Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 290
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Popular in Psychlogy
This 41 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mira Kawash on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 290 at University of Miami taught by Rick Stuetzle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see Intro to Research Methods in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
PSY 290 Intro to Research Methods 08262014 Approaching Psychology as a Science 0 3 Ways of quotKnowingquot 0 Authority Reliance upon authority gures Ex Parents teachers government 0 Use of Reason A priori method Result of discussion between people with different ideas leading into consensus Rationalism leads to be science being transparent o Expe ence Empiricism process of learning through direct observation or experience 0 The scienti c approach to studying psychology combines all other ways of knowing but puts emphasis on o Obiective observation of phenomena Characteristics of Scienti c Thinking in Psychology 0 Assume Determinism Knowing what determinism is in science 0 All behaviors have causes Therefore human behavior is predictable 0 Makes Systematic Observations o Requires precise de nitions appropriate measures and methodologies 0 Operational De nition de ne a variable in terms of how its being measured How everything is measured and how you are measuring it Ex Anxiety depression Produces Public Knowledge 0 Objectivity Eliminate human factors eg expectation amp bias focus on observable behaviors that can be publicly veri ed Sometimes you get results that feel wrong but are right but you have to accept the results The data is the data you must accept the pattern as is Produces DataBased Conclusions 0 Are there data to support a claim about behavior 0 Theories are rigorously tested for observed phenomena It is not a fact It is an explanation for what we have on hand Produces Tentative Conclusions 0 Subject to revision based on future research Ask Answerable Questions 0 Based on empirical questions regarding human behavior Questions that can be answered through systematic observations amp expedences Questions precise enough to allow for speci c predictions Empirical Questions set up your questions that can be tested precise and concise Develops Theories that can be disproven o Falsi cation o If you set it up for it to be right then you are doing it wrong Pseudoscience What is it 0 Looks like science but it isn t o It is more entertaining than it is science 0 On the surface it has the characteristics of science but it doesn t mean the criteria for true science 0 Desire to be scienti callybased 0 Ex Astrology graphology based on handwriting how your personality is phrenology gure out who and what you are by measuring the bumps on your skull Founded by Franz Gall Why does it continue to be so appealing o It is fun and because one of the characteristics that it is never wrong o It will collect quotdataquot but it will not collect it in a scienti c manner 0 What s wrong with relying on anecdotal evidence It is biased Ex Vaccines and Autism Sidestep Disproof o How is discon rming evidence handled Reduces complex phenomena to overly simplistic concepts 0 Why is this so appealing to people consumers People don t want complexity Four Goals for Research in Psychology usually show up on exams Describing Behavior 0 Characteristics of a good description Simple data suf cient amount of data that will allow you to recognize patterns l descriptive data averages atypical variability standard deviation Explaining Behavior 0 How can we infer causality You check how one variable relates to the other Predicting Behavior ApplicationControl 0 Apply principles of behavior learned through research History of Unethical Research with Human Populations 0 World War II Nuremberg Code 1948 0 German physicians and administrators faced criminal charges for participation in war crimes and crimes against humanity Medical experiments on concentration cam prisoners without consent result in death or permanent disability 0 Result Nuremberg Code was rst international document advocating voluntary participation and informed consent People have to give consent and consent that it is informed Informed consent we have to disclose what you are going to do as a research participant includes risks physical risks etc I We do not tell everything that is going to happen because the nature of the study 0 Late 19505 Thalidomide 0 Approved as sedative in Europe but no FDA approval in USA 0 Prescribed in US to control sleep and nausea during pregnancybut later found that it caused severed deformities in fetus Deformities ipper feet and hands Many patients didn t know they were taking an experimental drug nor did they give informed consent 0 Result new regulations from FDA requiring drug manufacturers to prove effectiveness prior to marketing Tuskegee Syphilis Study 19321972 0 US Public Health Service research study 600 lowincome African American males in Alabama monitored for 40 years n 400 who had already been infected with syphilis Told they were being treated for quotbad bloodquot free medical examinations but not told about syphilis diagnosis n 19505 proven cure penicillin discovered but study continued until 1972 with participants being denied treatment 0 Result Bene cial treatments 0 Project MKUltra o Began in the 19505 ran until 1973 o Committed many illegal actions including using unwitting US and Canadian citizens as subjects 0 Studied process and effects of mind control and manipulation of mental states interrogation and torture Administration of drugs including LSD Hypnosis sensory deprivation isolation Verbal and sexual abuse and torture 0 Some evidence that they also used military personnel in some of the studies both wiingy and otherwise 0 Some bene cial ndings Gathered evidence about hypnosis behavior modi cation subliminal programming and effects of a number of drugs Gave information about possible techniques captured military and intelligence personnel might be exposed to as well as ways to combat them APA Code of Ethics General Principles and Ethnical Standards 0 5 General Principles see Table 21 Bene cence and NonMalfeasance Fidelity and Responsibility Integrity Jus ce 0 Respect for Peoples Rights and Dignity Role of the IRB Institutional Review Board know what IRB stands for and what it is o Housed within research facilities including most universities Members include faculty members community members nonscientists 0 Evaluate risksbene ts and approve informed consent forms 0 Controversial re Ability to critique areaspeci c research designs Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans 0 Planning the Study 0 Balance the need to discover the basic laws of behavior with the need to protect participants De ning the degree of risk for participants n Are the situations similar to quotthose ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examination or testsquot 0 Except about ordinary and daily things n Especially important consideration with special populations Continual monitoring of risk throughout course of study I Ex HRT study conducted by NIH OOOO 0 Ensuring that participants are volunteers 0 0 0 Getting informed consent must give enough meaningful information for participants to volunteer Consent must be documented Exceptions anonymous surveys naturalistic observations See Fig 23 for sample consent form Withholding information about the true purpose of a study at the beginning of the experiment Ex Milgram s obedience study n Shocking people Offering Inducements for Participants Targets the vulnerable o Treating participants well 0 0 0 Full debrie ng dehoaxing desensitizing Debrie ng giving the full information of the study at the end Dehoaxing when you lied to them and you want to explain the truth to them Desensitizing where you have taken someone from a resting state to an uncomfortable place and bring them back to resting and comfort Provide appropriate feedback after the study Summary of results followup contact contact info for them to reach you Maintaining con dentiality Identity of participants not to be revealed n Exception when researcher