Study Guide, 1st Exam
Study Guide, 1st Exam NUTR 244 004
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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dinha on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 244 004 at University of New Mexico taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Human Nutrition gtNutrition is the scienti c study of nutrients chemicals necessary for proper body functioning and how the body uses them Or it is the science that studies food and how food nourishes our bodies and in uences our health Food does not mean the same as nutrition Food refers to the plants and animals we consume gtA proper nutrition can help to improve health status prevent certain diseases achieve and maintain a desirable weight and maintain energy and vitality gtWellness could be de ned as only the absence of disease but it is considered to be a multidimensional process one that includes physical emotional and spiritual health Chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be prevented through a proper nutrition Health People 2020 Four primary goals 0 Improve quality of life and longevity via 0 Prevention of disease disability injury and premature death 0 Improve health for all health equity 0 Create social and physical environments that promote health 0 Promote quality of life healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages gt Lack of nutrients can cause de ciency diseases such as pellagra and scurvy gt Nutrients are necessary for the growth maintenance and repair of our body s cells Nutrients are chemicals necessary for proper body functioning gtgt There are six classes of nutrients carbohydrates fats and other lipids proteins vitamins minerals and water Carbohydrate fats and proteins are macronutrients nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provide energy and organic they contain the element carbon and vitamins minerals and water are micronutrients because the body needs very small amountsmilligrams or microgramsof them to function properly and inorganic Carbohydrates are the primary fuel source for the body particularly for the brain and for physical exercise Lipids are a diverse group of organic substances that are largely insoluble in water Protein is the only macronutrient that contains nitrogen the basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids Minerals are inorganic substances meaning that they do not contain carbon And minerals differ from the macronutrients and vitamins in that they are not broken down during digestion or when the body uses them to promote normal function Vitamins are organic compounds that assist in the regulation of the body s physiologic processes They can be fat soluble A D E and K and water soluble C Bvitamins thiamin ribo avin niacin vita min B6 vitamin B12 pantothenic acid biotin and folate Water is a vital organic nutrient supporting all body processes uid balance energy production nutrient transportand we can nd it in many drinks and foods we need to consume in amounts of at least 100 mg per day and of which the total amount in out bodies is at least 5g calcium phosphorus sodium potassium chloride magnesium sulfur we need to consume in amounts less than 100 mg per day and of which the total amount in our bodies is less than 5 g iron Zinc copper manganese uoride chromium molybdium selenium iodine gtAn essential nutrient must be supplied by food because the body does not synthesize the nutrient or make enough to meet its needs Water is the most essential nutrient Vitamin C is an example of essential nutrient when the amount in the cells it is too low we can develop physical signs of scurvy gt Risk Factor personal characteristic that increases a person s chances of developing a disease Kilocalorie X Calorie Energy the capacity to do work Kilocalorie the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram kg of water 1 degree C Calorie kilocalorie unit of energy Find in food labels gtgtC URREN T DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS lt lt are intended to help people reduce their risk of nutrient deficiencies and excesses prevent disease and achieve optimal health An is the amount of the nutrient that should meet the needs of 50 of healthy people who are in a particular life stagegender group 4 The are standards for recommending daily intakes of several nutrients RDAs meet the nutrient needs of nearly all healthy individuals 975 in a particular life stage gender group are dietary recommendations that assume a population s average daily nutrient intakes are adequate because no deficiency diseases are present The is the highest average amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to harm most people when the amount is consumed daily The is the average daily energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his or her weight gtgtAssessing Nutritional Status Anthropometrics height weight waist circumference Biochemical data clinical signs and symptoms dietary review and environmental factors Malnutrition is a state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nourished Undernutrition is a situation in which too little energy or too few nutrients are consumed over time causing significant weight loss or a nutrient deficiency disease Overnutrition is a situation in which too much energy or too much of a given nutrient is consumed over time causing conditions such as obesity heart disease or nutrient toxicity symptoms Nutrient deficiencies are further classified as primary or secondary Primary deficiency occurs when a person does not consume enough of a nutrient in the diet thus the deficiency occurs as a direct consequence of an inadequate intake