Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide HDFS 2000-002
Popular in Marriage and Family in a Global Context
Popular in Human Development
Hannah Kathryn Harris
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Richards on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Jayson Carmona in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Marriage and Family in a Global Context in Human Development at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
HDFS 2000 Ketring Test 1 Study Guide Generalization vs Stereotype Generalization starting point one makes an assumption about a specific group and before coming to a conclusion explores whether or not the individual fits the assumption about the entire group the opinion is capable of being changed after research start gt group gt RESEARCH gt individual gt conclusion Example of Generalization 1 START A woman meets a man from Auburn She assumes that because he is from Auburn he must be an Auburn fan GROUP After having a conversation about sports the woman realizes that the man is actually an Alabama fan INDIVIDUAL She then changes her opinion about the residents of Auburn and realizes that not everyone is necessarily an Auburn fan just because they live in Auburn CONCLUSION Stereotype ending point one makes an assumption about a person based on group membership without exploring whether or not the person fits the assumption opinion is not easily changed start gtindividua because of group gtconcusion Example of Stereotype 1 START Ateacher believes that all blondes are dumb He asks his class to raise their hand if they know the answer to his question He refuses to call on a blonde girl to answer because he knows that her answer will be incorrect CONCLUSION Theoretical Perspectives on the Family Family Ecology Perspective explores how a family is influenced by the surrounding environment society does not determine a families behavior but it does affect family life and children s outcome environmental factors may include economical educational religious historical cultural and social just as the environment has an effect on the family the family has an effect on their surroundings challenged the idea that the responsibility of family happiness depended solely on each individual s effort within the family problem too inclusive includes earth s environment world country state city workplace neighborhood Family Life Course Development Framework focuses onanalyzes the family itself instead of environmental factors families experience predictable changes over time stages in family life course 1 family members birth death leaving home 2 stages of child development 3 change in family s connections with society retirement child enters schooD each stage requires accomplishing certain tasks in order to transition to the next stage success for this theory is the belief that each stage takes place in the correct order ex families begin with marriage then having childrenretirement family course ends with death of a spouse being in stages early late or ontime affect the relationships the family has problem does not hold true to all cases due to economic ethnic and cultural differences The StructureFunctional Perspective family performs essential functions for society no longer a typical American family structure samesex couples single parent cohabitating couples transnational asks how well a particular family structure performs a basic family function functions typically include raising children responsibly providing economic support and giving family members emotional security dysfunction domestic violence opposes emotional security of family member problem tends to associate functional with the typical family dynamic The InteractionConstructionist Perspective E focus on interactions facetoface encounters and relationships daily conversations gestures result in family identity traditions commitment with developing relationships examines how family members interact with the outside world in order to manage family identity explores ways that through interactions people generate and determine their own meanings for things and start to see them as real or true ex newlyweds thinking that a honeymoon should take place following the wedding they don t realize that idea was created by society focuses more on the process of how families are formed Postmodern Theory analyzes social discourse and determines that a particular phenomenon is socially constructed and not real opposes essentialism idea that categories exist in nature and they aren t just socially constructed problem if everything is socially constructed the definition itself falls apart it is impossible to conduct traditional social science research without an agreed upon social category xchange Theory resources that each family member brings to a relationship or family affects formation continuation nature power dynamics applies economic perspective to relationships weighing out rewards vs costs to make a decision those with more resources education higher income have more options to choose from principle of least interest the less committed partner has more power in the relationship relationships with exchange balance are likely to thrive whereas a relationship that is one sided is likely to fall apart social network theory examines how social networks provide people with social capital problem it assumes that human nature is rational and cynical in relationships Family Systems Theory family as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts sees family as a system with parts members and boundaries family seeks equilibrium stable balance if one part changes the family tries to regain balance this can add stress on a family family boundaries who is in and outside the family family boundary ambiguity unsure of who is in and who is outside