Psychology Notes for Quiz 2
Psychology Notes for Quiz 2 Psy 201 (011L)
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lyric Jones on Wednesday September 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 201 (011L) at Northern Virginia Community College taught by Kymberly Richard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology 1 in Psychlogy at Northern Virginia Community College.
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Date Created: 09/09/15
Psychology Notes for Quiz 2 Sept 10 2015 Research Methods and Correlation I Scientific Method 0 A selfcorrecting process for evaluating ideas With observation and analysis 0 Theory 0 An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events I Hypothesis 0 A testable prediction often implied by a theory I It s a cycle 0 Theories I Ex Sleep boosts memory LEAD TO 0 Hypothesis I When sleep deprived people remember less from the day before LEAD TO 0 Research and Observations I Give study material to people before A an ample night s sleep or B a shortened night s sleep then test memory CONFIRM REJECT OR REVISE 0 Theories I Sleep boosts memory I Case Study 0 A descriptive technique in Which one individual or group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles I Freud and Little Hans O 5 year old Hans extreme fear of horses led Freud to his theory of childhood sexuality 0 Freud thought that Hans felt unconscious desire for his mother feared castration by his rival father and then transferred this fear into his phobia of getting bitten by a horse 0 Today s psychological science discounts Freud s theory of childhood sexuality but acknowledges that much of the human mind operates outside our conscious awareness Naturalistic Observation 0 A descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation 0 It offers interesting snapshots of everyday life but it does so without controlling for all the factors that may in uence behavior It s one thing to observe the pace of life in various places but another to understand what makes some people walk faster than others Survey 0 A descriptive technique for obtaining the selfreported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group Wording Effects 0 Subtle changes in the ordering of words in questions can have major effects I For example 0 People are more approving of aid to the needy than welfare Population 0 All those in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn Random sample 0 A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Correlation O A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus well either factor predicts the other Correlation Coefficient O A statistical index of the relations ship between two things from 100 to 100 Scatterplot 0 A graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationships between the two variables The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlation NO Relationship 000 Perfect Positive Correlation 100 2 15 1 05 Oi NUJb 0 O 05 1 15 2 25 3 0 02 04 06 08 1 121416 Perfect Negative Correlation 100 o N pop b 0 Regression Toward the Mean 0 The tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back regress toward the average 0 CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION 0 Correlations do not come With cause They just help us predict things
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