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by: Regan Dougherty

CH104Exam1StudySoup.pdf CH 104

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0
Introductory Chemistry
Stephen Woski

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About this Document

In-depth study guide that utilizes definitions, textbook notes and information, as well as lecture notes.
Introductory Chemistry
Stephen Woski
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CH 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Woski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Introductory Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 09/10/15
Exam date 91515 CH 104 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 2 1O Chapter 1 MATTER anything that has mass and takes up volume Chemistry The Science of Everyday Experience CHEMISTRY the study of matter its composition properties and transformations States of Matter SOLID a state of matter that has definite shape and volume particles lie close together and are arranged in a regular 3D array the particles wiggle in place movement depends on temperature LIQUID a state of matter that has definite volume but takes on the shape of its container particles are close together but they can move past each other GAS a state of matter that has no definite shape or volume particles move randomly and are separated by a distance much larger than their size particles rarely collide PHYSICAL PROPERTIES properties of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the material a physical change alters the material without changing its composition ex ice lt gt water lt gt water vapor CHEMICAL PROPERTIES those that determine how a substance can be converted to another substance a chemical change involves the conversion of one substance into another ex hydrogen gas oxygen gas water Classification of Matter Exam date 91515 PURE SUBSTANCE a substance that contains a single component and has a constant composition regardless of the sample size cannot be broken down to other pure substances by any physical change ELEMENT a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction COMPOUND a pure substance formed by chemically combining two or more elements can be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction MIXTURE matter composed of more than one substance can be separated by a physical process Measurement SI UNITS the international system of units formally adopted as the uniform system of units for the sciences ENGLISH SYSTEM a system of measurement used primarily in the United States in which units are not systematically related to each other and require memorization METRIC SYSTEM a measurement system in which each type of measurement has a base unit and all other units are related to the base unit by a prefix that indicates if the unit is larger or smaller than the base unit LITER the basic unit of volume in the metric system L METER a unit used to measure length m MASS a measure of the amount of matter in an object WEIGHT the force that matter feels due to gravity GRAM the basic unit of mass in the metric system g CUBIC CENTIMETER a unit of volume equal to one milliliter cm3 or cc add prefixes to base units giga billion mega million kilo thousand deci tenth centi hundredth mii thousandth micro millionth nano billionth Significant Figures Exam date 91515 EXACT a number that results from counting objects or is part of a definition INEXACT a number that results from a measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty SIGNIFICANT FIGURES all of the digits in a measured number including one estimated digit all nonzero digits are always significant Rules for zero a zero counts as a significant figure when it occurs between two nonzero digits at the end of a number with a decimal point 37500 cm 5 sig figures 620 lb 3 sig figures 620 lb 2 sig figures because there is no decimal point at the end a zero does not count as a significant figure if it occurs at the beginning of a number 000245 mg 3 sig figures at the end of a number that does not have a decimal 620 lb 2 sig figures Multiplication and Division the answer should have the same number of significant figures as the original number with the fewest significant figures 3512 miles 55 hours 63854545 mihr 64 mihr rounded to correct number of significant figures Rounding if the first digit to be dropped is less than 5 04 then drop it and all remaining digits if the first digit to be dropped is greater than or equal to 5 59 then round up the last digit by adding 1 Exam date 91515 Addition and Subtraction the answer has to be the same number of decimal places as the original number with the fewest number of decimal places Scientific Notation SCIENTIFIC NOTATION a system in which numbers are written as y x 10X where y is a number between 1 and 10 and xcan either be positive or negative X represents how many times and what direction you move the decimal Problem Solving Using Conversion Factors CONVERSION FACTOR a term that converts a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit original quantity x conversion factor desired quantity the conversion factor must relate the two quantities in question and cancel out the unwanted unit always arrange the factors so that the denominator in one term cancels the number in the preceding term Temperature TEMPERATURE a measure of how hot or cold an object is FAHRENHEIT one of three temperature scales in which water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 CELSIUS one of three temperature scales in which water freezes at O and boils at 100 KELVIN a temperature scale commonly used by scientists The Kelvin scale is divided into Kelvins TK To 273 Temperature Conversions Celsius to Fahrenheit F 18C 32 Fahrenheit to Celsius c F 3218 Celsius to Kelvin Exam date 91515 K C 273 Kelvin to Celsius 39 CK273 Density and Specific Gravity DENSITY a physical property that relates the mass of a substance to its volume d gmL or cc density massvolume density of water 1 