compelled by law to report certain disclosures 0 ex child abuse intent to harm self or others 0 Animal Ethics 0 Animals are treated very well 0 There is a code of ethics that is in place of what could be done to them and what cannot 0 You are responsible for the animal from the minute you get till it dies or it is euthanized Research Ethics Scienti c Fraud Plagiarism 0 Taking somebody else s work and ideas and using it as your own 0 You don t have to copy the words for it to be plagiarism but if it is not cited correctly it is considered plagiarism 0 You must always site your source Carelessness 0 People will put things down without checking the accuracy of their work 0 Ex Misquoting statistics Interrelations among Basic and Applied Research 0 Theory of Behavior Study of Basic Behavior Accumulate Body of Knowledge Accumulate Body of Applied Knowledge Generate Applied Research Question 0 Today s applied answer can be tomorrow s question Laboratory Vs Field Research 0 Laboratory 0 Does not have to be an actual lab Pros n There is a lot of control in a lab the biggest strength 0 You can control the situation 0 Temperature the size of the room time of day I It makes it easier for other people observing you as the experimenter and making sure that you are following protocol Cons n Some people might act different in a setting that they are not used to 0 Lab settings are arti cial People are not under observation for their lives 0 Does not give realistic data n Mundane Realism Labs look and feel arti cial so the ndings aren t realistic enough n The information we give may be something that the experimenter wants to see or wants to hear 0 Field 0 Pros You get more accurate date The mundane realism is higher 0 Cons 0 0 It is hard to have a lot of control D You can still pick the time people etc just cannot control what is going to happen If it purely naturalistic observation then the IRB does not have to be involved If they are going into a naturalistic setting ex school you need consent from the IRB How do you decide which study to conduct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Depends on what your goal is How much control do you need The bridge study They were testing the two factor theory of emotion The two factors are physiological arousal blood pressure goes up and down turn red heart rate increase pupils dilating etc and the interpretation of that arousal Physiological arousal can be general They originally conducted a eld study They had a female confederate approach men in a park setting on a bridge n One bridge was higher and swayed and the other bridge was lower n She asked them if they wanted to be in a study and asked basic questions and the TAT see a picture and tell the story before and after u She told the participants that if they have any questions to call her back after In the higher bridge they are having more physiological arousal and they are going to interpret that as arousal to the women More men in the higher bridge called the women back They said that this supports the two factor theory of emotion They had men who were already crossing the bridge If you do not manipulate it then you cannot make cause and effect They couldn t choose which men on the higher bridge than the lower b dge n Maybe the men on the higher bridge were more con dent and were willing to take risks more than the men who were on the lower bridge 0 They then did it in a laboratory setting They randomly assigned the men They injected some of the men with adrenaline high arousal They then found that the men with higher arousal were more likely to call the women than the men with less arousal Quantitative vs Qualitative Research 0 Quantitative 0 Researchers are more likely to use quantitative because it includes numbers Ex Make people ll out questionnaires and you get a score such as the BDI whatever score you get determines how depressed you are l allows you to calculate averages standard deviations etc 0 Data Format 0 Presentation of Results Qualitative 0 Many people have a bias towards qualitative research 0 The data just describes doesn t tell us exactly what the data is 0 Data Format 0 Presentation of Results Getting Started Asking an Empirical Question 0 A gradual process of narrowing down a broad topic to a speci c question 0 Two essential features of an empirical question o Answerable with data 0 All terms must be precisely de ned Operational de nition is when you de ne a construct or variable in terms of how it is being measured in that study B Ex Depression as a total score in the BDI Depressions as whether someone answer yes or no in question Makes your job easier AND is essential for replication 0 Does social media use increase depression in youth 0 Operational de nitions Population of interest teenagers Independent Variable Social Media Social media use n Hours on facebook per day 0 Phrase as an empirical question 0 Does exposure to media violence damage children 0 Operational De nition 0 Phrase as an empirical question 0 Getting Started Sources of Research Questions 0 Observation of Behavior 0 Ideas you generate simply by watching and or knowing someone ex quotWhat causes XX to act like YYquot Classic example of observations serving as foundation for research questions 0 Kitty Genovese Case 1964 The bystander effect Women was attacked outside of her apartment screamed for help and no one intervened n The attacker left and came back and nished her off People in New York got a reputation that they didn t care about anyone but themselves People thought that someone called the police but didn t do anything Serendipity o Discovering something while looking for something else entirely 0 Example of a serendipitous observation of infant temperature Exuberant infants 0 Theory 0 Serves as a working truth subject to revision pending outcome of empirical research study Hypothesis prediction about speci c events based on theory I A testable prediction NOT a guess 0 A theory that explains every possible outcome is USELESS because it never be wrong 0 Characteristics of Good Theories 0 Productivity stimulate a lot of research 0 Falsi cation a good theory is open to testing and can be proved wrong is falsi able Therefore you need to state your hypothesis and design your study in a way that allows for your hypothesis to be disproved o Parsimony simplicity Better theory is one that explains phenomenon with a minimum number of constructs and assumptions they explain everything in the simplest way possible Getting from point A to point B with the simplest explanation possible 0 Everything is built on assumptions Developing Research from Other Research 0 Replication Direct Replication I When you perform the exact same study as the person who did originally Conceptual Replication I When you run a study but you have different methodology or materials n Ex Mozart Affect o The rst time they tried to replicate it they used a different piece of music Extension Where you take the idea but extend it You see a study and add more to it ask what if or research something else with that study Extending previous research based on the quotWhat s Nextquot Question Unanswered or new questions generated based on the results of completed studies A process that generates systematic programs of interconnected experiments I Within a research group n Among a community of researchers Some Examples of the quotWhat s Nextquot Question and the Generation of New Research Questions It has been reported consistently that E quotUS born Latino high school graduates enroll in college at nearly the same rates as whites but are much less likely to earn college degreesquot 0 What s next What majors What is their socioeconomic class Where do they live 0000 From General Constructs to Speci c Measures 0 Operational De nition a de nition of a concept or variable in terms of precisely described operations measures or procedures 0 Construct of interest Operation De nition Speci c Behaviors to Measure An Example of A Measured Used to lnfer a Nonobservablequot Construct The use of the habituation design in the study of infant cognition 0 Based on known fact that infants prefer to look at novelty Show infant the same stimulus