Chapters 1,3,4 Review
Chapters 1,3,4 Review BIO 100
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelley Freeman on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 100 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Kenneth Blank in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology in Biology at Eastern Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
SDP NF Uquot39gtS quot lgtlgtlgtWWWWWWWWWWNNNNNNNNNNHl I I I I l I I l le OLDOONCDU39IwNI OLDOONCDU39IwaI OLDOONQWU39IwNI O BIO 100 Study Guide How is life organized from smallest to largest What is the definition of each group What 5 things are required for organisms to sustain life What is the definition of energy What is the greatest energy source What is the definition of metabolism What is homeostasis Give an example What is reproduction How do single celled organisms reproduce Multicellular What are gene Why are they important Changes in the genetic information for the benefit of the organism are called what What is natural selection What are the categories of classification from biggest to smallest List 2 characteristics of Domain Achaea and Domain Bacteria Name the 4 kingdoms in the Domain Eukarya What does the first and second word in a binomial name mean Which can be abbreviated List the 5 steps of the scientific method What is an experimental variable Control group are explanations that are socially excepted can explain how the world works the use of scientific knowledge to the interest of man Global Warming is What are the 4 organic molecules How many elements can carbon bond with What is an isomer Give an example What is the difference between hydrophobic and hydrophilic What is the difference between a dehydration synthesis reaction and a hydrolysis reaction What is a carbohydrates monomer What is the function of carbs Define Monosaccharide Disaccharide and Polysaccharide What is the monomer for lipids What are 3 functions of lipids Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic Which type of fatty acid are made of bonds Give an example of an unsaturated and a saturated fatty acid Where are phospholipids located in a cell What is the monomer for proteins List 3 functions of proteins Amino acids are connected by what type of bond What does it mean if a cell is denatured List and explain the 4 stages of structure for a protein What is the monomer for Nucleic Acids What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide Describe DNA Describe RNA What is the difference between the light and electron microscope What is the fluid mosaic model 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 BIO 100 List and describe the 6 types of membrane proteins What is the cell theory What are common to all cells What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes What is the nuclear envelope What are some characteristics of ribosomes What is the difference between the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum What acts as the stomach of the cell What is a vacuole and which type of cell is the Central Vacuole found What are 2 organelles that involve energy What is photosynthesis Cellular Respiration are protein filaments and tubules that go from the nucleus to the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells What are microtubules How do animal cells keep their shape In what type of cells are cell walls found 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 BIO 100 Study Guide Answers Organization of Life I Cell smallest simplest form of life I Tissue similar cells working together I Organ made up of tissues I Organ System separate organs working together I Organism one individual intricate individuals have organ systems I Population the same species of organisms in a certain area I Community populations in a certain area interacting with each other I Ecosystem a community in addition to the surrounding environment I Biosphere the Earth s regions that have living things Life Requires I Energy and Materials I Maintain Internal Environment I Response I Reproduction and Development I Adaptations Energy the ability to do work the greatest energy source is the sun Metabolism all chemical reactions that take place in the cell Homeostasis the maintenance of inner conditions within certain boundaries I For example human bodies maintaining body temperature despite weather conditions Reproduction creating another organism life itself I Single celled organisms split themselves in 2 I Multicellular organisms require a sperm and an egg Genes inherited genetic information from parent cells I Important because this is your DNA that makes you you Mutations Natural Selection changes made by organisms due to the environment Categories of Classifications I Domain I Kingdom I Phylum I Class I Order I Family I Genus I Species They are prokaryotes and can live and thrive anywhere even in harsh conditions Protists Plants Animals Fungi First wordgenus which can be abbreviated genus Observation Hypothesis Experiment Results Conclusion Experimental Variable the part of an experiment that is changed on purpose second wordspecific epithet of species within a 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 BIO 100 I Control Group the group of an