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AU / Psychology / PSYC 2010 / amiable skepticism

amiable skepticism

amiable skepticism

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School: Auburn University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction Into Psychology
Professor: Jennifer daniels
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Auburn University, Introduction to Psychology, Seth gitter, and test 1
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide Test 1
Description: Study Guide for Test 1. Abbreviated notes from week 1-3 and full notes from Wed 9/9 as well as relevant vocabulary from chapters 1-3.
Uploaded: 09/10/2015
21 Pages 8 Views 9 Unlocks
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Introduction to Psychology Psyc 2010-002 Seth Gitter Study Guide Test 1 Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology


What is Psychology?



Chapter 1: Abbreviated Notes

Introduction: The Story of Psychology

What is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior, the mind, and the brain Behavior

- Any action that can be observed or recorded

- Tools:

o Interviews, Questionnaires, Laboratory Test, Specialized Instruments

The Mind

- All mental processes

o Example: Emotions

- Cannot be directly observed

- Internal/ Subjective experiences: Thoughts/ Emotions

- Psychologists can make inferences about mental processes by using the measurements and  observations about behavior

o Facial expressions, actions

The Brain

- Nerve Cells, Neurons, Chemical Reactions, “The Mind is what “the Brain” does What makes psychology a science?

- What makes any field a science?

o How you obtain knowledge.

o Using the scientific method or observing and recording behavior


What makes psychology a science?



o Astrology is not a science, because there is no evidence to support their claims, while  Astronomy is a science, because they obtain data to back up their theories

- Psychology is an Empirical Science

o Have studies, collect data: Ex. most self-help books. They are written based on the author’s  personal experiences and not based on scientific data

The History of Psychology If you want to learn more check out which of the following possesses the sole power to create revenue bills?

- Pre-Scientific: 551BC-1843AD

o Aristotle, Plato, Confucius became interested in all psychological processes

▪ It is considered philosophy because they only thought about the mind and never  tested any theories

▪ Some had good results

∙ Han Dynasty: First Cases of psychological testing

∙ Al Kindi: First cognitive therapy

▪ For how many good cases there were for more bad cases

∙ Drilling holes in peoples head to relieve depression and other harmful  


What makes any field a science?



practices

o Francis Bacon: Came up with the notion that you can only gain knowledge from things you  have experienced

o John Locke: Tabula Rasa- the mind at birth is a blank slate on which experience writes o John Stuart Mill 1843 – “A system of Logic”

▪ Called out psychology for not being a science

▪ Move from speculation to scientific inquiry

▪ Emphasized experimentation and observation

▪ Called psychology “ the science of the elementary laws of the mind”

o Together Bacon, Locke, and Mill’s ideas formed Empiricism

▪ Rely on observation and experimentation

▪ Fundamental component of the Scientific Method

- Early Psychologists

o The Structuralists- focused on the form of the mind- first school of psychology ▪ Wilhelm Wundt

∙ Founded world’s first Psychology Lab (1879)

∙ Pioneered introspection: Looking inward to report on the experience of  We also discuss several other topics like a university dean is interested in determining the proportion

thought

▪ Edward Tichener

∙ He was the true father of structuralism

∙ He thought to break up experiences into parts

∙ Example: What is fear? Don't forget about the age old question of asumptie
We also discuss several other topics like biol 230 purdue

o Arousal: physical reactions: elevated heart rate, sweating

o Behavior: Screaming, Fight or Flight response

o Cognitive: Thoughts while being afraid

o The Fundamentalists

▪ William James

∙ Founded First psychology lab in America

o Functionalism

∙ Focused on the function of the mind

∙ What is the function or dysfunction of fear?

o Adrenaline allows you to fight or run from danger

o Anxiety will cause you not to be able to do necessary thing like  

toking to a group

o Gestalt Psychology

▪ Wertheimer and Kohler (1912)

∙ Experience things as a whole: The Whole is greater than the sum of its  

parts (different from structuralists that broke down experiences)

