Study Guide for Test 1 part 1
Study Guide for Test 1 part 1 BIOL 110 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
10 ll 12 13 Study Guide for Test 1 Chapter 1 Origin of the Universe and the Eaer Earth Natural world a Is limited to phenomena that we can potentially observe measure and test Science a Means the desire to know and it is a process of understanding the natural world b The process of since is by making observations and asking questions Hypothesis a Important A hypothesis is NOT AN EDUCATED GUESS b Proposed explanations for a set of observations which are tested and either kept or discarded based on the information Pseudoscience a Makes claims about the world that sound or appear scientific but do not actually follow the conventions of science Big Bang Theory a Is the predictions that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion creating all the matter and energy in the universe in a single instant in time Scientific Theory a Is a broad powerful explanation for a set of observations Fact a Is something that exist or actually happens much like it s a fact that the sun sets in the west and rises in the east Matter a As something that occupies space and has mass i Mass is typically a large body of matter with no definite shape b The fact that matter can occupies space is known by physicist as the Pauli Exclusion Principle i No two particles of matter can occupy the same place at the same time Energy a Is a property of objects it can be transferred and transformed Atoms a Are the smallest particle of matter that has the properties of an element like gold or calcium Protons a A stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron but of opposite sign Neutrons a A subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen Electrons a A stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Atomic mass a The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom Atomic number a The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table Element a Is an atom with a particular number of protons and electrons Kinetic energy a Is the energy of motion the faster an object is moving the more energy it has Potential energy a Is stored energy First law of thermodynamics a The total of energy is always consent you can transfer it or transform it but you cannot create it or destroy it Second law of thermodynamics a States that every time energy is used or transferred or transformed the total Entropy of the universe increase Entropy a Is a measure of disorder as Entropy increase the amount of energy stays the same but it loses its ability to do work Scientific law a Are used by scientists to predict a certain outcome under the same conditions Supernova a The energy released from nuclear fusion is no longer sufficient to counteract the force of gravity and the star rapidly collapses on itself only to rebound in a cataclysmic explosion Radioisotope a Any of several species of the same chemical element with different masses whose nuclei are unstable and dissipate excess energy by spontaneously emitting radiation in the form of alpha beta and gamma rays Isotope a Where the atomic number remains the same but the atomic mass changes with the number of neutrons Halflife a Some ratios of neutrons to protons are unstable as in the case of Carbon 14 where its nucleus is unstable and will decay at a specific rate into elements Uniformitarianism a States that the same natural laws that apply on Earth are the same throughout the universe at any point in the past or at any point in the future Explain why biology can be thought of as the unifying science a Biology is a unifying science because to fully understand the scope of biology requires some knowledge of other sciences like physics chemistry and etc 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Explain the limitations of science or what can science explain and what can it not explain a Science is a process of understanding the natural world but science cannot test a phenomena that goes outside the realm of science like aliens Explain why an idea like Intelligent design is not a scientific hypothesis a Those kind of philosophical ideas are beyond the scope of science because they are not observable What are the criteria of a good scientific hypothesis a Proposed explanations for a set of observations are tested and either or discarded based on information Describe the evidence of the Big Bang Theory a The progress was made when Hubble began making a series of observations on faint fuzzylike objects known as galaxies Which then lead to the observation of the Big Bang Theory that predicted the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion creating all the matter and energy in the universe in a single instant in time Explain why the Big Bang is a good scientific theory a The Big Bang is a good scientific theory because it was a broad powerful explanations for a set of observations and testable predictions Compare and contrast fact theory law and hypothesis a Fact is something that exist or actually happens much like it s a fact that the sun sets in the west and rises in the east b Theory is a general principle or body of principles that has been developed to explain a wide variety of phenomena A scientific theory is NOT a wild guess c Law is a mathematical relationship that is consistently found to be true d Hypothesis is a statement that can be tested What is the importance of the Big Bang to biology a The development of the Big Bang Theory also illustrates the process of science Explain the difference between atomic mass and atomic weight a Atomic Mass Elements is determined by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus b Atomic Weight The average mass of an atom of an element usually expressed relative to the mass of carbon 12 Using the laws of thermodynamics explain what happens to energy every time it is used transformed or transferred a First Law the total of energy is always constant you can transfer it or transform it but you can t create it or destroy it b Second Law Every time energy is used or transferred or transformed the total entropy of the universe increases Explain why the entropy of the universe is constantly increasing a When energy is changed from one form to another there is a loss of useable energy waste energy goes to increase entropy Give an example of an energy transformation a A batter hitting a ball is transferring energy from the bat to the ball 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Explain the origin elements found in your body a 95 of your body is made up of hydrogen H