cell Endoplasmic reticulum protein and lipid synthesis Lysosomes degrade macromolecules Golgi apparatus modify and sort proteins and lipids Nuclear envelope is used to help with passive diffusion Rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered in ribosomes giving it a roughly textured a ppea ra nce glicker westions Which of the following is part of the scienti c method mthi i Predictions Experiments Theory All of the above A and B only A hypothesis becomes a theory when DWNl l The results of a single experiment support the hypothesis The hypothesis has been revised many times The results of several experiments do not support the hypothesis The results of several experiments support the hypothesis A water molecule contains what kind of bond 1 2 Hydrogen lonic 3 Polar covalent 4 Van der Waals interactions What is the order of processes that support the central dogma 1 DNA replication translation protein synthesis 2 DNA replication transcription translation 3 Transcription DNA replication translation 4 DNA replication translation transcription Why aren t nucleosides incorporated into DNA 1 The bases are not fully assembled 2 The sugar is not in the right form 3 There are no phosphates to make the phosphodiester bonds 4 The peptide bonds won t form Why do cells store their genetic information as DNA and not RNA 1 They do store it as RNA 2 Because RNA isn t stable enough 3 Because there is more information in DNA 4 Because DNA is easier to transport What would happen if an enhancer sequence was mutated so that its binding partner was constitutiver bound 1 No transcription would occur as the site is now blocked to other proteins Transcription wouldn t change No transcription would occur because the mediator complex could not JUN form 4 Transcription would continuously occur How is it possible that an mRNA could have the correct sequence yet still not be translated appropriately The 5 cap was not added The DNA sequence was incorrect The polyA tail was not formed A and C None of the above U39IDUUNl l How might you affect only the secondary structure of a protein Change the sequence of amino acids Break the ionic bonds between amino acids Break the hydrogen bonds between amino acids Disrupt the interactions between two different polypeptide chains ewwe Referring to the following mRNA sequence agacuuaccgaa what would the anticodon look like if the second nucleotide of the third codon was mutated to u 1 TAG 2 UAG 3 AAC 4 AUG You want to translate a polycistronic bacterial mRNA in eukaryote cells You remove all but the last stop codon in the bacterial DNA in order to get all of the proteins of the mRNA translated Can you get a functional protein by this method 1 Yes 2 No In your synthetic translation reaction you notice that your protein is only two amino acids long You ve checked the sequence of the mRNA and everything appears to be correct What could be happening in your reaction DWNl l The peptide bonds are not forming properly The acceptor site of the ribosome is mutated The DNA is mutated The exit site of the ribosome is mutated You are studying a particular protein you notice that you can only nd it inside the cell when ATP is present How is the protein moving through the membrane hUUNl l Diffusion Facilitated diffusion Passive transport Active transport Which way does the water move in a hypotonic environment 95 Out of the cell Into the cell Stays the same None of the above Why does a phospholipid on the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane rarely ip to the extracellular side if both environments are polar 1 The polar head group cannot pass through the nonpolar interior The two sides have different functions and thus the phospholipid would not function properly The cytoplasmic phospholipid is too big to pass through the membrane The cholesterol does not allow lipids to move In a eukaryotic cell how does mRNA get out of the nucleus 1 2 3 Diffusion Nuclear pores Endoplasmic reticulum 4 Golgi body Launchpad Chapter One Quiz According to the phylogenetic tree shown in Figure 116 the primate most closely related to humans is the mthi i orangutan lemur gorilla chimpanzee gibbon Transcription is the process by which mthi i proteins are synthesized from RNA molecules RNA is synthesized from protein proteins are synthesized from DNA molecules RNA is synthesized from DNA DNA is synthesized from protein Translation is the process by which wewww proteins are synthesized from RNA molecules RNA is synthesized from protein proteins are synthesized from DNA molecules RNA is synthesized from DNA DNA is synthesized from protein True or false observations allow scientists to draw tentative explanations called hypotheses 1 true 2 false Read the following story Notice that there are numbers at the end of some of the sentences or at the end of parts of