∙ Focus on

o Person’s interpretations of experiences

o Perpetual experience

o Average person’s experience

∙ Perception of objects is subjective and dependent on Context

o Sigmund Freud

▪ Strong emphasis on the unconscious mind

▪ Psychoanalysis

∙ Treat mental illness by resolving unconscious conflict

▪ Established his principles based on his experiences Don't forget about the age old question of which of the following statements about defensive medicine is true

▪ Never tested his ideas

1920’s to Today

- Behaviorism

o Watson and Skinner

▪ Focus on observable behavior only

▪ Make no inferences about mental processes because there is no evidence

▪ Established basic rules about influencing behavior

▪ Recording/ conducting studies

o Cognitive Revolution (1960’s) If you want to learn more check out chloragogen tissue

∙ Thinking, Memory, Perception

Modern Psychology

- The Biopsychosocial Approach 

o Different levels of analysis can be used to understand any psychological process o Example: Why did John punch his sister

▪ Biological

∙ Hormonal/ neurological

o John could have too much testosterone or a problem in is  

amygdala

∙ Evolutionary

o Is there something about the evolutionary past that makes males  

more aggressive than females?

▪ Psychological

∙ Cognitive

o Does he have hostile cognitive biases

∙ Personality

o Type A personality?

o Aggressive trait?

▪ Social-cultural Level

o Sothern “Culture of Honor”

▪ Someone hurts you it’s okay to take revenge

o Recent exposer to violent media

Chapter 1 Vocab

- Psychological Science: the study of the mind, brain and behavior

- Mind: mental activity, perceptual experiences we have with the world, our memories thoughts and  feelings

- Brain: “the Mind is what the Brain does”

- Behavior: a wide variety of observable behavior

- Critical Thinking: the ability to systematically evaluate information to reach reasonable conclusions - Amiable Skepticism: remaining open to new ideas, but are wary of new scientific studies when good  evidence and sound reasoning do not support them

- Culture: the beliefs, values, rules, norms, and customs existing within a group of people who share a  common language and environment

- Nature/ Nurture Debate: whether an individual’s psychology is attributable more to nature or to  nurture, a person’s biology or through education, experience, and culture

- Mind/ Body Problem: are the mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the  physical brain’s subjective experience?

- Dualism: the mind and body are separate yet intertwined

- Introspection: a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to  inspect and report on the content of their thoughts

- Structuralism: school of thought based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down  into basic underlying components

- Stream of Consciousness: the mind consisted of an ever-changing, continuous series of thoughts - Functionalism: psychologists ought to study the functions served by the mind. The mind evolved  over time making it more useful for preserving life and passing along genes, it helps humans adapt  to environmental demands.

- Evolutionary Theory: species change over time

- Adaptations: mutations that are passed along to later generations that help a species survive better - Natural Selection: the process by which random mutations that are adaptive are passed along and  random mutations that are not adaptive are not

- Gestalt Theory: the whole of human experience is not simply the sum of its constituents - Unconscious: the mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness - Psychoanalysis: the method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the  patient’s unconscious to the patient’s conscious awareness

- Behaviorism: school of thought that emphasizes observable environmental effects on behavior - Cognitive Psychology: concerned with mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language,  memory, and decision making

- Cognitive Neuroscience: studies the neural mechanisms (mechanisms involving the brain, nerves,  and nervous tissue) that underline thought, learning, and memory

- Social Psychology: focuses on the power of situation and on the way people are shaped through  their interactions with others

This is just key notes and vocabulary read chapter for in depth understanding

Chapter 2: Research Methodology

Chapter 2 Abbreviated Notes

- Human intuition tends to be really bad

Limits on Human Intuition

- Confirmation Bias

o The tendency to seek out proof that you’re theories are correct while ignoring the evidence  that disproves your theories

- Overconfidence

o We are generally more confident in our abilities than we really should be

- Hindsight bias

o Tendency to judge past knowledge based on current knowledge

o People who hear facts will generally say that it’s what you’d expect, but before you told  them they wouldn’t know

o Schlesinger (1949)  

▪ Suggested that social science studies were common sense

o Lazarus (1949)

▪ Responded to Schlesinger with a thought experiment

▪ Gave list of WWII study findings and asked if people could come up with  explanations

▪ Afterwards announced that the actual findings were opposite of the ones he had  shown them

- Scientific attitude

o Approach the world with amiable skepticism

▪ What do you mean?