Secondary deficiency occurs when a person cannot absorb enough of a nutrient in his or her body when too much of a nutrient is excreted from the body or when a nutrient is not utilized efficiently by the body Subclinical deficiency a deficiency in its early stages when few or no symptoms are observed Covert symptom a symptom that is hidden from a client and requires laboratory tests or other invasive procedures to detect Overt symptom a symptom that is obvious to a client such as pain fatigue or a bruise Nutrigenomics is a scientific discipline studying the interactions between genes the environment and nutrition Nutrigenomics Applied wisely it will promote an increased understanding of how nutrition in uences metabolic pathways and how this regulation is disturbed in the early phase of diet related disease and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to such diseases Methylation Primary mechanism of gene expression regulation methyl group attaches to a site on the DNA associated increased or decreased gene expression can be passed from parent to offspring Vitamin B12 folic Acid Vitamin B6 and Choline are promoters of Methylation Nutrition researchers rely on scientific methods that may involve making obser vations asking questions and developing hypotheses performing tests and collecting and analyzing data information to find relationships between variables A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation that guides scientific research gtEvaluating the research What is the study telling you Observational Studies 0 Correlates contributing factors and outcomes 0 Correlation Causation Experimental Studies 0 Establishes Cause and Effect 0 Potential cause are controlled to evaluate effects Human vs Animal Studies 0 Similar but not identical models 0 Can not generalize Chapter 2 Human Nutrition Designing a Healthful Diet Healthful diet a diet that provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients and is adequate moderate balanced and varied gtModeration refers to eating any foods in moderate amounts not too much and not too little gtA balanced diet is one that contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper pro portions of nutrients gtVariety refers to eating many different foods from the different food groups on a regular basis Adequate diet a diet that provides enough of the energy nutrients and fiber to maintain a person s health A healthful diet provides adequate nutrients and energy and it includes sweets fats and salty foods in moderate amounts only A healthful diet includes an appropriate balance of nutrients and a wide variety of foods FOOD LABELS it is really important to read and understand food labels Five components must be included in food labels a statement of identity the net contents of the package ingredient list the name and address of the food manufacturer packer or distributor and nutrition information gtNutriti0n Facts Panel the label on a food package that contains the nutrition information required by the FDA We can use the information on this panel to learn more about an individual food and you can also use the panel to compare one food with another 1Serving size and servings per container describes the serving size in a common household measure eg cup a metric measure eg grams and how many servings are contained in the package 2Calories and calories from fat per serving describes the total number of calories and the total amount of calories that come from fat per one serving of that food 3 List of nutrients describes various nutrients that are found in this food 4Percent daily values DVs tells you how much a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of nutrients listed on the label 5Footnote or lower part of panel tells you that the DVs are based on a 2000 calorie diet and that your needs may be higher or lower based on your caloric needs The ability to read and interpret food labels is important for planning and maintaining a healthful diet Food labels must list the identity of the food the net contents of the package the contact information for the food manufacturer or distributor the ingredients in the food and a Nutrition Facts Panel The Nutrition Facts Panel provides specific information about calories macronutrients and selected vitamins and minerals Food labels may also contain claims related to nutrients health and structure function Dietary Guidelines for Americans emphasize healthful food choices and physical activity behaviors The guidelines include achieving a healthful weight being physically active each day eating Whole grain foods fruits and vegetables daily eating foods low in saturated and trans fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat moderating sugar intake eating less salt eating more potassium rich foods keeping foods safe to eatand drinking alcohol in moderation if at all NUTRIENT DENSITY are foods that give the highest amount of nutrients for the least amount of energy or calories QUALITY CALORIES get more nutrient bang per calories MY PLATE It is the visual representation of the USDA Food Patterns and is intended to help Americans eat in moderation eat a variety of foods consume the right proportion of each recommended food group personalize their eating plan increase their physical activity and set goals for gradually improving their food choices and lifestyle Phytochemicals chemicals found in plants phyto is from the Greek word for plant such as pigments and other substances that may reduce our risk for diseases such as cancer and heart disease Discretionary calories a term used in the USDA Food Guide that represents the extra amount of energy you can consume after you have met all