over and over and they will gradually decrease the amount of time they spend looking n Habituation Show infant something new and their looking time will go back n Dishabituation o Habituation design is used to infer infant understanding 0 Example 0 Testing infants for understanding for object permanence Object permanence understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight Evaluating Measures 0 Results are repeatable when behaviors are remeasured ls measured score close to the true score 0 Measurement error difference between true score and measured score 0 True Score Measured score Error 0 True Score Measured Score Error 0 Reliability 0 Depends on relative contribution of measured score vs measurement error in predicting true score If measured score error are high its reiabe If measured score and error are down reliability is less 0 Ex GRE Scores What s the problem if you have huge variability in an individual s score from time to time n Test Retest Reliability 0 How similar is score at time 1 to score at time 2 0 Does score at time 1 correlate with score at time 2 0 High similarity strong correlation Evaluating Measures Validity Validity 0 does the measure actually measure what you hope it does Ex Intelligence Testing D That other than intelligence might you be worried you are testing 0 Reliability is necessary for validity Types of Validity 0 Content Validity The measure makes sense n lQ Which has greater validity a test of reasoningthinking a test of ability to ride bike between 2 white lines but this isn t enough to show that a measure is valid 0 Criterion Validity Does measure relate to an outcome or criterion Does the measure n Accurately predict future behavior I A meaningfully relate to some other measure of behavior 0 Construct validity Is the construct measure by the instrument valid Is this the best instrument for measuring it Scores on test measuring construct n Should relate to scores on tests of theoretically related constructs Convergent validity n Should not relate to scores on testes of theoretically unrelated constructs discriminant validity o Validity assumes reliability ie valid measures must be reliable BUT a measure can be reliable without being valid n Example Scales of Measurement 0 Nominal Scores 0 a category label 0 Ordinal Scales 0 Sets of rankings 0 Interval Scales 0 Like a rank ordering but an equal interval between events 0 Ratio Scales 0 Like an interval scale but has a true zero point typical in studies using physical measures To tell the difference between interval and ratio scales ask yourself questions like u Does 0 degrees F mean there is no temperature No D Does a dress size of 0 mean the dress does not exist no u If you could have a height of 0 cm would that mean there is no height Yes Includes anything you can count ex of cars in parking lot of students in lecture hall in these cases 0 mean there are no cars in parking lot or no students in lecture hall Types of Validity BE SURE YOU CAN EXPLAIN THE LOGIC OF THIS STATEMENT o Validity assumes reliability ie valid measures must be reliable BUT a measure can be reliable without being valid n Example 0 Reliability must come rst 0 You have to get a consistent reading on something that you are measuring c There is no such thing as a measure that is valid sometimes o If it is valid sometimes then it is not valid Basic Statistical Analysis 0 Descriptive vs lnferential Statistics 0 Descriptive summary of data collected from sample of participants in study Function is to reduce a large amount of data to a smaller clearer set Presented numerically andor visually o lnferential allows you to draw conclusions about data that can be applied to broader population Some Common Descriptive Statistics 0 Central Tendency 0 What s the most typical score in a set Mean average n Sum of all score total scores Median score in the exact middle of ordered set of scores n Median location N12 n Conditions under which median is more representative than mean Mode score occurring most frequently in a set of scores Variability 0 Amount of spreaddistance between scores in a set Range difference between highest and lowest scores Standard Deviation average amount by which scores deviate from the mean 0 Important to understand both central tendency AND variability in your data Describing Data Visually Histogram o A plot of the frequency of each score Xaxis scores Yaxis frequency 0 Positively skewed Tail is point right 0 Negatively skewed Tail is point negative left You want your scores to be negatively skewed because the scores are higher 0 Be able to describe a histogram for the exam 0 Steam and Leaf Display 0 Easier for data with a lot of variability ex range 0 to 100 o Cluster by intervalsranges of scores lnferential Statistics 0 Do my results apply to the wider population of interest 0 Nu Hypothesis HO 0 No difference in scores performance between different groups conditions you are studying Alternative Hypothesis H1 0 Your research hypothesis 0 Goal of research is to try to disprove or reject H0 0 As a pair they must have mutual properties o Mutually exclusive one is true the other CAN T be true 0 Exhaustive they exhaust possible outcomes There is no third possibility One of them has to be true 0 Two possible research outcomes 0 Fail to reject Null Hypothesis HO Sample differences observed were most likely chance differences not generalizable o Reject Null Hypothesis Sample differences observed can be generalized to broad population n Different than accept H1 Alternative Hypothesis D You are specifying the degree of con dence that H0 can be rejected n Alpha level speci es the probability that result is due to chance 0 Errors in decisions regarding rejection of HO 0 The bigger the effect size the higher the power Beyond Hypothesis Testing 0 Effect Size 0 How big is the difference between set of scores Provides a common metric across studies Small B Low Power Medium n Less Power Large n Less overlap more power Ways of Knowing Authority 0 Use of Reason 0 0 The point is that the value of a logically drawn conclusion depends on the truth of the premises and it takes more than logic to determine whether or not the premises have merit Pierce labeled the use of reason and a developing consensus among those debating the merits of one belief over another the a priori method for acquiring knowledge 0 Experience 0 0 0 0 0 Empiricism the process of learning things through direct observation or experience and re ection on those experiences Belief perseverance is motivated by a desire to be certain about one s knowledge it is a tendency to hold on doggedly to a belief even in the face of evidence that would convince most people the belief is false Con rmation bias is a tendency to search out and pay special attention to information that supports one s beliefs while ignoring information that contradicts a belief Strongly held prejudices include both belief perseverance and con rmation bias Availability heuristic it occurs when we experience unusual or very memorable events and then overestimate how often such event 5 typically occur quotGo with your initial gut feelquot a phenomenon that Kruger Wirtz and Miller called the rst instinct fallacy o The Wavs of Knowing and Science 0 The most reliable way to develop a belief according to Charles Peirce is through the method of science lts procedures allow us to know quotreal things whose characters are entirely independent on our opinions about themquot Science as a Way of Knowing o Determinism simply measures that events including psychological ones have causes 0 Discoverability means that by using agreedupon scienti c methods these causes can be discovered with some degree of con dence 0 Science Assumes Determinism 0 Statistical Determinism this approach argues that events can be predicted but only with a probability greater than chance 0 Whether the choices we make in life are freely made or not is a philosophical matter and our personal belief about free will must be an individual decision arrived at thought he use of reason 0 The best psychologists can do is to examine scienti cally such topics as A the extent to which behavior is in uenced by a strong belief in free