gmL less dense substances float inon more dense substances SPECIFIC GRAVITY a unitless quantity that compares the density of a substance with the density of water at 4 degrees C specific gravity density of a substance gm Ldensity of water gmL the specific gravity of a substance equals its density but contains no units because the density of water is 1 gmL Chapter 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table Elements Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that have the characteristics of matter Each different atom has different properties based on the atom s structure ELEMENT a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction each element is defined by a one or two letter symbol Elements and the Periodic Table METALS shiny materials that are good conductors of heat and electricity All metals are solids at room temperature except for mercury which is a liquid found at the left side of the periodic table excluding hydrogen Exam date 91515 NONMETALS do not have shiny appearances generally poor conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals like sulfur and carbon are solids at room temperature bromine is a liquid and nitrogen oxygen and nine other elements are gases if they are solids they are not malleable dull in color found at the right side of the periodic table and hydrogen METALLOIDS have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals Only seven elements are categorized as metalloids boron B silicon Si germanium Ge arsenic As antimony Sb tellurium Te and astatine At Focus on the Human Body 4 nonmetals oxygen carbon hydrogen and nitrogen comprise 96 of the mass of the human body these are called building block elements major minerals potassium sodium chlorine magnesium calcium and phosphorous trace elements arsenic boron chromium cobalt copper fluorine iodine manganese molybdenum nickel selenium silicon zinc Compounds a COMPOUND is a pure substance formed by chemically combining two or more elements could be 2 of the same atom oxygen is usually found in pairs molecular oxygen this has different functions than an atom of oxygen O2 N2 F2 Cl2 Br2 l2 H2 88 CHEMICAL FORMULA uses element symbols to show the identity of the elements forming a compound and subscripts to show the ratio of atoms contained in the compound 0 NaCl H2O CsH1206 Exam date 91515 Structure of the Atom All matter is composed of the same building blocks called atoms Every atom of a given type of element has the same number of protons in the nucleus PROTON p has a positive charge ELECTRON e has a negative charge opposite charges attract and like charges repel NEUTRON n no charge NUCLEUS a dense core that contains the protons and neutrons Most of the mass of an atom resides in the nucleus ELECTRON CLOUD composed of electrons that move rapidly in the almost empty space surrounding the nucleus composes most of the volume of an atom ATOMIC NUMBER the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom MASS NUMBER the number of protons the number of neutrons ISOTOPES atoms of the same element having a different number of neutrons ATOMIC WEIGHT ATOMIC MASS the weighted average of the mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of a particular element reported in atomic mass units The Periodic Table Basic Functions of the Periodic Table PERIOD a row in the periodic table elements in the same period are similar in size GROUP a column in the periodic table elements in the same group have similar electronic and chemical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS consist of the 2 columns on the far left and the 6 columns on the far right of the table 1A through 8A or 1 2 1318 TRANSITION METAL ELEMENTS contained in the 10 short columns in the middle of the table 1 B through 8B or 312 Exam date 91515 INNER TRANSITION METAL ELEMENTS consist of the lanthanides and actinides not assigned group numbers Characteristics of Groups 1A 2A 7A and 8A ALKALI METALS group 1A soft and shiny low melting points good conductors of heat and electricity react readily with water to form basic solutions 0 Li Na K Rb Cs Fr ALKALINE EARTH ELEMENTS group 2A shiny solids but less reactive than alkali metals Be Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra HALOGENS group 7A in their elemental forms they contain two atoms joined together diatomic very reactive F Cl Br At NOBLE GASES group 8A stable rarely combine with other elements to form compounds He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn Middle of the Periodic Table transition metals The Unusual Nature of Carbon carbon has 3 elemental forms diamond graphite buckminsterfullerene Carbon s ability to join with itself and other elements gives it versatility not seen with any other element in the periodic table Electronic Structure ORBITAL a region of space where the probability of finding an electron is high Each orbital can hold 2 electrons an s orbital has a sphere of electron density it is lower in energy than other orbitals in the same shell because electrons are kept closer to the positively charged nucleus a p orbital has a dumbbell shape it is higher in energy than an s orbital in the same shell because its electron density is farther from the nucleus Exam date 91515 The electrons that surround a nucleus are confined to regions called the principle energy levels or SHELLS Electrons closer to the nucleus are held more tightly and are lower in energy The farther a shell is from the nucleus the larger its volume becomes and the more electrons it can hold shell 1 2 electrons shell 2 8 electons shell 3 18 electrons shell 4 32 electrons s subshell contains one s orbital p subshell has 3 p orbitals d subshell has 5 d orbitals f subshell has 7 f orbitals the 4s orbital is lower in energy than the 3d orbital so it is filled first the 5s orbital is lower in energy than the 4d orbital so it is filled first fill the electron configuration with electrons starting at the 1s orbital and going up in energy Ex C carbon atomic number is 6 1s22s22p2 