carbon nitrogen oxygen and calcium Ca How old are the oxygen carbon and nitrogen atoms in your body a 13 billion years old How old are the protons neutrons and electrons in the elements that make up your body a 13 billion years old What happens to very large stars at the end of their life a Supernova The energy released from nuclear fusion is no longer sufficient to counteract the force of gravity and the star rapidly collapses on itself only to rebound in a cataclysmic explosion What is the age of the Earth a 137 Billion years old Explain how scientists were able to determine the age of the Earth a Through radiation measurement stratigraphic superposition and the fossil record Explain why the halflives of radioactive elements is a good tool for dating rocks a This is a good tool because we can calculate their ages It is a method used to date rocks and other objects based on the known decay rate of radioactive isotopes Explain the importance of uniformitarianism to science a States that the same natural laws that apply on Earth are the same throughout the universe at any point in the past or at any point in the future Based on fossil and molecular evidence when did life first evolve on the Earth a Archean Eon Chapter 2 The Origin of Life on Earth Abiogenesis a The original evolution of life or living organisms from inorganic or inanimate substances Metabolism a Is the sum of all the chemical processes inside a cell that break down and build molecules ultimately resulting in creating order inside living organisms Autotroph a Are able to convert the kinetic energy in sunlight to potential energy and store it for later use Heterotroph a Acquire potential energy by eating other organisms Open system a Where energy continuously ows through it Ecosystems are open systems where energy enters as sunlight and exits as heat Adhesion a Water sticks to other objects Cohesion a Water sticks to itself Example is when it rains the water molecules stick together to form a drop of rain Heat capacity a Meaning it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water pH a A measure of how acidic or basic the water is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions b The pH scale is a measure of hydrogen ions and ranges from 0 to 14 where 7 is neutral anything less than 7 is acidic and anything greater than 7 is alkaline or basic 21 Introduction life is a process 1 Explain why we would be able to recognize alien life we were to discover it on another planet or a moon orbiting another planet a If we can identify the processes of life elsewhere then we almost certainly have life regardless of its chemistry 2 Explain why every living organism must interact with its environment a They must interact with its environment to acquire energy necessary to create order in a confined space 3 List three theories that have been proposed to explain abiogenesis a The Primordial Soup Theory b Metabolism c The RNA world theory 4 Explain why life does not violate the laws of thermodynamics a Because life is an island of low entropy it requires a constant supply of energy to maintain itself or it will die However by reducing entropy and creating order at the level of cells life does not violate the laws of thermodynamics because of open system 5 Describe the processes that help us define life there are several a Functions of living beings are order stimuli reproduction growthdevelopment regulation homeostasis and energy 6 Explain why energy must constantly ow through living organisms why can t it just be continuously recycled a Energy cannot be recycled because every time it is used some of the energy becomes less available to do work as the entropy increases 7 Why are humans heterotrophs and not autotrophs a Humans are heterotrophs because we acquire potential energy by eating other organisms 8 Explain why metabolic processes are important for living organisms a Metabolic processes extract energy from organic molecules and use the energy to construct the molecules required by cells 9 Explain why some scientists believe that metabolism evolved before the ability to reproduce a Once metabolism evolved some mechanism of information storage and replication soon evolved insuring the continuity of life 10 How can scientists determine the characteristics of the first cells that existed nearly 35 billion years ago a Genetic information is found inside every cell and is used to make all the molecular machinery needed to carry out and regulate the metabolic processes inside cells 22 Conditions of the Early Earth when Abiogenesis occurred 11 Based on the best evidence available what was the composition of the atmosphere 35 billion years ago a The atmosphere 4 billion years age most likely was dominated by carbon dioxide nitrogen methane hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide 12 What was the surface like 35 billion years ago a The Earth s surface 38 billion years ago is that it was covered in water much like our current surface 13 Explain why oxygen was not present in the atmosphere prior to the origins of life a Oxygen is extremely reactive easily breaking down complex organic molecules in to smaller less complex and more stable molecules including carbon dioxide Therefore it s unlikely that any atmosphere would have large quantities of oxygen unless something put it there 23 Life Requires Liquid Water 14 Explain why liquid water is necessary for all life in the Earth and probably extraterrestrial life too a It is a good solvent providing a medium for the chemical reactions of life to take place 15 Explain why water is not a universal solvent a If water were a universal solvent then it would dissolve anything it touched on contact 16 Explain why the pH of water is important for life a When water is strongly basic or acidic there are more ions in the water which are very reactive causing chemical reactions to occur 17 What happens to water when it freezes Why is this important a Water also expands when it freezes so ice oats If this weren t the case the oceans would probably be mostly ice a thin surface of liquid water and there would not be nearly as much life if the oceans were frozen 18 Explain how water can moderate temperature a Water also has a high heat capacity meaning it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of water 24 The Chemistry of life is based on carbon 19 Explain the difference between a molecule and an element a Molecule is two or more atoms that are chemically joined together While an element is a basic substance that cannot be simplified 20 Name the subatomic particle responsible for forming