some of the sentences Refer to these numbers when answering the question below You get in your car to drive to class You turn the key and the engine starts making a clicking sound but does not start 1 You think to yourself the battery must be dead 2quot so you go in the garage and borrow the battery from your neighbor s car with permission of course and exchange it for the one in your car 3 You gure that if the battery in your car is dead and you replace it then the car will start 4 You get in the car again turn the key and the car starts right up and you make it to class on time 5 Which sentence or part of a sentence in the story provides support that the idea about the battery is correct 2 3 4 5 mthi i none of the above Read the following story Notice that there are numbers at the end of some of the sentences or at the end of parts of some of the sentences Refer to these numbers when answering the question below You get in your car to drive to class You turn the key and the engine starts making a clicking sound but does not start 1 You think to yourself the battery must be dead 2quot so you go in the garage and borrow the battery from your neighbor s car with permission of course and exchange it for the one in your car 3 You gure that if the battery in your car is dead and you replace it then the car will start 4 You get in the car again turn the key and the car starts right up and you make it to class on time 5 Which sentence or part of a sentence in the story is an experiment thI i 1 2 3 4 5 none of the above True or false mutations always result in the death of the organism which acquires them 1 true 2 false Read the following story Notice that there are numbers at the end of some of the sentences or at the end of parts of some of the sentences Refer to these numbers when answering the question below You get in your car to drive to class You turn the key and the engine starts making a clicking sound but does not start 1 You think to yourself the battery must be dead 2quot so you go in the garage and borrow the battery from your neighbor s car with permission of course and exchange it for the one in your car 3 You gure that if the battery in your car is dead and you replace it then the car will start 4 You get in the car again turn the key and the car starts right up and you make it to class on time 5 Which sentence or part of a sentence in the story is a hypothesis To truly begin to understand nature we must study and understand molecules ces organisms ecosystems The study of nature requires an integrated approach that mewwe considers molecules cells organisms and ecosystems The ostrich egg shown in Figure 111 is composed of approximately how many cells 1 100 10000 1000000 100000000 wewww Chapter Two Learning Curve Which one of the following elements is likely to form exactly three nonionic interactions with hydrogen phosphorus oxygen chlorine carbon suWur 915 Nl A woman39s doctor tells her to gargle with salt water She stirs a tablespoon of salt into a cup of warm water and watches it dissolve Why does the salt dissolve in water 1 The positive hydrogen atoms in water molecules are attracted to chlorine ions 2 The negative oxygen atoms in water molecules are attracted to sodium ions 3 The negative oxygen atoms in water molecules are attracted to chlorine ions 4 The positive hydrogen atoms in water molecules are attracted to sodium ions 5 The positive hydrogen atoms in water molecules are attracted to chlorine ions and the negative oxygen atoms in water molecules are attracted to sodium ions Water is neither hydrophilic nor hydrophobic as these terms only de ne the interaction of other molecules with water molecules 1 True 2 False Where would the highestenergy electron be found in an atom of hydrogen 1 in the second spherical orbital 2 in the dumbbellshaped orbital of the y axis 3 in the dumbbellshaped orbital of the z axis 4 5 in the spherical orbital closest to the nucleus in the dumbbellshaped orbital of the x axis Which of the following is an example of a hydrogen bond the bond that forms between two hydrogen atoms within the same water molecule the bond that forms between hydrogen and oxygen atoms within different water molecules the bond that forms between a hydrogen and oxygen atom within the same water molecule the bond that forms between two hydrogen atoms within different water molecules the bond that forms between two oxygen atoms within different water molecules ghapter Three learning Curve Arrange the following in order from smallest to largest 91594N Gene nucleotide genome nucleoside Genome gene nucleotide nucleoside Nucleoside nucleotide gene genome Nucleotide nucleoside gene genome Nucleoside nucleotide genome gene The strands in a double helix of DNA are 5WN antiparallel complementary held together via hydrogen bonds wound around each