Noble Gas Notation noble gas valence electrons ex Ar4s2 Electron Configurations electron configuration refers to how the electrons are arranged in the atom s orbitals VALENCE ELECTRONS electrons in the outermost shell Relating Valence Electrons to Group Number Exam date 91515 Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons and similar electronic configurations this causes them to have similar properties Electron Dot Symbols represents the number of valence electrons around an atom Periodic Trends Atomic Size The size of atoms increases down a column of the periodic table as the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus The size of atoms decreases across a row of the periodic table as the number of protons in the nucleus increase An increasing number of protons pulls the electrons closer to the nucleus so the atom get smaller IONIZATION ENERGY the energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom CATION positively charged ion Ionization energies decrease down a column of the periodic table as the valence electrons get farther from the positively charged nucleus Ionization energies generally increase across a row of the periodic table as the number of protons in the nucleus increases Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry NUCLEAR REACTION a reaction that involves the subatomic particles of the nucleus Isotopes RADIOISOTOPE a radioactive isotope unstable and spontaneously emits energy to form a more stable nucleus RADIOACTIVITY the nuclear radiation emitted spontaneously by an unstable radioactive isotope cannot be detected by the senses can damage or kill cells 10 Exam date 91515 food can be exposed to gamma radiation to kill living organisms and increase the shelf life food is not radioactive after the process Types of Radiation ALPHA PARTICLE a high energy particle that contains two protons and two nquons He nucleus low energy does not penetrate skin low penetration does not even penetrate air very well difficult to deal with if alpha particles are ingested mass 4 charge 2 BETA PARTICLE highenergy electron 1on gt 11p 019 mass 0 charge 1 better penetrator than alpha particles POSITRON called an anitparticle of a beta particle because their charges are different but their masses are the same 11p gt 1on We mass 0 charge 1 better penetrator than alpha particles antiparticles if they come in contact all the mass goes away and is converted to energy GAMMA RAYS highenergy radiation released from a radioactive nucleus 11 12 Exam date 91515 commonly accompanies other forms of radioactive decay mass 0 charge 0 very high energy light most energetic and most damaging penetrates shieldingyour body Nuclear Reactions RADIOACTIVE DECAY the process by which an unstable radioactive nucleus emits radiation forming a nucleus of new composition equation original nucleus gt new nucleus radiation emitted the sum of mass numbers must be equal on both sides of the equation and the sum of atomic numbers must be equal on both sides of the equation ALPHA EMISSION the decay of a nucleus by emitting an alpha particle the new nucleus has 2 fewer protons than the original nucleus therefore it is a different element BETA EMISSION the decay of a nucleus by emitting a beta particle the new nucleus has one more proton and one fewer neutron than the original nucleus the mass number is constant POSITRON EMISSION the decay of a nucleus by emitting a positron the new nucleus has one fewer proton and one more neutron than the original nucleus the mass number is constant GAMMA EMISSION the decay of a nucleus by emitting gamma radiation no change in atomic number or mass number HalfLife the HALFLIFE of a radioactive isotope is the time it takes for onehalf of the sample to decay If you want to image something in the body with a radioisotope you should use one with a relatively short half life dayshours 13 Exam date 91515 too long will stay in the body too short will not give you enough time to see The halflife of a radioactive isotope is a property of a given isotope and is dependent of the amount of sample temperature and pressure RADIOCARBON dating is based on the fact that the ratio of radioactive carbon14 to stable carbon12 is a constant value in a living organism Once the organism dies carbon14 decays decreasing its concentration while the concentration of carbon12 remains constant By comparing the ratio of carbon14 to carbon12 the age of a dead organism can be determined Artifacts older than about 50000 years have too little carbon14 to accurately estimate their age Detecting and Measuring Radioactivity Measuring the Radioactivity of a Sample GEIGER COUNTER a small portable device used for measuring radioactivity The amount of radioactivity in a sample is measured by the number of nuclei that decay per unit time disintegrationssecond 1 Curie Ci 37 x 1010disintegrationssecond 1 Ci 1000 milliCuries mCi 1 Ci 1000000 microCuries RAD radiation absorbed dose the amount of radiation absorbed by one gram of a substance REM radiation equivalent for man the amount of radiation that also factors in its energy and potential to damage tissue Radiation reduces ions where the don t belong breaks bonds between atoms in compoundsbreaks molecules Things that are higher energy cause more damage because they can penetrate more surfaces Radioisotopes Used in Diagnosis imaging of body parts Exam date 91515 Positron Emission Tomography PET Scans use radioisotopes that emit positrons when the nucleus decays a positron combines with an electron to form 2 gamma rays which create a scan of an organ Xrays CT Scans and MRls are also imaging techniques but they do not utilize radioactivity Radioisotopes Used in Treatment kill off ces Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion NUCLEAR FISSION the splitting apart of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and nquons NUCLEAR FUSION the joining together of two light nuclei to form a larger nucleus 14


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