the family common with divorced families useful when working with families in therapy because it allows the family to understand how their specific family works and what changes need to be made gives the family insight to the effects of their behavior amp reveals hidden motivation problem when used by therapists it has been criticized that it deflects responsibility of actions to the family as a whole instead of seeking to find the cause within the family system blaming the victim Conflict and Feminist Theory gender is central to the analysis of the family male dominance in society and family is oppressive of women conflict perspective opposite of structurefunctional theory about unequal power between husband and wife feminist theory central focus is gender issues patriarchy idea that males dominate females in all cultures and societies helps people realize gender inequality wife abuse marital rape child abuse problem criticized as too political and value laden to be considered an academic approach The Biosocial Perspective At evolution has put in place factors that shape and limit family choices human physiology genetics and hormones predispose people to certain behaviors biology interacts with the social environment affecting family behavior gender differences anchored in hereditary biology biological predisposition does not mean that behaviors cannot be influenced or changed by social structure Nature genetics hormones interacts with Nurture culture and social relations produce human behavior and attitudes NATURE NURTURE BEHAVIOR amp ATTITUDE problem once used to justify gender inequality as natural tachment Theory early childhood experience with caregivers shape psychological attachment styles once a child s attachment style is established they will later apply that style to adult relationships 3 basic attachment styles secure child can trust caregiver to give emotional amp practical needs insecureanxious amp avoidant child feels uncared for or abandoned in adulthood secure trust that the relationship will provide ongoing emotional and social support insecureanxious concern that a beloved will disappear fear of abandonment avoidant dodges emotional closeness avoids relationships creates distance in intimate s ua ons used in counseling psychology if one can recognize a problematic attachment style they can take steps to change it how personality impacts initiatingmaintaining relationships how parenting can encourage a secure attachment style problem critics argue that a style could depend on a situation rather than a personality characteristic one s attachment style can change over time Family Roles heroheroine displays courage selfsacrifice or moral excellence when faced with danger adversity golden child mascot person animal or object thought to bring luck represents a group with a common identity deflects conflicttension with humor or distraction scapegoat a person who is singled out for unmerited negative treatment fall guy keeps focus off of other family members lost child a person who chooses to avoid difficult family interactions using socially approved methods isolates themselves from family avoiding interaction with them Shattered Spirits movie Ken older son scapegoat Bryan younger son lost child Leslie daughter heroine Lyle father victim Joyce mother mascot Sex vs Gender Sex biological identity male or female Gender masculine or feminine masculine characterized by instrumental traits things that you are able to do feminine characterized by expressive traits how you express yourselfhow you act Biological Differences between Sexes Male brain weighs 10 more than female have 4 more brain cells than females tend to be more left brained put emotions in right hemisphere inferior parietal lobe IPL in cortex is larger correlates with mental math skills left side larger assoc with perception of time amp speed ability to mentally rotate a 3D figure Female have better cellular connections more developed dendrites amp axons communication among neurons Corpus Callosum larger can transfer data between R amp L hemisphere faster have access to both sides less hemisphere driven emotions in both hemispheres Broca and Wernicke larger have language in both hemispheres stroke victims have less impairments and heal more quickly Limbic System bondingnesting instincts larger feelings amp expressing feelings ability to bondconnect with others nurturing more susceptible to depression Oxytocin bonding chemical for offspring sense of smell is better lPL right side is larger assoc with memory involved in understanding amp manipulating spatial relationships Arguments Behind Gender Differentiation BiologyBased Arguments Gendered behaviors developed to meet family system needs and are natural and functional Functional needs of heterosexual nuclear family result in differentiation into an instrumental leader father and an expressive leader mother The two roles instrumental and expressive describe division of labor and other aspect of interaction within families Childhood gender socialization entails learning either the instrumental male or expressive female role by late adolescence genderappropriate attitudes and behaviors usually have been thoroughly internalized SocietyBased Arguments Genderrole differences depends on individuals doing or performing gender as they interact with others to negotiate their own individuality amid structured opportunities and constraints along with cultural expectations Although they do not have to our socially structured institutions value and reward with money and power instrumental agents behaviors over expressive ones Socialization includes learning to instrumental and expressive behaviors and attitudes as well as learning to ascertain when best to display either and to what degree
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