will B The degree to which some behaviors are more quotfreequot than others ie require more conscious decision making C What the limits might be on our quotfree choicesquot 0 Science Makes Svstematic Observations o The scientist s systematic observations include using A Precise de nitions of the phenomena being measured b Reliable and laid measuring tools that yield useful and interpretable data C Generally accepted research methodologies D Logic for drawing conclusions and tting those conclusions into general theories 0 Science Produces Public Knowledge 0 Objectivity For Peirce being objective meant eliminating such human factors as expectation and bias Rather an objective observation as the term is used in science is simply one that can be veri ed by more than one observer 0 This process of reproducing a study to determine if its results occur reliably is called replication 0 Questions are raised when results cannot be replicated o lntrospection Method used in the early years of psychological science in which an individual completed a task and then described the events occurring in consciousness while performing the task The problem with introspection was that although introspectors underwent rigorous training that attempted to eliminate the potential for bias in their selfobservations the method was fundamentally subjective 0 Science Produces Data Based Conclusions 0 Data Driven to be supported by evidence gathered through a systematic procedure 0 Science Produces Tentative Conclusions 0 Science is a selfcorrecting enterprise and its conclusions are not absolute Science Asks Answerable Questions 0 Empirical Questions are those that can be answered through the systematic observations and techniques that characterize scienti c methodology They are questions precise enough to allow speci c predictions to be made 0 Science Develoos Theories That Can be Falsi ed o Hypothesis which is a prediction about the study s outcome 0 Hypotheses often develop as logical deductions from a theory Which is a set of statements that summarize what is known about some phenomena and propose working explanations for those phenomena A critically important attribute of a good theory is that it must be precise enough so it can be disproven n Falsi cation Psvcholoqical Science and Pseudoscience Pseudoscience is applied to any eld of inquiry that appears to use scienti c methods and tries hard to give that impression but is actually based on inadequate unscienti c methods and makes claims that are generally false or at best simplistic o Associates with True Science 0 Proponents of pseudoscience do everything they can to give the appearance of being scienti c o Relies on Anecdotal Evidence 0 A second features of pseudoscience and one that helps explain its popularity is its reliance on and uncritical acceptance of anecdotal evidence Speci c instances that seem to provide evidence for some phenomenon o The dif culty is that anecdotal evidence is selective o EffortJusti cation the idea is that after people expend signi cant effort they feel compelled to convince themselves the effort was worth while Sidesteps the Fasi cation Requirement 0 Pseudoscience any contradictory outcome can be explained or more accurately explained away Yet a theory that explains all possible outcomes fails as a theory because it can never make speci c predictions 0 Falsi cation is sidestepped by pseudoscience is that research reports in pseudoscienti c areas are notoriously vague and are never submitted to reputable journal with stringent peer review systems in place Reduces Complex Phenomena to Simplistic Concepts 0 A nal characteristic of pseudoscience worth noting is that these doctrines take what is actually a complicated phenomenon the nature of human personality and reduce it to simplistic concepts The Goals of Research in PSVChOIOClV Scienti c research in psychology has four related goals 0 Researchers hope to develop complete descriptions of behaviors to make predictions about future behavior and to provide reasonable explanations of behavior 0 Description 0 Description in psychology is to identify regularly occurring sequences of events including both stimuli or environmental events and responses of behavioral events 0 Description also involves classi cation as when someone attempts to classify forms of aggressive behavior 0 Prediction 0 Laws is to say that regular and predictable relationships exist for psychological phenomena 0 The strength of these relationships aows predictions to be made with some degree of con dence 0 Exolanation o Explanation to explain a behavior is to know what caused it The concept of causality is immensely complex and its nature has occupied philosophers for centuries Application 0 Application refers simply to the way so of applying principles of behavior learned through research A Passion for Research in Psychology Part 1 0 Eleanor Gibson 0 0 quotVisual cliffquot studies The visual cliff studies showing the unwillingness of eightmonth olds to cross the quotdeep side even with Mom on the other side are now familiar to any student of introductory psychology 0 BF Skinner 19041990 0 His work on operant conditioning created an entire subculture within experimental psychology called the experimental analysis of behavior Preview amp Chapter Objectives 0 A system of ethics is a set of quotstandards governing the conduct of a person of the members of a profession Research psychologists must 0 0 0 A treat human research participants with respect and in a way that maintains their rights and dignity B Care for the welfare of animals when they are subjects of research C Be scrupulously honest in the treatment of data Developing the APA Code of Ethics 0 Critical incidents technique the committee surveyed the entire membership of the APA asking them to provide examples of quotincidentsquot of unethical conduct they knew about rsthand and to quotindicate what they perceived as being the ethical issue involved 0 Although most concerned the practice of psychology some of the reported incidents involved the conduct of research 0 The ve general principles re ect the philosophical basis for the code as a whole 0 Bene cence and Nonmai cence establishes the principle that psychologists must constantly weight ht bene ts and the costs of the research they conduct and seek to achieve the greatest good in their research Fidelity and Responsibility obligates researchers to be constantly aware of their responsibility to society and reminds them always to exemplify the highest standards of professional behavior in their role as researchers Integrity compels researchers to be scrupulously honest in all aspects of the research enterprise justice obligates researchers to treat everyone involved in the research enterprise with fairness and to maintain a level of expertise that reduces the chances of their work showing any form of bias Respect for People s Rights and Dignity translates into a special need for research psychologists to be vigorous in their efforts to safeguard the welfare and protect the rights of those volunteering as research participants Ethical Guidelines for Research with Humans Weighing Bene ts and Costs The Role of the IRB 0 0 0 Research Participants or subjects Stanley Milgram Milgram introduced volunteers to obey commands from an authority gure the experimenter Playing the role of teachers participants were told to deliver what they thought were highvoltage shocks no shocks were actually given to another apparent volunteer He was sharply criticized for exposing his volunteers toe extreme levels of stress for producing what could be longterm adverse effects on their self esteem and dignity and because of the degree of deception involved for destroying their trust in psychologists The experimenter always faces the con icting requirements of A producing meaningful research results that could ultimately increase our knowledge of behavior and add to the general good B Respecting the rights and welfare of the study s participants and causing them no harm Institutional Review Board or IRB In a university or college setting this group consists of at least ve people usually faculty members from several