▪ How do you know?

▪ Show me the evidence?

∙ Is it credible?

▪ Requites humility

∙ Sometime you will have to admit to being wrong  

o Scientific Method

1. State a Theory

a. An organized set of principles

b. Describes, explains, and predicts behavior

c. A good theory

i. Organizes many observations

ii. Makes clear prediction

iii. Parsimony  

2. Form a Hypothesis

a. Testable prediction derived from a theory

3. Perform a controlled test and analyze the results

a. Limit number of variables

b. Must be repeatable

4. Evaluate the Theory

a. Did the evidence collected support the hypothesis

5. Share the Results

a. Publish in journal

b. Peer review

6. Repeat

a. New prediction

b. Replication

- How do we test these things?: Goals of Psychology

o Describe

▪ To understand, one must first describe

▪ Defining what it is you are talking about

▪ Example- Depression

∙ Everyone can have a differ definition of depression

▪ Goal: Describe a population

∙ Ideally you would want to study all cases in a group; however it is  

impossible to study every case. Instead study a subset (sample) and  

extrapolate to the rest of the population

∙ Example: Population- all men ages 18-30 Sample: 100 men age 18-30 ▪ Goal: Generalizability

∙ Studies need to apply to the majority of the population

∙ Sample must represent population

o Gender, race, age

∙ What is true of the sample is true of the population

∙ Ex: The favorite pizza topping of American men age 18-30 is peperoni o If you only sample from one region it will not represent the whole  

population

∙ Samples should be:

o Randomly selected- each member of population has an equal  

chance of being selected

▪ Not possible, Ideal situation

o Representative- as similar to population as possible

▪ Similar demographic as population

▪ Age, gender, race

∙ To increase generalizability  

o Increase sample size

o Strategic sampling: Specifically sample people based on race,  

gender, age to achieve a sample similar to population

o Descriptive Methods

▪ Case study

∙ In-depth look at one person

∙ Gives detailed information about one person: They have a unique  

condition or something different

∙ Shows what can happen, but not what necessarily will happen

∙ Study a rare condition

o There are very few people who suffer from it

o Ex: Dissociative identity disorder

∙ Can’t be generalized based on case studies

▪ Survey/ Interview

∙ Larger Sample

∙ Assess self-reported attitudes/ behaviors of a group of people

∙ Questionnaire- structured questions

o Not as accurate

o People who self-report are not always honest

o Social disability bias: people tell you what they think you want to  

hear

o May not know the answer

o Guesstimating

o People can be sensitive to wording

▪ How often to you exceed the speed limit vs. how often do  

you break the law by speeding

∙ Naturalistic Observation

o Watch and record organisms in their natural environment

o Advantages: Realistic setting, Minimal interference by researcher

o Limits on Observation- some things are not observable in public

∙ Lab Studies

o Artificial observation

o Set up conditions to observe specific behaviors

o Other Goals of Research

▪ Explain Something

▪ Predict what will happen

▪ Control if it will happen

∙ Controversial: should we control behavior whether promoting good or  

stopping bad behavior

- Correlation Research

o Are two or more factors naturally associated

▪ Determine causality

o Cross-sectional Correlation Research

▪ To determine if two things are related  

▪ Calculated by “correlation coefficient”

∙ Statistic of how strongly two things are related range from -1 to 1

▪ The larger the absolute value of the number the stronger the relationship ∙ Smaller relationship goes to zero (no correlation)

∙ Larger relationship goes to -1/+1 (perfect relationship

▪ On a scatter plot of variable A+B the slop is the correlation coefficient

o Types of correlations

▪ Positive:  

∙ As one variable goes up/down the other variable goes the same direction  ∙ Correlation coefficient is positive

▪ Negative

∙ As one variable goes up/down the other variable goes the opposite  

direction

∙ Correlation coefficient is negative

▪ Zero

∙ No relationship

∙ Correlation coefficient is 0

o Correlation Does Not Imply Causation!!!

