Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Maddie Nowak P101 Exam 1 Study Guide Define Psychology Psychology the scientific study of behavior and mind Goal develop a knowledge base about human and animal behavior Study Behavior normal vs abnormal Normal mostly to understand basic processes and understand what is considered abnormal Modern psychology developed out of philosophy and physiology Main method for psychology experiments Clinical Bias Incorrect perception that psychologists are all clinicians treatment providers What Psychologists Do Clinical Diagnoses and treats psychological problems ex Depression anxiety Workplace clinics private practices Psychiatrist also specialize in treatment of psychological problems but are medical doctors 0 Licensed to prescribe medication Applied Extend psychological principles to practical everyday problems in the world Workplace school industrial organization private industry Research Conduct research to discover principles of the mind create knowledge Workplace academic other labs MKNOWAK The Science of Psychology Principles of Behavior Empiricism theory that knowledge arises directly from experience Rene Descartes French philosopher Argues mind and body separate Introduced concept of re exes automatic involuntary rxns of the body to events in the environment Nature via Nurture Nativism the mind innater holds certain kinds of knowledge knowledge present at birth Darwinism natural Selection for adaptive and wanted traits Psychological characteristic are in uenced by both genesnature and experiencenurture Schools of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt First psychologist father of modern psychology First psychology lab 1879 University of Leipzig GR Professor of philosophy Established experimental lab to study the elementary components of immediate experience Scientific techniques to understand mental processes Main Focus immediate conscious experience MKNOWAK Research Psychology Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism Break down the minds simple thoughts and sensations Study immediate conscious experience Systematic introspection self reports on internal experiences Wundt Tichener Taste Fechner Function of immediate experience Analyze function and its purpose Introspection self re ection naturalistic observation individual differences Originated out of North America Iames Angel Darwin s idea about evolution and natural selection was in uential in development of functionalism Observable behavior ONLY Discover how changes in the environment can lead to changes in measurable behavior Method carefully controlled experiments emphasized on animal behavior Behavior modification how actions are changed by reinforcement and no reinforcement Skinner Pavlov salivating before eating Watson environmental fear Skinner radical Clinical Psychology Psychoanalytic Humanistic Analyzing personality by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior Treat personality and psychological disorders Childhood experience Freud Each person s unique self and capacity for growth aka human potential movement Humans are basically good Positive psychology Rogers Maslow MKNOWAK Sigmund Freud Neurologist Developed therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis insightquot therapy unconscious determinants of behavior The unconscious mind defends itself from those seeking to discover its secrets Cognitive Revolution 1950s shift away from behaviorism began renewed interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes Cognitive psychologists research psychologists study processes such as memory learning and reasoning Study on internal mental phenomena Neuroscience In uenced via development in molecular bio and imaging FMRI Emphasizes biological and chemical processes for psychological phenomenon CNS Can be reductionist oversimplified MKNOWAK Phineas Gage Brain Damage Rod entered lower left cheek bone and exited top of head Most of his front left side brain destroyed Personality loop changed 0 Became untruthful shorttempered psychopathic braggart o Looked like and acted ad a fairground freakquot 1860 began having epileptic seizures and died later in the year Milgram Experiment obedience to author figures WHO By Stanley Milgram Yale University Psychologist nervous Holocaust actions would happen in America WHAT social psychology experiments measured willingness of study participants to obey authority figures who instructed them to perform acts that con icted their personal conscience THE EXPERIMENT 3 people subject teacher instructed to quotshockquot confederate quotstudentquot when wrong Shock increased by voltage but fake if teachersubject wanted to stop an excuse would be motivate them to con nue RESULTS Prediction avg 12 would complete and give full voltage MKNOWAK 65 gave full voltage were very uncomfortable and paused at least once Authority won over humanity few people have resources needed to resist authority Tools for psychological research Operational definitions definitions that specify how concepts can be observed and measured want to be valid and reliable Scientific Method observe the behavior of interest detect regularities generate hypothesis specific prediction about relationship btwn variables Test hypothesis scientific method multistep technique that generates empirical knowledge empirical knowledge knowledge derived from systematic observations of the world Observational Research Observational descriptive research methods designed to observe and describe behavior 0 observing can affect the behavior you re recording 0 Reactivity when behavior changes as a result of the observation process I Reduce via measure results of behavior rather than behavior itself ex analyzing litter left behind in mall for shopping behavior I The Hawthorne Effect 0 External Validity how well results of an observation are representative of real life MKNOWAK Naturalistic Observation record natural occurring behavior not what s produced in alab Participant Observation observer attempts to become part of activities to blend in Case Study descriptive technique effort is focused on a single case usually an individual hypotheses formed about the possible causes of a behavior or psychological problem historical perspective difficulties on generalization based all on one case Survey descriptive gather limited amounts of info from many people Sample Bias subjects misrepresenting themselves selfreported Random Sampling everyone in pop has equal likelihood of being selected for sample if pop of interest is extremely large Representative samples All possible biases viewpoints and backgrounds will be represented Decreases chances of confounding variables Central Tendencies value around which scores tend to cluster Mean avg summarizes observations into single rep number most affected by extreme scores Mode most frequent Median middle point in set of scores MKNOWAK Variability how scores differvary from one another Range difference btwn largest and smallest number Standard Deviation avg distance of scores from the mean Correlation if 2 variables one recorded and one expected vary together in a systematic way describe how behaviors cooccur in world but limited cant determine causality common link w Third Variable uncontrolled factors causality requires control Correlation Coefficient Direction of relationship 0 Negative part opp directions 0 Pos they go together direct relationship Strength of relationship 0 The bigger approaching 1 stronger 0 Sign doesn t matter Experimental Research Allows inference of causality Controlled experiment Uses descriptive stats describe data AND inferential stats to determine if observed diff btwn groups is dependable aka represent larger pop or if happened by chance other factor MKNOWAK Experiment technique where investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior Purpose determine why behavior occurs establish cause and effect establish causality Independ Variable X what s being manipulated changed by experimenter at least 2 diff conditions required Depend Variable Y behavior that s measured or observed outcome of interest Operational definition variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured Confounding variables confuse uncontrolled variable other than x that changes systematically with the independent variable confusion to decrease chance all factors that could vary must be held constant when effectively controlled internal validity and can determine causality Placebo Inactive substance that resembles experimental substance leads control group to believe they re receiving treatment Blind Controls control expectancies and reduce bias effects In descriptive blind observers code data wo knowledge of the study In experimental Single subjects blind to what group they re in MKNOWAK Double experimenter and subject blind to who in what group Ethical behavior American Psychological Association APA set guidelines Informed Consent gaining permission and providing participants with significant factors that could affect willingness to participate pregnant kids those w cognitive disorder cannot give consent phys and emotional risks general nature of project any therapeutic procedures deception is allowed if scientific educational or applied value of study is clear and no way to answer study wo deceiving participants Noncoercive reward cant be too large ex money Participants must be able to quit at any time wo neg consequences Confidentiality maintained Debriefing conclusion of experiment to clear up any misunderstandings about research and to explain why and general purpose of experiment Including any deception involved Animal Research Less than 10 Consent cant be obtained Aplysia the sea hare Must care for animals properly APA guidelines for treatment in research MKNOWAK MKNOWAK
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