departments and including at least one member of the outside community and a minimum of one nonscientist Proposals that are exempt from full review include studies conducted in an educational setting for training purposes Proposals receiving expedited review include many of the typical psychology laboratory experiments in basic processes such as memory attention or perception in which participants will not experience uncomfortable levels of stress or have their behavior in any signi cant fashion All other research usually requires full review by the IRB An important components of an lRB s decision about a proposal involves determining the degree of risk to be encountered by participants When there is minimal or no risk IRB approval 5 usually routinely granted though an expedited review or the proposal will be judged exempt from review When participants are quotat risk a full IRB review will occur and experiments must convince the committee that n A the value of the study outweighs the risk n B the study could not be completed in any other fashion n C they will scrupulously follow the remaining ethical guidelines to ensure those contributing data are informed and well treated One issue is the extent to which lRBs should be judging the details of research procedures and designs 0 A second issue concern the perception among some researchers that it is dif cult to win IRB approval of basic research A third problem is that some researchers complain about IRBs being overzealous in their concern about risk weighing it more heavily than warranted relative to the scienti c value of a study One unsettling consequence of IRBs being overly conservative according to prominent social psychologist Roy Baumeister is that psychology is rapidly becoming the science of selfreports and nger movements instead of the science of overt behavior A nal issue that concerns psychologists is that IRBs sometimes overemphasize a biomedical research model to evaluate proposals As a result they might ask researchers to respond to requests that are not relevant for most psychological research One unfortunate consequence of these four issues is a lack of consistency among IRBs o Informed Consent and Deception in Research 0 0 0 Informed consent the notion that in deciding whether to participate in psychological research human participants should be given enough information about the study s purpose and procedures to decide if they wish to volunteer Deception Participants might not be told the complete details of a study at its outset or they might be misled about some of the procedures or about the study s purpose as in the eyewitness memory example you just read Naturalistic and qualitative interview procedures There is evidence that participants who are fully informed ahead of time about the purpose of an experiment behave different from those who aren t informed Although subjects might not be told everything about the study during the consent procedure it need to be made clear to them that they can discontinue their participant at any time It is important to note that consent is not required for research that is exempt from full review The key is whether the setting is a public one if the study occurs in a place where anyone could be observed by anyone else consent is not needed 0 Informed Consent and Special Pobulations 0 0 Parents or legal guardians are the ones who give consent Assent researchers give the child as much information as possible 0 gauge whether the child is willing to participate Assent occurs when the quotchild shows some form of agreement to participate without necessarily comprehending the full signi cance of the research necessary to give informed consentquot Assent also means the researcher has a responsibility to monitor experiments with children and to stop them if it appears that undue tress is being experienced Legal guardians must give truly informed consent for research with people who are con ned to institutions It is imperative to ensure that participants do not eel coerced into volunteering for a study o Treatinq Participants Well 0 Debrie ng during which the experiment answers questions the participants might have and lls them in about the purpose of the study It is not absolutely essential that participants be informed about ALL aspects of the study immediately after their participation Participant Crosstalk A tendency for people who have participated in a research study to inform future participants about the true purpose of the study There is evidence that participant crosstalk occurs especially in situations where participants can easily interact with each other Dehoaxing means revealing to participants the purpose of the experiment and the hypotheses being tested or some portion of them Desensitizing refers to the process of reducing stress or other negative feelings that might have been experienced in the session Subjects are also informed that if they wish they may have their data removed from the data set Con dentiality Research participants should be con dent their identities will not be known by anyone other than the experimenter and that only group or disguised coded data will be reported The only exceptions to this occur in cases when researchers might be compelled b law to report certain things disclosed by participants ex child abuse clear intent to harm oneself or another 0 Research Ethics and the Internet 0 0 0 First some websites are designed to collect data from those logging into sites this happens most frequently in the form of online surveys and questionnaires but can involve other forms of data collection as well The second form of eresearch involves a researcher studying the behavior of Internet users This research ranges from examining the frequency of usage of selected websites to analyses of the content of webbased interactions monitoring the activity of a Twitter feed For eresearch in which computer users contribute data problems relating to informed consent and debrie ng exist Con dentiality researchers using internet surveys responded to by those using their own personal computer must take steps to ensure the protection of the user s identity Also users must be assured that if their computer s identity is returned with the survey the researcher will discard the information 0 Ethical Guidelines for Research with Animals 0 Animals are used in psychological research for reasons Methodologically their environmental genetic and developmental histories can be easily controlled n Genetic and lifespan developmental studies can take place quickly 0 Ethically most experimental psychologists take the position that with certain safeguards in place animals can be subjected to procedures that could not be used with humans 0 The Issue of Animal Ridhts 0 Some argue that humans have no right to consider themselves superior to any other sentient species that is any species capable of experiencing pain Sentient animals are said to have the same basic right sot privacy autonomy and freedom from has as humans and therefore cannot be subjugated by humans in any way including participating in any form of research 0 The argue that humans may have dominion over animals but they also have a responsibility to protect them 0 Critics have suggested that instead of using animals in the laboratory researchers could discover all they need to know about animal behavior by observing animals in their natural habitats by substituting nonsentient for sentient animals or by using computer simulations 0 Using Animals in Psvcholodical Research 0 Neal Miller Argued that n A animal activists sometimes overstate the harm done to animals in psychological research n B Animal research provides clear bene ts for the wellbeing of humans n C Animal research bene ts animals as well Miller argued that situations involving harm to animals during research procedures are rare used only when less painful alternatives cannot be used and can be justi ed by the ultimate good that derives from the studies First he argued that while the long history of animal conditioning research has taught us much about general principles of learning it also has had direct application to human problems Finally Miller argued