chemical bonds between elements a Electron make up bonds Proton are not subatomic particles determine the ID of the element Neutrons help to hold all the protons together in the nucleus 21 Explain why organic molecules and life is based on the element carbon a Carbon is ideally suited for creating a vast array of complex molecules capable of performing a great many functions including speeding up chemical reactions storing information storing energy communication forming barriers or used in movement 22 Explain the importance of each of the following molecules for living organisms a Lipids they are known as fats which are used for long term energy storage and used by cells to communicate long distances as in the case of steroids b Carbohydrates are used for energy energy storage structural support and communication Simple carbohydrates are sugars including glucose and fructose that taste sweet and are used as a quick source of energy c Nucleic Acids such as DNA are used to store our genetic information DNA is made of just four building blocks known as nucleotides Adenine Guanine Cytosine and Thymine d Proteins the varied role of proteins is truly amazing they can be used for structural support help speed up chemical reactions allow cells to recognize and communicate with each other help hold our cells together and even identify and destroy pathogens II Theories of abiogenesis and the first cells 25 The MillerUrey Experiments and the prebiotic soup theory 23 Define scientific theory a Is a wellsubstantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation 24 Describe the MillerUrey experiment a To conduct the experiment they created a system that contained sea water and a mix of gases they thought represented the early atmosphere They heated the water and added energy in the form of electricity After a week a brown sludge began to appear in the catchment tube They collected the substance and found amino acids and other organic molecules that are the basic building blocks of life 25 What was the significance of the MillerUrey Experiment a The experiment conclusively demonstrated that amino acids the building blocks of proteins along with other organic molecules are easily made from simple molecules present in the early Earth in a very short time Also the experiments were among the first scientific tests of a hypothesis to explain the origins of life 26 Explain the prebiotic soup theory of abiogenesis a It provided a potential explanation for the origins of life that was testable potentially falsifiable and made other testable prediction 27 Explain the problems of the prebiotic soup theory a Is that it does not explain how large complex organic molecules could be synthesized concentrated into a confined space like a cell 26 The RNA World 28 Explain the RNA world theory of abiogenesis a RNA is a molecule that can store information and catalyze its own reaction and reactions to make other molecules including proteins 29 Explain why the RNA world theory quickly became a popular theory a The idea that life began as a simple selfreplicating molecule that would eventually evolve into the myriad of lifeforms we see today 30 Explain what is special about RNA compared to DNA a One of the important roles of RNA is in the building of proteins in the cell Because RNA carries genetic information and is directly involved with making the same proteins it carries information for it has been widely thought that RNA preceded DNA as the first molecule to store information and replicate 3 1 Explain the problems with the RNA world Theory a The fact that it is unclear how a large amount of RNA nucleotides could be formed from the prebiotic soup A second challenge is that in a prebiotic soup environment the RNA nucleotides would be diluted and the length of self replicating RNA molecule would remain short much shorter than is required to make even simple proteins 27 Metabolism First Theory 32 What was the pH of the oceans 35 billion years ago how was that different from today a The oceans were acidic with a pH less than 7 which today the oceans are alkaline with a pH averaging 81 33 What is a hydrothermal vent a An opening in the sea oor out of which heated mineralrich water ows 34 When the first hydrothermal vent was discovered in 1977 what did the scientists find a The water spewing out of these vents is laden with irons sulfides it looks like black smoke hence the name black smokers 35 What was unique about the organisms and the ecosystem they found a Are found near volcanically active areas and spew out hot water along with numerous other chemicals and metals conducive to forming new molecules 36 Explain why ancient alkaline vents may have been responsible for the origins of life a Alkaline vents are very different in several important ways from the hydrothermal vents previously discovered Instead of being very hot they are warm about 90 110 degrees Fahrenheit Another major difference is that alkaline vents can remain geologically active for thousands of years an important feature for the origin of life 37 Explain how alkaline support the metabolism first theory a The metabolism first theory predicts that geological processes caused chemical evolution to occur by creating a system out of equilibrium with the environment 38 What is a major implication of metabolic theory of life a Metabolism first has been supported by experimental evidence in labs showing that chemical evolution would occur under these circumstances 28 The first cells 39 Describe the evidence indicating that all life came from a universal common ancestor a As life reproduces it passes genetic information to the next generation Although life changes over time some characteristics have remained little changed since the first living organisms 40 What is the purpose of ATP in cells a That is used to do work inside of the cells Every cell uses ATP and must recharge it after it has been used 41 Describe the role of RNA in cells a RNA carries the information from the DNA to parts of the cell know as ribosome where proteins are made from their building blocks the amino acids Not only does all life make proteins the same way by using RNA to carry information and forming proteins in ribosomes 42 Explain Why a gene from a human could work inside a bacteria cell a Genetic code can be used to take genes from a human and put it in bacteria because not only is the genetic code universal across all organisms inherited from an ancient ancestor all liVing organisms also share similar genes to make the same proteins
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