▪ Amount of ice cream eatean and number of violent crimes are positively related ∙ Does ice cream make people violent? NO!

▪ Three ways to interpret a correlation

∙ Violent video game play is associated with aggression

o A→B

▪ Playing violent video games increases aggression

o B→A

▪ Aggressive people tend to like violent games more

o C→A & B

▪ A spurious third variable causes both

▪ 3rd variable problem

o Correlation is not bad science

▪ They are a starting point

▪ Sometimes the only way to study a topic

▪ Easy to gather data

o How to determine causation

▪ Three things needed

∙ Covariance

o Variables vary together

o Change in one variable changes the other

o Correlation provides this  

o If they are not covaried they do not cause each other

∙ Temporal precedence

o One thing happens then the other

o Experimental

▪ A comes before B

o Correlation cannot provide this

o longitudinal studies

∙ Elimination of spuriousness: Elimination of third variable problem

o Correlation and longitudinal studies do not provide this

▪ Would have to study all variables- still does not guarantee  

no third variable problem

o Experimental studies- only way to completely control situation

▪ Can show relationships between two variables

▪ Change one variable for each group and see what changes

▪ Reduces concerns for 3rd variable

∙ Can never completely remove it

▪ Only/ Best way to really know if two things are related

- Example Study: Violent Video Games Cause Aggressive Behavior

o Independent Variable: Type of Game

o Experimental Condition: Violent Video Game

o Control Condition: Non-Violent Video Game

o Internal Validity

▪ Random assignment

∙ Control Biases

∙ Researcher could put aggressive people with aggressive video games

∙ Each participant needs to be equally likely to be in any condition

∙ Attempts to ensure level playing field

∙ Differences can then be contributed to manipulation

▪ Variables not being examines should be held constant

o Dependent Variable

▪ Ways to measure aggressiveness

∙ Must not pose any risk- proxy measure

∙ Give people chance to hit bobo doll

∙ Make them believe they are shocking someone or blast with sonic noise

∙ Add hot sauce to food for someone who does not like it

o How do we know there is a difference

▪ “Significant difference”

∙ Meaningful differences between groups

▪ “Statistical difference”

∙ Likelihood the result occurred by chance

∙ Psychologist usually accept 5% probability

o Run the study 100 times, the effect would replicate 955 of the  

time

Chapter 2: Vocab

- Scientific Method: a systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable  things) to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it, and why; involves  a dynamic interaction between theories, hypotheses, and research

- Theory: a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observed and makes  predictions about future events

- Hypothesis: a specific prediction of what should be observed if a theory is correct - Research: a scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data - Data: objective observations or measurements

- Replication: repetition of an experiment to confirm the results

- Descriptive studies: a research method that involves observing and noting the behavior of people or  other animals to provide a systematic and objective analysis of the behavior

- Naturalistic Observation: a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer,  making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior

- Participant Observation: a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in  the situation

- Longitudinal studies: a research method that studies the same participants multiple times over a  period of time

- Cross-sectional studies: a research method that compares participants in different groups at the  same time

- Observer bias: systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations - Experimenter Expectancy Effect: actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals  being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer

- Correlational Studies: a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the  real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them - Directionality Problem: a problem encountered in correlational studies; the researchers find a  relationship between two variables, but the cannot determine which variable may have caused  changes in the other variable

- Third Variable Problem: A problem that occurs, when the researcher cannot directly manipulate  variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not  the actual cause of differences in the variables of interests

- Experiment: a study that tests casual hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables - Control Group: a comparison group; the participants in a study that receive no intervention or  receive an intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated - Experimental Groups: treatment groups; the participants in a study that receive intervention - Independent Variable: in an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to  examine its impact on the dependent variable  

- Dependent Variable: in an experiment, the variable that is affected by the manipulation of the  independent variable

- Confound: anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the  experimental conditions of a study

- External Validity: the degree to which the findings of an experiment can be generalized outside the  laboratory

- Selection Bias: in an experiment, unintended differences between the participants in different  groups

- Random Assignment: placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a  way that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent  variable