that animal research provides direct bene ts to animals themselves n Medical research with animals has improved veterinary care dramatically but behavioral research has also improved the welfare of various species 0 Anthrozoology the study of humananimal interactions The APA Code for Animal Research 0 The animal use committee is composed of professors from several disciplines in addition to science and includes someone from outside the university o The guidelines for using animals deal with 0 0 0 a the need to justify the study when the potential for harm to the animals exists b the proper acquisition and care of animals both during and after the study c the use of animals for educational rather than research purposes 0 lustifvind the Studv 0 The researcher should a increase knowledge of the processes underlying the evolution development maintenance alteration control or biological signi cance of behavior b determine the replicability and generality of prior research c increase understanding of the species under study d provide results that bene t the health or welfare of humans or other animals Scienti c Fraud 0 Plagiarism deliberately taking the ideas of someone else and claiming them as one s own 0 Falsifying data Is a problem that happens only in science 0 Data Falsi cation 0 0 0 A scientist fails to collect any data at all and simply manufactures it Second some of the collected data are altered or omitted to make the overall results look better Third some data are collected but missing data are guessed at and created in a way that produces a data set congenial to the researcher s expectations Fourth an entire study is suppressed because its results fail to come out as expected In each of these cases the deception is deliberate and the scientist presumably quotsecures an unfair or unlawful gainquot ex publication tenure promotion The traditional view is that fraud is rare and easily detected because faked results won t be replicated That is if a scientist produces a result with fraudulent data the results won t represent some empirical truth 0 Fraud also may be detected during the normal peer review process 0 Whenever a research article is submitted forjournal publication or a grant is submitted to an agency it is reviewed by several experts whose recommendations help determine whether the article will be published or the grant funded 0 A third way of detecting fraud is when a researcher s collaborators suspect a problem 0 Varieties of Psychological Research 0 Basic Versus Applied Research 0 Some research in psychology concerns describing predicting and explaining the fundamental principles of behavior and mental processes this activity is referred to as basic research 0 Applied research is so named because it has direct and immediate relevance to the solution of realworld problems o It is sometimes believed that applied research is more valuable than basic research because an applied study seems to concern more relevant problems and to tackle them directly o It could be argued however that a major advantage of basic research is that the principles and procedures ex shadowing can potentially be used in a variety of applied situations even though these uses aren t considered when the basic research is being done 0 Basic research is a frequent target of politicians and some IRBs as you recall from the last chapter who bluster about the misuse of tax dollars to fund research that doesn t seem useful 0 In some cases what is learned from basic research can be useful in applied project from a completely different topic area The Setting Laboratory versus Field Research Laboratory Research allows the researcher greater control conditions of the study can be speci ed more precisely and participants can be selected and placed in the different conditions of the study more systematically Field Research The environment more closely matches the situations we encounter in daily living Mundane Realism refers to how closely a study mirrors reallife experiences Experimental Realism Concerns the extent to which a research study whether in the laboratory or in the eld quothas an impact on the subjects forces them to take the matter seriously and involes them in the proceduresquot First conditions in the eld often cannot be duplicated in a laboratory A second reason to do eld research is to con rm the ndings of laboratory studies and perhaps to correct misconceptions or oversimpli cations that might be derived from the safe con nes of a laboratory A third reasons is to make discoveries that could result in an immediate difference in the lives of the people being studied Fourth although eld research is ordinarily associated with applied research it is also a good setting in which to do basic research 0 Research Example 1 Combinind Laboratorv and Field Studies 0 0 O 0000 Confederate someone who appears to be part of the normal environment but is actually part of the study Manipulation This procedure is often used to be sure the intended manipulations in a study have the desired effect Pilot Study Pilot studies are often used to test aspects of the procedure to be sure the methodology is sound One last point about the decision on where to locate a study concern ethics One last point about the decision on where to locate a study concerns ethics ln laboratory research it is relatively easy to stick closely to the ethics code In the eld however it is dif cult and usually impossible to provide informed consent and debrie ng in fact in some situations the research procedures might be considered an invasion of privacy 0 Quantitative versus Qualitative Research 0 Quantitative research the data are collected and presented in the form of numbers average scores for different groups on some task percentages of people who do one thing or another graphs and tables of data and so on Qualitative Research is not easily classi ed but it often includes studies that collect interview information either from individuals or groups either from individuals or groups it sometimes involves detailed case studies or it might involve carefully designed observational studies Operationism Bridgman argued the terminology of science must be totally object and precise and that all concepts should be de ned in terms of a set of operations or procedures to be performed Operational De nitions The length of some object for instance could be de ned operationally by a series of agreed by a series of agreedon procedures Despite this problem with the strict use of operational de nitions the concept has been of value to psychology by forcing researchers to de ne clearly the terms of their studies One important outcome of the precision resulting from operational de nitions is that it allows experiments to be repeated Converging Operations which is the idea that our understanding of some behavioral phenomenon is increased when a series of investigations all using slightly different operational de nitions and experimental procedures nonetheless converge on a common conclusion Empirical questions may evolve out of a everyday observations of behavior b the need to solve a practical problem c attempts to support or refute a theory d unanswered questions from a study just completed Developing Research from Observation of Behavior and Serendipity o This phenomenon memory is better for incomplete rather than completed tasks is today called the Zeigarnik effect Serendipity or discovering something while looking for something else entirely has been source of numerous important events in the history of science Developing Research From Theory 0 The Nature of Theorv o A theory is a set of logically consistent statements about some phenomenon that A best summarizes existing empirical knowledge of the phenomenon B Organizes this knowledge in the form of precise statements of relationships among variables C Proposes an explanation for the phenomenon D Serves as the basis for making predictions about behavior 0 The essence of the theory is the proposal that whenever people hold two opposing cognitions at the same time a state of discomfort called cognitive dissonance 0 Construct is a hypothetical factor that is not observed directly its existence