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exam 1 study guide

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by: Eliza Lynch

exam 1 study guide GEOG 103 001

Eliza Lynch
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Geography
Larianne Collins (P)

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About this Document

This will include everything we covered in class up to exam 1!
Introduction to Geography
Larianne Collins (P)
Study Guide
50 ?




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2 reviews
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Ryan McFadden

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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 411 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/10/15
GEOG103 STUDY GUIDE Exam 1 toponym a place name Bismark ND 72 billion ppl on Earth geography the study of the earth as the home of the humans 0 crosses the sciencesocial science barrier both effect each other 0 geography as a spatial science looking at how the world changes over space Evolution of the Discipline Greek Roman amp Chinese geographers Greek first group we knew about to help us study geography Aristotle Eratosthenes Ptolemy Aristotle first one to recognize that the world we live in is round through observation Eratosthenes coined the phrase geography amp almost accurately figured out the circumference of the earth Ptolemy created the first world map in 200 AD Middle Ages geography almost died about but didn t thanks to the Islamic scholars Marco Polo Leig Eriksson exploration Age of Exploration Dias Columbus Balboa Magellan Mercator just know that they fall under this period This was the main time period that people were exploring the land amp world around them for things they could bring back to their landkingdom Figuring out how to make the world map more accurate 1780 basic outline of the current world map was established 18501950 Modern Geography Germans ruled geography first people to offer the studycollegiate discipline of geography Colonialism going out and conquering land imperialism a step further not only conquering the land but the ppl within the land and converting them to your own valuesviews Environmental Determinism geographical faultpeople trying to justify this idea ldea that environment determines human achievement Emergence of the census good thing Late 20th Century Special science amp the emergence of subfields Regional geography starts to decline qualitative methods began to increase w research Technology GIS remote sensing geospatial technologies Branches of Geography 1 Physical natural 2 Human cultural 3 GlScience argued as a third branch Humanenvironment interactions Approaches regionalsystematic Field work anywhere you can go and assess your surroundings Basic Concepts of Geography Geographic literacy not only knowing geographical factslocations but also understanding why Mandarin is the most widely spoken native language Landscapes Natural vs Culture Landscapes change constantly Natural may shape how people live but doesn t dictate how we will hills topography on campus Cultural the visible imprint of human activity built environment ex Shopping center roads russell house etc HumanEnvironmentNature Society Interactions Humans Modifv excreating farmland Humans Adapt ex birds nest built in a power line Loca on Absolute location physical addressspot on the planet where something exists latitude and longitudinal coordinates Relative locationdescribes a location in relation to something else most commonly how we talk about locations Site vs Situation Site an absolute location concept Describing what is at a certain place ONLY physical and cultural characteristics of a spot Humans can modify site characteristics Ex site factor Manhattan NY island on the coast abundance of fresh waternatural resourceshumans have obviously modified this making it larger w cement amp landfill Ex Columbia sandy soils on the congaree river on a hill English speaking etc Situation relation location concept how accessible and connectable is it to other places where it is situated compared to other things Where its situatedlocated can either helphurt them Ex Columbia SC 95 mi south of charlotte between Appalachian mounts amp Atlantic Ocean east of congaree river The Global Grid system of reference based on angular distance for locating points on the Earth s surface Use key reference pts to determine locations NS Poles Equator Prime Meridian 0 International Date Line 180 degrees exact flipside of the prime meridian NS poles aren t lines but points Lines of latitudes parallels run east amp west but measure how far NorthSouth something is scientifically derived by the sun can be accurately measured by the daylight Lines of longitude meridians run north amp south but measure how far eastwest something is of the prime meridian completely a human creation 1 degree is almost 70 miles total lines of longitude is 360 degrees Telling time from Longitude Longitude Act of 1714 John Harrison clockmaker who was the first person to accurately measure longitude and discover time zones 360 degrees in 24 hrs 15 degrees in 1 hr 36024 every time zone is 15 degrees if traveling east add 1 hr every 15 degrees if traveling west lose 1 hr every 15 degrees 24 time zones 15 degrees each Absolute direction based on cardinal points NESW Relative direction references a direction that is culturally based about where something is in relation to something else Absolute distance linear answer in miles etc Relative distance time money more meaningful units to us usually how we think ex a 5 min drive from my apt etc Scale describes the level of analysis based on the level of detail that we see how zoomed in you are local global national regional etc Space a portion of earth s surface the physical gap between 2 objects Individual shared activity space Publicactivity space is unowned and changed by whoever or whatever is currently occupying picture ex sand road people water etc all taking up space special patterns how space is dividedusedarranged Distribution the physical arrangement of something across space 3 ways to see distribution Density looking at the frequency of what is existing in space Concentration where is this phenomenon located Dispersedclustered Pattern random or noticeable pattern more visible patterns will signify something Diffusion how things spread through space Hearth place of origin ex Starbucks hearth in Seattle but has diffused internationally from there