- Sampling: for the results of an experiment to be considered useful, the participants should be  representative of the population. The best method for making this happen is random sampling, but  most of the time researchers are forced to use a convenience sample. Random assignment is used  when the experimenter wants to test casual hypothesis

- Culturally Sensitive Research: studies that take into account the role that culture plays in  determining thoughts, feelings, and actions

- Observational Techniques: a research method of careful and systematic assessment and coding of  overt behavior

- Reactivity: when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed - Case Studies: a research method that involves the intensive examination of unusual people or  organizations  

- Self-Report Method: methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information  about themselves, such as in questionnaires or surveys

- Response Performance: a research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive  processes in response to a specific stimulus

- Electroencephalograph (EEG): a device that measures electrical activity in the brain - Positron Emission Tomography (PET): a method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity  by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream

- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): a method of brain imaging that produces high-quality images  of the brain

- Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): an imaging technique used to examine changes in  the activity of the working human brain

- Trans Cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): the use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal  brain activity as a way to study brain regions

- Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research  to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and  emotional well-being of research participants

- Internal validity: the extent to which the data collected in a study address the research hypothesis in  the way intended

- Reliability: the extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions - Accuracy: the extent to which an experimental measure is free from error

- Descriptive Statistics: statistics that summarize the data collected in a study

- Central Tendency: a measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a  whole

- Mean: a measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers - Median: a measure of central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that falls exactly halfway  between the lowest and highest values

- Mode: a measure of central tendency that is the most frequent score or value in a set of numbers - Variability: in a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and from the  mean

- Standard Deviation: a statistical measure of how far away each value is, on average, from the mean - Scatterplot: a graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables

- Inferential statistics: a set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually  exists between two sets of numbers

- Meta-analysis: a “study of studies” that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a  conclusion

This is just key notes and vocabulary read chapter for in depth understanding

Chapter 3: Biology and Behavior

Chapter 3 Abbreviated Notes:

Introduction to Psychology Psyc 2010-002 Week 2 Notes 08/31-09/04/2015  

Phrenology  

- Franz Gall  

o Tries to find where mental processes are located in the brain

o Tries to find which region of the brain corresponds to personality

o Region of brain corresponding to a behavior trait would grow larger depending on the person o Measure people’s skull to find correlation to personality traits

o Prisoners who had committed violent crimes had “murder organ”

o Not valid in anyway o Started people thinking about biological processes being associated with mental  processes  

Biological Psychology- Neuroscience  

o Neurons  

How do drugs influence neurons?  

- Nervous System  

o Peripheral  

o Central  

o The Brain  

o Neurons o  

▪ Basic building block of the nervous system  

▪ Communicate everything through the body  

▪ Can communicate with 1- 50,000 other neurons o  

- Anatomy of a Neuron  

o Cell body- Soma- Life Support

▪ Main computer of the neuron  

▪ Makes all the decisions for the neuron  

o Dendrites  

▪ Receive information from other neurons  

▪ Then send signal to soma using electrical charge  

o Axon  

▪ Passes messages from soma to terminal branches  

o Terminal Branches

▪ Send signal to next neuron  

o Myelin Sheath  

▪ Mass that surrounds axon  

▪ Fatty proteins  

▪ Acts as insulator  

▪ More myelin makes the neuron more effective  

∙ Some Alzheimer’s patients have less myelin making their neurons less  

effective  

- Neural Communication- how do neurons communicate?  

o Intra neuron communication  

▪ Action potential: brief electrical charge that travels down the axon  

▪ Resting potential: charge inside compared to the outside of the cell

▪ When signal is released positive ions (Na+, K+) will flow into neuron making the  charge of the cell go to zero then positive state  