other with 10 base pairs per turn All of the above accurately describe the strands in a double helix of DNA Which of the following statements is true regarding Frederick Grif th39s experiments 1 He demonstrated that proteins serve at the genetichereditary material He demonstrated that DNA serves as the genetichereditary material He demonstrated that only dead virulent bacteria cause pneumonia JUN in mice 4 His experiments relied on RNase and DNase to identify the genetichereditary material 5 None of the above Why was protein originally thought to be the genetic information storage molecule instead of DNA 1 there are more building blocks for protein than there are for DNA proteins have a wider variety of threedimensional shapes than DNA and proteins carry out a great range of cellular functions Proteins carry out a great range of cellular functions Proteins have a wider variety of threedimensional shapes than DNA There are more building blocks for protein than there are for DNA IgtUU Which one of the following is not a way in which RNA differs from DNA 1 RNA has uracil as one of its bases DNA has thymine 2 RNAs are typically singlestranded DNA is doublestranded 3 RNA nucleotides can possess only a single phosphate group DNA nucleotides have one two or three phosphate groups 4 The sugar component of RNA nucleotides is ribose the sugar component of DNA nucleotides is deoxyribose 5 RNA molecules are usually much shorter than DNA molecules No exceptions to the central dogma exist RNA is always transcribed from DNA and RNA is translated to produce proteins 1 True 2 false Chapter Four Launchpad Questions Which one of the following amino acids is most likely to participate in hydrogen bonding with water Alanine Asparagine Leucine Phenylalanine Valine wewwe Use the doublestranded DNA molecule below to answer the following question The rst pair of nucleotides circled is the start point of transcription TG TCGG T 39 i f 5 39 5r 3 Which of the following is the correct mRNA produced from the transcription of this DNA molecule 1 539AUGAUCGGAUCGAUCCAU339 2 339AUGAUCGGAUCGAUCCAU539 3 539UACUAGCCUAGCUAGGUA 339 4 339UACUAGCCUAGCUAGGUA 539 Which one of the following would least likely be used during the initiation phase of translation Elongation factors tRNA Small ribosomal subunits Initiation factors mRNA U39lbUUNl l Which one of the following amino acids has its Rgroup covalently linked to the amino group of the amino acid Glycine Sedne Cysteine Glutamic acid Proline 5WN The threedimensional shape of a protein is determined by the primary secondary tertiary and in many cases the quaternary structure of the protein The following sentence is taken from scienti c articles on protein structure Choose the level of protein structure that applies best to the sentence quotDisulfide bonds formed between cysteines stabilize the overall structure of this protein isolated from the bacteriumquot 1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Tertiary 4 Quaternary The threedimensional shape of a protein is determined by the primary secondary tertiary and in many cases the quaternary structure of the protein The following sentence is taken from scienti c articles on protein structure Choose the level of protein structure that applies best to the sentence quotHydrogen bonds between peptide backbone components form a distinct helical structurequot 1 Primary 2 Secondary 3 Tertiary 4 Quaternary Alpha helices are stabilized by hydrogen bonds between amino acids that are residues apart 2 4 10 20 100 wewwe Which one of the following cellular processes occurs in the nucleus of a euka ryote Transcription RNA processing Translation Transcription and RNA processing All of these choices are correct mthi i The threedimensional shape of a protein is determined by the primary secondary tertiary and in many cases the quaternary structure of the protein The following sentence is taken from scienti c articles on protein structure Choose the level of protein structure that applies best to the sentence quotHydrogen bonds between peptide 39backbone39 amino groups and carboxyl groups of one polypeptide and the Rgroups of another polypeptide contribute to the overall function of the proteinquot Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary wNi i rRNAs are transcribed in the cytoplasm nucleus nucleolus mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum wewwe Some amino acids are coded by as many as six different codons Which of the following amino acids fall into this category More than one answer may be correct methionine tyrosine tryptophan serine leucine mhwwe Use the doublestranded DNA molecule below to answer the following question The rst pair of nucleotides circled is the start point of transcription GETCGGETCGETCCET 1 3i 39 ACTEGCCTEGC TEGGTE 5 39 FAELE 41 39Ia39ihe standard genetic