Diffusion often happens from close areas first and then expands to far away if it gets biggerpopular enough Types of Diffusion 0 Relocation Diffusion the spread of a feature through physical movement of people from one place to another Someonesomething physically going somewheremoving people ethnicities languages religion anything that a person brings with them 0 Contagious Diffusion the spread of a characteristic throughout the population by contact seeing or hearing about something from someone else then it catches on etc disease media social mediaex ice bucket challenge sorority girls with black dresses on gameday o Hierarchical Diffusion the spread of an idea from the most connected people or places to other people or places anything that comes about from somewhere or someone that is well connected Must start somewhere or someplace with significance must be able to pinpoint where it started ex Fashion starting in Milan Paris etc but takes a while to diffuse Examples What type of diffusion Instagram use contagious Puerto Rican cuisine in NYC relocation Vietnamese language in Columbia relocation Popularity of plastic surgery hierarchical although it was somewhat common before Hollywoodfamous people made it such a big deal to what it is now Adoption of horse cultural by Native Americans contagious saw the conquistadors with horses first Christianity in the United States relocation someone brought it here BYOB bag contagious Diffusion is special interaction Every place is nothing more than a fusion of other places Spatial Interaction Tobler s f t aw m geography Everything is related but things that are near are more similar than things that are far 0 Ex Columbia and Charleston are different but become similar when compared to a place of greater distance different culture like Japan 0 Ocean temperature example from class Distance Decav the farther in distance two things are in distance the less interaction there is between them 0 Not nearly as true as it used to be due to social media etc Spacetime compression it takes less time for something to move from one location to the next 0 Accessibility even if they re close they can be less accessible if land features are in the way etc 0 Connectivity Globalization expansion of economic political amp cultural processes increasing interconnectedness across borders scale of the world is shrinking o Processes that are making us feelbecome more interconnected through networks Networks interconnected nodes without a center Ex trade transportation communication development government corporate Malcom McLean 1977 truck driver in Hoboken NJglobalization ted talk Can be credited for Containerization the reason we have a global marketplace 0 economy promotes globalization NYC London Tokyo stock markets here Transnational Corporations corporation that exists in multiple countries 0 Vertical Integration parent company that owns other companies that have all parts of the chain on it Disney owns many other companies 0 Horizontal lntegration one parent company who owns all the stores with the same supply chain banana republic gap old navy Concept of Globalization Pros vs Cons PROS 0 Convenience networking 0 Wealth trade raises wellbeing of all CONS 0 Digital divide heightened people with or without access to technologies 0 Uneven development making rich richer and the poor poorer o Intolerance since were more interconnected we have people living all over the planet 0 Uniform landscapes looks the same all over no matter what such as McDonalds social customs jeans talking on cell phone beliefs religions etc languages Many people see this as taking away from local culture Regions MDCs v LDCs More Developed Countries Vs Less Developed Countries 2 broad regions of the world possession of wealth amp material goods differs in each region according to types of economic activities that take place there m global M the largest most developed areas where most core and financial decisions are made Russia amp japan are alone in their geographic regions more developed than their surrounding regions Peripherv Cllobal south the less developed areas not in the prime time economic decision making areas Region an area with at least 1 common characteristic that differentiates it from adjacent areas Regions answer the question why is HERE different from THERE Regions simply and organize existing complexities of space review map on PowerPoint to have as mental map regions vary in size from small to large scale of analysis characteristics can developchange over time Where is the south location agriculture industry physical history peopleculture Hard lines vs transition zones transition zone ex saying y all vs you guys Types of Regions Formal Regions ex People speak English in US time zones political units landform regions agricultural land use Columbia 0 distinguished by uniformity of a single physicalcultural characteristic 0 not everyoneeverything shares this characteristic but it is predominant 0 include precisely bounded political regions defined by uniform adminlaw 0 hard boundaries south example is not a formal region Functional Reoions most have to do with the economy ex stores tv markets urban commuter sheds airline hubs banking networks from major cities store market areas Columbia metropolitan area 0 An area organized around a center point node 0 Unity is defined by activities that take place Feature dominates in importance around the node Connections diminish with distance hinterlandsphere of influence Ex apple would have a bigger functional region than CVS because CVS is more frequent Perceptual Regions will waiver from person to person very subjective Identified by locals not outsiders vernacular An area that people believe to exist mental maps perceptions lnformally structured fuzzy boundaries Reflect feelingsimages rather than objective data sense of place Zone of Influence for Latter Day Saints 0 Core where the characteristic we are looking at is predominantpure ex gamecock country Columbia SC 0 Domain characteristic is still dominant but begins fading may not be the only thing found ex gamecock country SC in general minus Clemson o Sphere remnants of the characteristic exist but are certainly not dominant or common at all ex gamecock country USC fans in other states Hierarchical Arrangement Why are regions useful helps us organize think of things What type of region Quiz examples French speaking country Formal Southern California Perceptual Arizona Formal Corn belt Formal WIS TV viewing area