of your essential needs by consuming the most nutrient dense foods that are low fat or fat free and that have no added sugars My plate recommendations Food to increase Make half your plate vegetables and fruit Variety of Veggies 25 C veggiesday 15 C fruitday limit juice Make at least half of your grains Whole 3 oz of Whole grainsd Switch to fat free or 1 milk 3 C calcium rich foods day Food to decrease Sodium Fat saturated fat Drink water instead of sugarsweetened beverages Alcohol ZIP CODE TO HEALTH 75210 The human body are we really what we eat Two mechanisms prompt us to seek food Hunger and Appetite Hunger is a physiologic drive for food that occurs when the body senses that we need to eat Non specific Appetite is a psychological desire to consume speci c foods Anorexia is an absence of appetite The brain tells us when we are hungry The region of brain tissue that is responsible for prompting us to seek food is called the hypothalamus The hypo thalamus triggers feelings of hunger or satiation fullness by integrating signals from nerve cells in other body regions and from chemical messengers called hormones Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted into the bloodstream by one of the many endocrine glands of the body Insulin and glucagon are two hormones produced in the pancreas They are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels Glucose is our bodies most readily available fuel supply Appetite is triggered by aspects of our environment Food and Satiety Proteins have the highest satiety value Fats have a higher satiety value than carbohydrates Fiber and water distend the stomach and promote a sense of satiety Solid foods are more filling than semisolid foods or liquids The Gastrointestinal Tract Upper GI Mouth esophagus and stomach Lower GI Small Intestine and Large intestine Support Systems Liver gallbladder and pancreas When we eat the food we consume is digested then the useful nutrients are absorbed and finally the waste products are eliminated Digestion is the process by which foods are broken down into their component molecules either mechanically or chemically Absorption is the process of taking these products of digestion through the wall of the intestine Elimination is the process by which the undigested portions of food and waste products are removed from the body The processes of digestion absorption and elimination occur in the Gastrointestinal GI tract that is long muscular tube consisting of several organs the mouth esophagus stomach small intestine and large intestine Cephalic phase In this phase hanger and appetite work together to prepare the G1 to digest food Oral phase Mouth and Esophagus Role of the mouth Mechanical Chewing tongue teeth Chemical Saliva enzymes lubrication antibiotic amp Lysozome action bicarbonate Salivary amylase starch digestion Saliva is secreted from the salivary glands Five distinct tastes bitter sweet salty sour and umami Enzymes are complex chemicals usually proteins that induce chemical changes in other substances to speed up bodily processes Bolus is the mass of food that has been chewed and moistened in the mouth Peristalsis rhythmic waves of squeezing and pushing contractions that move food chime and feces in one direction through the length of GI tract Hydrochloric acid is secreted by parietal cells and keeps the stomach interior very acid It is extremely important for digestion because it starts to denature proteins Chyme a semifluid mass consisting of partially digested food water and gastric juices Small intestine is the longest portion of the GI tract accounting for about two thirds of its length It is composed of three sections duodenum jejunum and ileocecal valve Most digestion and absorption take place in the small intestine Bile from the gallbladder emulsifies fat to aid digestion Insulin and glucagon are two hormones produced in the pancreas They are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels Glucose is our bodies most readily avail able fuel supply It s not surprising then that its level in our blood is an important signal regulating hunger When we have not eaten for a while our blood glucose levels fall prompting a change in the level of insulin and glucagon Gallbladder stores bile And bile emulsifies the lipids Liver processes and stores many nutrients This organ also makes cholesterol and uses this lipid to make bile a substance that prepares fat and fat soluble vitamins for absorption Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction that breaks down substances by the addition of water Pancreas produces and secretes most of the enzymes that break down carbohydrates protein and fat in the GI tract Additionally the pancreas secretes bicarbonate ions HCO3 that neutralize HCl in chyme when it enters the duodenum Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include pancreatic amylase which continues the digestion of carbohydrates and pancreatic lipase which continues the digestion of lipids Bicarbonate secreted by the pancreas neutralizes acidic chyme coming from the stomach into the small intestine Passive diffusion is the simple absorptive process in which nutrients pass through the enterocytes and into the bloodstream without the use of a carrier protein or the requirement of energy Facilitated diffusion is the absorptive process that occurs when nutrients are shuttled across the enterocytes with the help of a carrier protein Active transport an absorptive process that requires the use of energy to transport nutrients and other sub stances in combination with a carrier protein Endocytosis an absorptive process by which a small amount of the intestinal contents is engulfed by the