is inferred from certain behaviors and assumed to follow from certain circumstances Cognitive dissonance is assumed to exist following circumstances of cognitive inconsistency and presumably leads to certain predictable behaviors o Dissonance reduction can come about several means One or both of the cognitions could be altered behavior could be changed or additional cognitions could be added to bring the two dissonant cognitions into consonance 0 An important feature of ay theory is its continual evolution in light of new data No theory is EVER complete 0 The Relationship Between Theorv and Research 0 Deduction reasoning from a set of general statements toward the prediction of a speci c event 0 Hypothesis which in general can be considered a reasoned prediction about an empirical result that should occur under certain circumstances 0 Induction is the logical process of reasoning from speci c events the results of research the to the general the theory 0 Scientists do not use the words PROVE and DISPROVE when discussing theories and data If a study comes out as expected that outcome supports but cannot prove a theory for the simple reason that future studies could potentially come out in a way that fails to support it Similarly if a study fails to come out as hoped that outcome cannot disprove a theory since future research might support it o Theories are indeed discarded but only when scientists lose con dence in them and this takes awhile occurring only after predictions have been repeatedly discon rmed in a number of laboratories and some competing theory arrives and begins to look more attractive Attributes of Good Theories Productivity good theories advance knowledge by generating great deal of research an attribute that clearly can be applied to dissonance theory Falsi cation o Theories that are continually resistant to Falsi cation are accepted as possibly true with the emphasis on possibly Parsimony o Parsimonious this means ideally that they include the minimum number of constructs and assumptions need to explain the phenomenon adequately and predict future research outcomes If two theories are equal in every way except that on is more parsimonious then the simpler one is generally preferred 0 A Common Misunderstandind About Theorv 0 quotWorking truthsquot about some phenomenon always subject to revision based on new data but re ecting the most reasonable current understanding of the phenomenon 0 Facts are the results of research outcomes that add inductive support for theories or fail to support theories 0 Theories can never be absolutely show to be true because of the limits of induction that is future studies might require that a theory be altered 0 Theory never becomes fact instead theory serves to explain facts Developing Research from Other Research 0 Programs of research a series of interrelated studies 0 Researchers become involved in a speci c area of investigation and conduct a series of investigations in that area that may last for years and may extend to many other researchers with an interest in the topic 0 Research Teams and the What s Next Question 0 Research Teams within their laboratories that operate under what has been called an apprenticeship model Typically the team includes a senior researcher several graduate students working under that person and perhaps two or three highly motivated undergraduates who convinced the senior researchers of their interest and willingness to work o The pilot study is an invaluable way to determine whether the researchers are on the right track in developing sound procedures that will answer their empirical questions 0 Research in psychology a usually involves a continuous series of interrelated studies each following logically from the prior one b is often a communal effort combining the efforts of several people who are immersed in the same narrowly specialized research area c unstructured in its early creative stages Replication and Extension 0 Replication refers to a study that duplicates some or all of the procedures of a prior study 0 Extensions on the other had resembles a prior study and usually replicates part of it but it goes further and adds at least one new feature 0 Partial Replication is often used to refer to that part of the study that replicates a portion of the earlier work 0 Exact replication or direct replication is used to describe a pointforpoint duplication of a study Exact replication occurs because researchers are seldom rewarded for simply repeating what someone else has done Exact replications seldom will occur when serious questions are realized about a nding The possibility that listening to the music could increase ability was dubbed the Mozart effect Creative Thinking in Science 0 Creative thinking in research design involves a process of recognizing meaningful connections between apparently unrelated ideas and seeing those connections as the key to developing the study 0 Such thinking does not occur in a vacuum however but rather in the context of some problem to be solved by a scientist with considerable knowledge of the problem 0 What to Measure Varieties of Behavior 0 Research Example 2 Habituation o This habituation procedure involves showing an infant the same stimulus repeatedly and then changing to a new stimulus o Habituation is de ned as a gradual decrease in responding to repeated stimuli If a new stimulus is present and it is recognized as something new or unusual the infant will increase the time spent looking at it Evaluating Measures 0 Reliability 0 0 0 0 Reliable it is results are repeatable when the behaviors are remeasured A behavioral measure s reliability is a direct function of the amount of measurement error present If there is a great deal of error reliability is low and vice versa No behavioral measure is perfectly reliable so some degree of measure error occurs with all measurement Reliability is assessed more formally in research that evaluates the adequacy of any type of psychological test The degree of similarity is expressed in terms of correlation high similarity strong correlation 0 Validity 0 0 0 Valid if it measure what is designed to measure Content validity this type of validity concern whether or not the actual content of the items on a test makes sense in terms of the construct being measured Face Validity which is not actually a quotvalidquot form of validity at all Face validity concerns whether the measure seems valid to those who are taking it and it is important only in the sense that we want those taking our tests and lling out our survey to treat the task seriously Criterion Validity which concern whether the measure a can accurately forecast some future behavior b is meaningfully related to some other measure of behavior This term criterion validity is used because the measure in question is related to outcome or criterion Construct Validity concerns whether a test adequately measures some construct and it connects directly with what is now a family concept to you the operational de nition Constructs are never observed directly so we develop operational de nitions for them as away of investigating them empirically and then develop measures for them Construct validity relates to whether a particular measurement truly measure the construct as a whole 0 Scores on a test measure some construct should relate to scores on other tests that are theoretically related to the construct convergent validity but not to scores on other tests that are theoretically unrelated to the construct discriminant validity Reliability and Validity 0 Note that validity assumes reliability but the converse is not true 0 Measures can be reliable but not valid valid measures must be reliable however Scales of Measurement 0 Measurement scales ways of assigning numbers to events 0 Nominal Scales 0 Sometimes the number we assign to events serves only to classify them into one group or another 0 Nominal Scale Measurement scale in which the numbers have no quantitative value but rather identify categories into which events can be placed 0 Ordinal Scales o Ordinal scales of measurement are sets of rankings showing the relative standing of objects or individuals 0 Interval