mile First 5 E i i d pMtien El Ipsitiqan 539 and 2 THEd pusitin Twill a I39 II S I i III I E ELIu Leaf Mini ln EIIIE mini Illa 39 15E l rnzr IEEEIJFEE 5 E 5 Panama Aquota E i All is 39 F I I I I I I I I I uuiunuwi 7 will 5 runner I EIIE39IIEI Egg gala 39 2 Asp g may F l n quot Elia E EIA39E Elliu ns 1M II a he Humpnll ar Polar I Ir Midi Stupendn Eli3i ah l WUIHEHJEIFE 19 Mew H Hemmercl mm Which of the following is the correct polypeptide assembled by the translation of the mRNA produced by the transcription of this DNA molecule ewww amino end MetlleGlySerlleHis carboxyl end amino end TyrLeuAlaArgLueVal carboxyl end carboxyl end MetlleGlySer lleHis amino end carboxyl end TyrLeuAlaArgLueVal amino end Some amino acids are coded by just one codon Which of the following amino acids fall into this category More than one answer may be correct wewNH methionine tyrosine tryptophan serine leucine Which one of the following codons is capable of terminating translation 5WN UAG UAA UGA UAG a nd UAA All of these choices are correct Which one of the following is a critical region of a tRNA molecule U39IDUUNl l Amino acid attachment site AnUcodonloop Stop codon Amino acid attachment site and anticodon loop All of these choices are correct ghapter Five Launchpad Questions In which of the following can protein synthesis occur in eukaryotes Select all correct choices 1 the nucleus 2 the cytoplasm 3 the rough endoplasmic reticulum Speci c types of lipids assemble into de ned areas of a biological membrane referred to as wewwe cholesterol plugs lipid rafts biomembrane aggregation regions BARS sphingopatches plaques Which of the following accurately describes the path travelled by a new protein as it is synthesized and released from the cell plasma membrane gt ER gt transport vesicle gt Golgi gt cytosol gt external environment cytosol gt ER gt Golgi gt transport vesicle gt plasma membrane gt external environment nuclear envelope gt ER gt transport vesicle gt Golgi gt plasma membrane gt external environment RNA molecules are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in eukaryotes through wewwe budding off of the nuclear envelope aquapo ns nuclear pore complexes passive diffusion sodiumpotassium channels The sodiumpotassium pump is an example of an antiporter a symporter None of these choices is correct passive transport channelmediated diffusion wewwe The process of a vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane and depositing its contents into the extracellular space is most speci cally referred to as active transport budding bridging endocytosis exocytosis U ff hN Complete the matching exercise below by choosing the correct overall function for mitochondria and chloroplasts 1 Mitochondria Synthesize ATP for energy use 2 Chloroplasts Use the energy in sunlight to make simple sugars Which of the following molecules would most likely require a transport protein to cross the plasma membrane of a red blood cell 1 02 2 H20 3 C6H1206 4 C02 Complete the matching exercise below by choosing whether mitochondria are present in the following organisms 1 Plants Yes 2 Animals Yes 3 Bacteria No The diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration is referred to as osmosis Which of the following best describes the hydrophilic component of cholesterol 1 a group of four planar rings and a hydroxyl group 2 a hydroxyl group only 3 a single hydrocarbon tail 4 a phosphate group and a chemical group called choline 5 a phosphate group only Which of the following would be considered an integral membrane protein 1 a protein with its Nterminus in the cytoplasm and its C terminus in the extracellular space 2 a protein attached to a phospholipid via ionic bonding with the head group of the lipid molecule 3 a protein attached to a transmembrane protein via hydrogen bonding 4 a protein capable of diffusing throughout the cytoplasm of a cell You are investigating a particular cell type and you notice that a protein normally found in the lysosome ends up being secreted from the cell This appears to be the only thing wrong with these cells Of the following conditions which is the most likely cause of this defect in these cells Transport vesicles responsible for sorting in the cell are defective The lysosome leaks the protein out of the cell The pH of the lysosome is not low enough for the protein to remain in UUNl it 4 The signal sequence on the lysosomal protein is defective Which one of the following would be least likely to cross a lipid bilayer N2 H20 C02 ATP 02 mthI i Complete the matching exercise below by choosing whether chloroplasts are present in the following organisms 1 Plants Yes 2 Animals No 3 Bacteria No Study these notes and do the learning curve exercises repeatedly and you should be all set for the exam
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