cell membrane also called pinocytosis Large Intestine the final organ of the GI tract of the cecum colon rectum and anal canal and in which most water is absorbed and feces are formed 0 v Occurs the absorption of water short chain fatty acids oligosaccharides electrolytes and vitamin K Transport of nutrients and wastes Blood travels to all of our tissues to deliver nutrients and other materials and to pick up waste products Lymph travels through the lymphatic system and transports most lipids and fat soluble vitamins Lacteals pick up most lipids and fat soluble vitamins Lymph nodes are clusters of immune cells that filter microbes and other harmful agents Belching and Flatulence The primary cause of belching is swallowed air Eating too fast wearing improperly fitting dentures chewing gum sucking on hard candies or a drinking straw and gulping food or uid can increase the risk of swallowing air Flatus Intestinal gases is a mixture of many gases including nitrogen hydrogen oxygen methane and carbon dioxide Foods most commonly reported to cause atus include those rich in fibers starches and sugars such as beans dairy products and some vegetables The partially digested carbohydrates from these foods pass into the large intestine where they are acted upon by bacteria producing gas Heartburn Is the painful sensation that occurs over the sternum when hydrochloric acid backs up into the lower esophagus Gastroesophageal re ux disease GERD Is a more painful type of heartburn that occurs more than twice per week Causes hiatal hernia cigarette smoking or alcohol use being overweight pregnancy chocolate citrus spicy or fried food large hi gh fat meal and lying down soon after meal Peptic Ulcers Is an area of the GI tract that has been eroded away by a combination of hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin It causes a burning pain in the abdominal area typically 1 to 3 hours after eating a meal In serious cases eroded blood vessels bleed into the GI tract causing vomiting of blood andor blood in the stools as well as anemia The bacterium Helicobacter pylori H pylori plays a key role in development of most peptic ulcers which include both gastric and duodenal ulcers And because of the role of H pylori in ulcer development treatment usually involves antibiotics and other types of medications to reduce gastric secretions Antacids are used to weaken the gastric acid and the same medications used to treat GERD can be used to treat peptic ulcers Food intolerance Is a cluster of GI symptoms often gas pain and diarrhea that occur following consumption of a particular food The immune system plays no role in intolerance and although episodes are unpleasant they are usually transient resolving after the offending food has been eliminated from the body Food allergy Is a hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system to a particular component usually a protein in a food This reaction causes the immune cells to release chemicals that cause either limited or systemic whole body in ammation About 5 of infants and young children and 2 of adults experience food allergies Celiac disease Is a digestive disease that severely damages the lining of the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients15 As in food allergy the body s immune system causes the disorder However there is a strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease with the risk now linked to specific gene markers In celiac disease the offending food component is gliadin a fraction of a protein called gluten that is found in wheat rye and barley If the person is unaware of the disorder and continues to eat gluten repeated immune reactions cause the villi to become greatly decreased so that there is less absorptive surface area In addition the enzymes located at the brush border of the small intestine become reduced Crohn s Disease Is an autoimmune disorder a condition in which the body s immune system does not function properly and begins to attack normal cells Symptoms diarrhea abdominal pain rectal bleeding weight loss fever and anemia Diarrhea Is a condition characterized by frequent loose bowel movements Diarrhea occurs when more water than normal is secreted into the GI tract or the tract absorbs less water than nor mal Most cases of diarrhea result from bacterial or viral infections of the intestinal tract The infectious bacteria or viruses produce irritating or toxic substances that increase the movements motility of the GI tract As a result the GI tract propels chyme more rapidly through it absorbing less water than nor mal in the process Increased GI motility also enables the large intestine to eliminate the watery feces and the toxic material it contains rapidly Constipation Many factors in uence the frequency of bowel movements Lack of dietary fiber low water intake anxiety depression and other psychological disturbances and changes in your typical routine such as taking a long trip or having major surgery can alter your usual pattern of bowel movements Ulcerative colitis In ammation and ulceration of colon mucosa Immune response to a virus or bacteria Symptoms similar to Crohn39s disease Not caused by food Foods may cause GI discomfort Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is a condition characterized by intestinal cramps and abnormal bowel function particularly diarrhea constipation or alternating episodes of both11 Loose stools are often accompanied with mucus and after bowel movements the affected person feels as though elimination of stools was in complete For reasons that are unknown women are more likely than men to suffer from IBS
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