Scales o Interval scales extend the idea of rank order to include the concept of equal interval between the ordered events 0 Research using psychological testes of personality attitude and ability are the most common examples of studies typically considered to involve interval scales 0 Psychologists prefer to use interval and ratio scales generally because data on those scales allow more sophisticated statistical analyses and a wider range of them o It is important to note that interval scales a score of zero is simply another point on the scale it does not mean the absence of the quantity being measured 0 Ratio Scales 0 Ratio scale the concepts of order and equal interval are carried over from ordinal and interval scores but in addition the ratio scale has a true zero point that is for ratio scores a score of zero means the complete absence of the attribute being measured Statistical Analysis 0 Descriptive and lnferential Statistics 0 Population consists of all members of a de ned group 0 0 0 Sample is a subset of that group Descriptive Statistics summarize the data collected from the sample of participants in your study lnferential Statistics allow you to draw conclusions about your data that can be applied to the wider population 0 Descriptive Statistics 0 0000 OO 0 Descriptive statistical procedures enable you tot turn a large pile of numbers that cannot be comprehended at a glance into a small set of numbers that can be more easily understood Descriptive statistics include measures of central tendency variability and association presented both numerically and visually Mean arithmetic average found by adding the scores together and divided by the total number of scores Median the score is the exact middle of a set of scores Median Location which means it falls midway between the tenth and the eleventh numbers in the sequence Scores that are far removed from other scores in a data set are known as outliers Mode is the score occurring most frequently in a set of scores Range the difference between the high and low scores of a group Standard deviation for a set of sample scores is an estimate of the average amount by which the scores in the sample deviate from the mean Variance which is the number produced during the standard deviation calculation just prior to taking the square root Variance is standard deviation squared It is however the central feature of perhaps the most common inferential procedure found in psychology the analysis of variance lnterquartile Range is the range of scores between the bottom 25 of scores and the top 25 of scores The IQR would not change if outliers were present Histogram is a graph showing the number of times each score occurs or if there is a large number of scores how often scores within a de ned range occur Frequency distribution a table that records the number of times each score occurs Distribution is the familiar bellshaped curve known as the normal curve or normal distribution The normal curse is a frequency distribution just like one for the memory scores except instead of being an actual or empirical distribution of sample scores it is a hypothetical or quottheoreticalquot distribution of what all scores in the population would be if everyone was tested 0 Descriptive statistics are reported three ways If there are just a few numbers to report ex means and standard deviations for the groups in an experiment they are sometimes working into the narrative description of the results Second the means and standard deviations might be present in a table Third They might be reported in the visual form of a graph Null Hypothesis Signi cance Testing 0 The rst step in signi cance testing is to assume there is no difference in performance between the conditions that you are studying in this case between immediate and delayed rewards o This assumption is called the null hypothesis nu nothing symbolized H0 and pronounced quotH sub ohquot 0 The research hypothesis the outcome you are hoping to nd fewer learning trials for rats receiving immediate rewards is called the alternative hypothesis some times research hypothesis 0 Failing to reject H0 means you believe any difference in the means and studies almost nd some differences between groups were most likely chance differences you have failed to nd a genuine effect that can be generalized beyond your sample Rejecting H0 means you believe an effect truly happened in your study and the results can be generalized o The researchers hypothesis h1 is never proven true in an absolute sense just as defendants are never absolutely proven guilty 0 Alpha level refers to the probability of obtaining your particular results if H0 no differences is really true 0 Alpha is set at 005 but it can be set at other more stringent levels as well o If hO is rejected when alpha equals 005 it means you believe the probability is very low that your research outcome is the result of chance factors 0 Another way to put it is to say the obtained difference between the sample means would be so unexpected if H0 were true that we just cannot believe H0 is really true 0 Tvoe I and Tvoe II Errors 0 Rejecting H0 when it is in fact true is called a Type I error Type errors are sometimes suspected when a research outcome fails several attempts at replication 0 Type II error this happens when you fail to reject H0 but you are wrong that is you don t nd a signi cant effect in your study naturally feel depressed about it but are in fact in error Type II errors sometimes occur when the measurements used aren t reliable or aren t sensitive enough to detect true difference between groups 0 With these substitution in mind correct decisions mean either a no real difference exists which is OK because you didn t nd one anyway b0 a real difference exists and you found it experimenter heaven 0 A type I error means there is nor real difference but you think there is because of the results of your particular study 0 A type II error means there really is a difference but you failed to nd it in your study lnferential Analvsis 0 Systematic Variance is the result of an identi able factor either the variable of interest reinforcement delay or some factor you ve failed to control adequately 0 Error Variance is nonsystematic variability due to individual differences between the rats in the two groups and any number of random unpredictable effects that might have occurred during the study 0 This ideal outcome is to nd that variability between condition is large and variability within each condition is small Interpreting Failure 5 to Reiect HO 0 Studies nding no differences are less likely to be publish and wind up stored away in someone s led a phenomenon called the le drawer effect Going Beyond Hypothesis Testing 0 Effect Size 0 Effect size provides an estimate of the magnitude of the difference among sets of scores while taking into account the amount of variability in the scores Different types of effect size calculations are used for different kinds of research designs 0 Metaanalysis uses effectsize analyses to combine the results from several often many experiments that use the same variables even though these variables are likely to have different operational de nitions The outcome of metaanalysis relates to the concept of converging operations Con dence in the generality of conclusion increases when similar results occur even though a variety of methods and de nitions of terms have been sued 0 Con dence Interval is a range of values expected to include a population value with a certain degree of con dence 0 Power 0 When completing a null hypothesis signi cance test one hopes to be able to reject H when it is in fact false 0 Power that is a test is said to have high power if it results in a high probability that a real difference will be found in a particular study 0 Power is affected by the alpha level by the seize of the treatment effect effect sizelt and especially by the see of the sample 0 This latter attribute is directly under the experimenter s control and researchers sometimes perform a power analysis at the outset of a study to help them choose the best sample size for their study
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