experiment that remains the same not given the experimental variable Scientific Theories Technology An increase of temperature due to increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins 4 Molecules with the same number and type of atoms I For example glucose and fructose Hydrophilic means water loving and hydrophobic means water fearing A dehydration synthesis reaction results in a loss of a water molecule and a hydrolysis reaction results in the addition of a water molecule Saccharides or sugars Instant energy source Monosaccharide a single sugar molecule I Disaccharide 2 monosaccharides bonded together I Polysaccharide a polymer of monosaccharides Fatty acids Long term energy storage insulation for marine life protects internal organs from damage Hydrophobic Unsaturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated oil Saturated butter In the phospholipid bilayer in the plasma membrane Amino acids Support Metabolism Transport Defense Regulation Motion Polypeptide Bond It has a loss of function and structure Primary Structure a proteins sequence of amino acids I Secondary Structure happens when a part of the amino acid chain change shape normally forms helices or pleated sheets I Tertiary Structure 3 dimensional shape that happens because the secondary structure creates folds and twists helps to determine function I Quaternary Structure one or several polypeptide chains where each chain has its own primary secondary and tertiary structure Nucleotides The phosphate a 5 carbon sugar and a nitrogen containing base very stable houses genetic information I Sugar is deoxyribose I In the shape of a double helix I The information is passed on to RNA through base pairing I AT amp CG very unstable helps make proteins I Sugar is ribose I Single stranded BIO 100 I Genetic information is stored in the base pairing I AT amp CU 42 A light microscope shines light through the organism harder to see details An electron microscope uses beams of electrons to see the organism in great detail 43 A way to describe the arrangements of proteins in the plasma membrane 44 Membrane Proteins I Channel Proteins I In the shape of a tunnel I The channel allows only certain molecules to move across the membrane I Transport Proteins I Also helps molecules and ions move through the membrane I They will combine with the protein at one end are released into the cell or outside the cell depending on the direction they are going with an output of energy I Cell Recognition Proteins I Also known as glycoproteins I Helps our bodies to identify which cells are our own and which are from other organisms I Receptor Proteins I Have a certain shape that matches with a specific molecule known as a signal molecule I When they two the protein and signal molecule come together they trigger a cellular response I Enzymatic Proteins I Directly participate in metabolic reactions I Enzymes speed up or slow down reactions Junction Proteins I They help cells connect and communicate 45 All living things are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells 46 A plasma membrane cytoplasm DNA 47 Prokaryotes no membrane bound nucleus reproduce quickly much smaller I Eukaryotes have a membrane nucleus much larger very compartmentalized 48 Nuclear Envelope the part of a cell the double membrane that separates the cytoplasm and phospholipids 49 Inside of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells I The information in the RNA which is from the nucleolus is used to produce a polypeptide chain I Crucial for the survival of a cell 50 Rough ER contains ribosomes on the side of the membrane that faces the cytoplasm I They produce polypeptides I Creates transport vesicles that take proteins to different parts of the cell I Smooth ER does not contain the ribosomes like the Rough ER I They produce lipids I Their function can vary depending on the particular cell 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 BIO 100 Lysosome Acts as storage central vacuole is in plant cells Chloroplasts and mitochondria Photosynthesis carbohydrates are produced by the use of energy from the sun carbon dioxide and water I Cellular Respiration a reaction where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is used to break down carbohydrates Cytoskeleton Microtubules like a log all hollow cylinders made of links of tubulin dimers I They can easily change their length by breaking the link through the process by the centrosome helps keep everything organized Extracellular Matrix ECM made of fibrous proteins and polysaccharides that form a mesh around the cell I Adhesion Junctions very sturdy but flexible allowing movement of the cells such as for the heart I Tight Junctions create a zipper affect creating a wall such as for the bladder I Gap Junctions allow cells to communicate allows ions and molecules to travel from one cell to another via a channel I They type ofjunction needed depends on what the cells need Plants cells The study guide does not include chapter 5 sorry Only a portion of chapter 5 will be on the exam Remember to also study your notes and not just this study guide because you never know what will be on the test Good luck
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