Race and Ethnicity
Race and Ethnicity SOC 101- Intro to Sociology
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joy Sasnett on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101- Intro to Sociology at Tri-County Technical College taught by Aristide Sechandice in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 497 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Tri-County Technical College.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes this semester.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
Race and Ethnicity I What is Race What is Ethnicity A Origins of the Race Concept 1 19th century Europeans trying to figure out what to do about race 2 Most populations were homogenous not much contact with others before the 19th century 3 Technological advancements trading colonies etc socialization and communication between groupsraces 4 Traders soldiers travelers first to experience the other meaning other difference people of different races 5 3 Race Scheme associated with race based traits given a region to live a Caucasoid Europe white straightcurly hair any eyes b Negroid black blackkinky hair dark eyes c Mongoloid Asia yellow skin dark eyes blackstraight hair B Problems with The Race Concept 1 Race biological nonchanging 2 1 problem biological approx 94 genetic variation ingrown variation even if a little difference 3 Residual whats left over when not considering the alike DNA 4 Race Concept race within a group example white vs variation across group example black C Ethnicity better word than race 1 More specific smaller of people 2 More numerous 3 Grouped by common history language culture customs traditions 4 Racism belief in the inherence superiority of one group over another ll Racism A Definition of Key Terms Essentialism assumes there is a race below the surface Phenotype physical cues big 3 skin color eye color and hair texturecolor used to get racial essence of a person Tristan da Cunha inhabited but remote island in the middle of the ocean tiny extremely diverse population settled by shipwrecks from all over the world race is social not natural Social Construction what society tells you that you are Social Fact something society agrees upon does not have to be realtrue Ethnocentrism when you base the hierarchy off culture Relativism opposite of ethnocentrism no one is unequal just different Discrimination needs position of power to enforce practice of denying someone something of value or harmingmistreating them because of their genderracial group Self Other Dichotomy more different groups of people separation between people B Types of Discrimination Overt obvious no attempt to hide it can be personal sexual harassment in the workplace pygmalion in the classroom hate crimes or institutional grandfather clauses setasides apartheid Covert secretive concealed can be personal ostracism blackballing beauty contests or institutional racial profiling redlining employment discrimination C Motivation for Difference Thinking 1 Identity Politics stresses identity racial gender etc many different groups of people University of Tennessee claims no using he or she and only uses ze D Explanations for Racism 1 Why are people racist Contact Hypothesis lack of contact leads to racism when different groups encounter each other Economic Competition as economy gets tighter racism goes up when people are prospering racism tends to go down lgnorance lack of education correlated with racism E Archaic Racisms and Their Consequences 1 Archaic Racism forms of racism once prevalent but do not really exist anymore Scientific Racism normal in 19th century scientists thought science proved their theories of racism that is was natural 2 Social Darwinism took Darwin s thoughts and applied them to humans Darwin himself would not have liked this harsh account of history of life on earth Herbert Spencer believed in annihilation treats groups as species and only the fittest will survive 3 Holocaust not just racial Hitler believed all defects should die retarded mentally ill gypsies jews etc Germany was beaten down for debt etc before Hitler came along and promised them everything everyone wanted to hear therefore putting the Holocaust into effect F Situational Racism everyday racism most people are unaware until conflict occurs and brings it out Using race base words to hurt someone else in a disagreementconflict ex John Rocker baseball player who lets his words slip in an interview with a Sports Illustrated reporter He claims his he was misunderstood not racist Degeneration theory that the gene pool will one day be too weak to repair itself Ill Racism in America A The Backdrop of Slavery all encompassing system 300400 years legacy of slavery family structure of African Americans 4x more likely to have a single mother poveny economics Slave owners did not want families to form a strong slave cultureslave families Destruction of culture African Americans asked to devalue when they were transported to America B Emancipation Legal Racism Emancipation freeing of slaves at the end of the Civil War clear where everyone stood because slavery fixedclarified it Accomplished through 13th15th amendments 18651810 Legal Racism refers to a set of practices that ended with mistreatment of different races usually from authorities Jim Crow race codes enforced legal segregation Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 straightforward with the title Chinese immigrants to western states 1840 s 1870 s this gave rise to this Act One Drop Rule visual attributions of race see term defined in HA C Legal Progress Toward Civil Rights for Minorities 1 Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 Homer Plessy white but 18 black one drop rule applies did not sit in the black train car makes federal case 2 Brown vs Board of Eduction of Topeka Kansas 1954 main idea separation can never be equal 3 Civil Rights Act 1964 cannot deny someone their civil rights or go to jail otherwise D Economic Progress Toward Social Equality 1 problems that can be associated with povertyeconomic struggles 2 For every dollar a white American earns an African American earns 60 cents an Hispanic American earns 53 cents an Asian American earns 89 cents E Governmental Policy Toward Socioeconomic Disparities by Race 1 Affirmative Action fair and effective id cone correctly but no one did it right most misunderstood policy in US history supposed to be programs that offer help to minorities live better lives on their own what it actually was handouts for minorities 2 Reverse Discrimination comes from Affirmative Action opposite of regular discrimination in the sense that now the targetvictims are white people 3 Regents of the University of California vs Bakke 1978 based on being denied acceptance to the University even though Bakke s grades were just as good as every other white person theory that if he was black and offered a sense of indifference he would have been accepted first case of this sort that has won
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