▪ Action potential is the actual message  

▪ Threshold: minimum stimulation required to trigger action potential  

▪ Propagation: the signal travels along the axon to the terminal branches

▪ Electrochemical Process: change in electrical charge, allows message to be sent  - Synaptic Transmission  

o Synapse: the gap between axon of neuron A and the dendrites of Neuron B  

o Neurotransmitters: chemical signals that travel from axon of sender neuron to dendrites of  receiving neuron  

o Chemical process: sending neurotransmitters to another neuron  

o Reuptake: reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters molecules by sending neuron  - Neurotransmitters  

o Each has its own job

o Acetylcholine- Motor Control  

o Epinephrine- energy  

o Norepinephrine- arousal/ vigilance

o Serotonin- emotional states  

o Dopamine- reward and motivation  

o GABA- inhibition of action potentials  

o Endorphins- pain reduction/reward  

Psychopharmacology  

- Certain drugs can help with mental disorders

- Reuptake inhibitors  

- Prozac- serotonin reuptake inhibitor  

Keep neurotransmitters in synapse longer

- Blocks reuptake  

- Agonist: A drug that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter or blocks the reuptake  o A very similar molecule that is close enough to the neurotransmitter to bind to the receptor  site  

o Ex. Morphine is an agonist for endorphins: pain control/ pleasure neurotransmitter o  Enhance the effects of neurotransmitters –

- Antagonist: prevents a neurotransmitter’s action in the brain  

o Block receptor site o Or prevents neurotransmitters from being released o Make it harder  for neurotransmitters to do their job  

How does the brain learn?  

- Neural Networks: collected cluster of neurons  

o Only communicate when there is thought or emotion that triggers it  

o Some neurons will be more effective as you develop

o Some neurons aren’t used as often and stop working effectively  

o “Use it or Lose it”

o Neurons stop working if they are not used

o Neural Plasticity: the brain’s capacity to reorganize itself o Brains of juveniles, compared to  adults are more plastic o Older you are the harder to reorganize the structure of the brain  

The Nervous System  

- Central Nervous system

- Brain and spinal cord  

- Main processor of information

o Somatic- voluntary motion  

o Autonomic- self-regulated actions –

- Peripheral  

o Nerves that go from spinal cord that go to muscles and sensory receptors o  

Communication from receptors to brain to muscles  

o Autonomic Nervous system

o Sympathetic Nervous system  

o Arousal  

▪ When soothing happens that requires action Increases blood flow and breathing ▪ Sexual arousal  

▪ Anger  

▪ Fear  

▪ Pupils dilated  

▪ Sweating  

▪ Waking up o  

- Parasympathetic nervous system  

o After thing is dealt with it takes over  

o Slows heart rate  

o Cools down  

o Sleeping  

- Spinal Cord

o Superhighway of the brain

o Sensory neurons  

o Afferent neurons  

o Take info from sensory receptors to the brain  

o Motor neurons  

o Efferent neurons

o Take info away from brain  

o Reflexes

▪ Interneurons- in spinal cord  

▪ Directly connects sensory neurons to motor neurons  

▪ Bypasses brain when very intense stimuli

∙ Hand on hot burner, Stepping on tack  

- Older brain structures- brain systems developed first  

o Basic functions  

o Brainstem- keeps you alive  

▪ Manages basic brain functions

o Medulla  

▪ Heart rate , Breathing, Reticular formation, Arousal, and sleep

o Thalamus  

▪ Sends incoming info to the proper location  

▪ Routes information

o Cerebellum

▪ Coordinates voluntary movement

▪ Does not make voluntary movement happen  

▪ Walking, Typing, rhythm  

▪ Proprioception- our brains unconscious awareness of the relative position of our  bodies  

▪ First person video games can throw this off  

o Limbic System  

▪ Wrapped around thalamus  

▪ Corresponds to basic functions

o Hippocampus  

▪ Formation of new memories  

▪ Damage to this causes anterograde amnesia  

o Amygdala

▪ Basic emotions o Primary emotions

▪ Fear, Aggression

▪ Communicated with the rest of the brain

▪ Right next to hippocampus- activates it  

▪ When you feel emotions crate memories

o Hypothalamus  

▪ Basic motivations  

∙ Sex, Hunger, Body temp  

o Cerebral Cortex  

▪ Thin crust of neurony goodness  

▪ Wrinkles in brain increases surface area  

▪ Better at processing information

o Four lobes  

▪ Divided by Lateral Sulcus and Central Sulcus  

▪ Frontal  

▪ Parietal  

▪ Temporal

▪ Occipital  

▪ Left hemisphere- controls right side of body  

▪ Right hemisphere- controls left side of body  

- Four lobes  

o Frontal  

▪ Higher order cognitive processes  

▪ Prefrontal cortex  

∙ Directs and maintains attention  

∙ Rational activity  

∙ Social perception and interaction

∙ Sense of self- personality

∙ Ability to think about yourself  

o Strengths, weaknesses, abilities  

o Mediates “social” emotions  

▪ Guilt, anxiety o Language production  

o Broca’s Area- damage causes aphasia  

▪ Primary motor cortex  

∙ Back of frontal lobe  

∙ Initiation of coordinated movement  

o Parietal  

▪ Spatial relationships  

▪ Angular Gyrus  

∙ Develop cognitive maps  

∙ Mentally rotate objects  

∙ Touch  

∙ Somatosensory cortex

∙ Motor/ somatosensory cortex  

∙ Central Sulcus  

o Separates frontal from parietal  

o Flanked by:  

▪ Somatosensory cortex  

∙ Sensation of touch  

o Motor cortex  

▪ Muscle movement  

o Temporal Lobe  

▪ Auditory functions  

▪ Primary auditory cortex  

▪ Wernicke’s area left  

∙ Wernicke’s aphasia  

o Cannot comprehend things  

▪ Fusiform face area- right  

∙ Recognize faces  

∙ Protopragnosia- cannot recognize faces  

o Occipital lobe  

▪ Vision

▪ Primary visual cortex  

▪ Processing information  

- Ways of studying the brain

o Neuroimaging  

▪ PET  

∙ Shows where radiated glucose (brain’s energy source) is being used  

o MRI  

▪ Get 3-D images of the brain o “slices” of brain

▪ Shows structure of the brain  

▪ Shows damage tumors

o fMRI

▪ must remain still  

▪ shows brain function (activity)  

▪ blood flow  

o Record electrical activity- EEG  

o Manipulating the Brain  

▪ Temporary stimulation  

▪ An

o Lots of people with the same impairment  

▪ Find similar brain damage –

o Cerebral Hemispheres  

▪ Control & receive input from opposite side  

▪ Left: speech/language  

▪ Right: patterns/spatial relationships/faces

▪ Corpus Callosum  

∙ Connects hemispheres  

o Split Brain  

o Severed Corpus Callosum  

o Treatment for epilepsy

Chapter 3 Vocab

- Neurons: the basic units on the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information

- Central Nervous System: the brain and the spinal cord

- Peripheral Nervous System: all nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous  system. The peripheral nervous system includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems - Sensory Neurons: one of the three types of neurons; these afferent neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain

- Motor Neurons: one of the three types of neurons; these efferent neurons direct muscles to  contract or relax, thereby producing movement

- Interneurons: one of the three types of neurons; these neurons communicate only with other  neurons

- Dendrites: branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons - Cell Body: site, in the neuron, where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and  integrated

- Axon: a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons - Terminal Buttons: small nodules, at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the  neuron into the synapse.

- Synapse: the site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons

- Synaptic Cleft: the gap between the axon of a “sending” neuron and the dendrites of the “receiving”  neuron; it contains extracellular fluid

- Myelin Sheath: a fatty material, made up of glial cells, that insulates the axon and allows for the  rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon

- Nodes of Ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath, where  action potentials are transmitted

- Resting Membrane Potential: the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active

- Action Potential: the neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release  of chemicals from the terminal buttons

- All-or-none principal: the principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time,  although frequency can vary; a neuron either fires or not – it cannot partially fire - Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another - Receptors: in neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic membrane;  neurotransmitters bind to these molecules after passing across the synaptic cleft - Reuptake: the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal  buttons, thereby stopping its activity

- Agonists: drugs that enhance the actions of neurotransmitters

- Antagonists: drugs that inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters

- Acetylcholine: the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves  and muscles; also involved in mental processes such as learning, memory, sleeping an dreaming - Epinephrine: the monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that  is exciting or threatening

- Norepinephrine: a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and awareness - Serotonin: a monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of psychological activity,  including emotional states, impulse control, and dreaming

- Dopamine: a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control over  voluntary movement

- GABA: gamma-amino butyric acid; the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system - Glutamate: the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system  

- Endorphins: neurotransmitters involved in natural pain reduction and reward - Substance P: a neurotransmitter involved in pain perception

- Broca’s area: a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of  language

- Brain Stem: an extension of the spinal cord; it houses structures that control functions associated  with survival

- Cerebellum: a large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem; it is essential for  coordinated movement and balance

- Hypothalamus: a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions - Thalamus: receives all incoming sensory information before reaching the cortex - Hippocampus: associated with the formation of memories

- Amygdala: serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotional responses and processing emotional information

- Cerebral cortex: the outer layer of brain tissue

- Occipital lobes: back of the brain. Important for vision

- Somatic Nervous System: it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central  nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints

- Autonomic Nervous System: it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central  nervous system and the body’s glands and internal organs

- Sympathetic division: prepares body for action

- Parasympathetic Division: returns body to resting state

- Endocrine system: a communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts, bahaviors,  and actions.

Chapter 4  

Notes:

Test: Mainly multiple choice, some short answer

- Split brain  

o Vision from left and right fields are taken in by both eyes, but information from left visual  field goes to right occipital lobe and an information from right visual field goes to left  occipital lobe

o For a split brain patient, if you present it to the left visual field would not be able to give  you an answer because it is not communicating to the right hemisphere if you present it to  the right they will be able to tell you, but not draw it. If you show to the right and say it out  loud they will be able to draw it  

o Treatment for epilepsy

States of Consciousness

- Consciousness

- Sleep

o Sleep Cycles

o Why we sleep

- Drugs and alcohol

- Automation processing:

o 1-10 in numerical order

o Something you do not have to think about

o Habitual experience with it

o Brain can process it quickly

- Conscious processing

o 1-10 in alphabetical order

o Must go through the list and think about each one

- What is consciousness?

o Our awareness of ourselves and environment

▪ What we are thinking about, processing  

∙ Allows us to reflect, plan, and adjust

∙ Allows voluntary control

∙ Important for novel task

o New tasks

o Allows you to solve new problem

o Conscious better suited

∙ Relatively slow, effortful, resource intensive

o Cannot process a lot in conscious awareness

o Used for most important, hard things

o Only use when necessary

- Unconscious processing

o Without intention or awareness

o We become aware when it makes a mistake

▪ Extremely prevalent

∙ At least more than 50% of action

∙ Decisions are based on past experience

▪ Habitual

▪ Influences thought, feelings, and behavior

▪ Underestimate number of unconscious processes

▪ Background processes

▪ Vary efficient at familiar tasks

▪ Relatively fast, but can get ahead of itself

∙ Might use unconscious processes when it is not appropriate

∙ Can lead to mistakes/ errors

- Biases in unconscious processes

▪ Subtle factor can influence our decisions w/ out awareness

∙ Presented participants with word pairs

o Ocean- moon

∙ Asked participant’s to free-associate to a 3rd word

o Detergent

▪ Most responded with tide

∙ Participants were asked why they choose tide

o Most did not know

▪ Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic

∙ Irrelevant numbers influence responses

∙ Participants asked to spin wheel

o Told it is randam

o Lands on 10 or 65

o Then asked whether percentages of African countries are in UN

o Participants were influenced by number

▪ 10 said 25

▪ 65 said 45

▪ Unconscious process is not a terrible thing

▪ Generally helps us manage habitual behaviors

∙ Walking, breathing, chewing, etc

∙ Why people cannot stop habitual behavior

▪ Can lead to better decisions in some cases

▪ Wilson and Schooler (1991)

∙ Asked participants to rate jam

o Either immediately (immediates)

o Or After describing the jam (describers)

∙ Immediates judgments closer to experts opinion than describers

∙ Conscious reflection can alter our subjective experiences

∙ Downside

- Difficult to override unconscious biases

o Stop and think about why you are doing things

o Sometimes it happens to fast to stop

o When making decisions that are ultimately based on affective states it might be based to go  with your gut

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