Functional Midwest Perceptual Jimmy johns delivering zone Functional Charleston metropolitan area Functional City of cola Formal 0 New England patriots land perceptual Place anything you can describe about it but not saying the name of it The uniqueness of a specific location distinctive physicalhuman features Features that describe a location WITHOUT using toponyms COO 0000 000000000 Place Used to describe a location Dynamic constantly changing Sequent occupance people who occupy space sequentially ex ppl who live in the old mills which is remnant from textile area but now theyre apt but now they have new occupants When space has meaning we say it has a sense of PLACE attitudesfeelings for that particular location as a result of experiences socially constructed place attachmentplace identity ex teenager in a park vs mom with baby in a park placelessness loss of uniqueness of place in a cultural landscape photo of Birdseye view of gas stationhighwayMcDonalds Place Site amp Situation ex Colombia South America place might not have any sense of place or attachment site andes mountain coffee oil Spanish speaking situation between oceans south America near the equator near panama Maps Maps are a means of communication give the geographic background contains an element of location reduction of a visual reality element of scale one component of a geographic map is map literacy Cartography the art science amp technology of mapmaking all maps are distorted in some way either shape area distance or direction all 4 of those qualities cannot be preserved on a flat piece of paper Types of Maps Reference maps general purpose maps atlas style ex physical political topographic topographic use contour lines which display elevationincline iso line connects continuous points of the same value ex of contour lines iso therms connect points of equal value measuring temperature same temp no analyzation going on with these maps just generally looking where something is Thematic maps special purpose maps ex cartogram choropleth dot proportional symbols etc 0 represent 1 or 2 variables in map form population income ethnicity etc o the language uses color shape size shadows etc o symbology point line polygon every single map is made up of those 0 2 main purposes presentation of data amp ANALYSIS of data Types of Thematic Maps 0 dot maps all dots the same size with what they re representing 0 proportional symbols map points are different sizes representing different magnitudevolume bigger symbols are for bigger areas etc 0 flow line maps shows movement 1 theme ex migration from Latin America to US 0 area class maps show different areas represented by different colors classified areas with be in the key 0 choropleth map uses usually only 1 colorshadings of that color to differentiate data ex life expectancy map shown in class generally a percentagemathematical calculation requiredcounting o cartogram map cartoon uses size to display data size is exaggerated based on value Virtual amp interactive maps ex google earth MapQuest google maps 0 maps which users control what they want to includesee Mental maps our perception of how we see certain placesif we were asked to draw a map Map scale the ratio of map distance to group distance ex word statement graphic scale representative fraction 0 one inch equals 5 mile 0 graphic scale is the only one that remains absolutetrue no matter what what is the level of detail 0 Small scale small detail LARGE area 0 Large scale large detail SMALL area 0 Scale and area are opposite o All relative to other maps which you are comparing them to Scale affects generalization o Rivers area line feature 0 Cities area point feature Purposes of Maps travel routes pattern comparison location analysis finding the best location for new store etc display of changing data crime density hot spots where are crimes more or less likely to occur political statements exgrape chile map Mapping Issues Bad maps no titles no labels in legend too busyhard to read Color red used to alarm people Deceit making maps wrong on purpose cold war Russia map ex Representation choice data doesn t change but the way we represent it can errors maps may represent two roads in different locations since they re made with human error purposeful errors putting mistakes on maps to follow their data and see copyright issues How does one display a round world on a flat surface Map projection the science of transferring locations on earth surface to a flat map 0 Flattening the earth is a geometry problem o All maps are distorted in different ways and to different degrees SADD 0 Area of least distortion are closest to where developable surface touches the globe paper if your doing it how described below o 3 typicalclasses of map projections developable surfaces conic cylindrical planar oval how we make projections 91015 Properties of Projection ex missile threat 1 Equal area preserves areas in the correct proportion of reality 0 Distorts shapes 2 Conformal preserves correct angular shapes so that it looks right 0 Distorts area 3 Equidistant preserves true distances in one direction or along selected lines from 1 point 0 Distorts area 4 Azimuthal maintains true directions from one central point to all other points 0 Can also be equidistant conformal or equal area but not all 4 but distorts everything excluding direction Geosoatial Technolooies What are they 1 GPS global positioning system 0 Uses satellites to LOCATE something on earth s surface 0 Determines precise location of something on earth in 3 dimensions latitude longitude altitude 0 Atomic clocks broadcast info to receivers which analyze time signals to determine location 0 based on time 2 Remote Sensing 0 Uses satellites to DESCRIBE earth s surface 0 science of obtaining amp recording images of earth s surface from a sensing device not in direct contact w the surface 0 photographs thermal scanners radar lidar 0 ex ocean temps soil coverage sea level rise deforestation 0 play a huge role in emergency management GPS does too 3 GIS Geographic Information SystemScience o absolutely revolutionized the way people make amp use maps 0 all computer based system for capturing storing querying analyzing and displaying geospatial data 0 maps in layers spatial overlay o we can view things simultaneously or separately 0 a tool that allows us to understand spatial info and solve real world problems 0 helps calculate whether relationships between objects are significant or coincidental 0 all of business is run by this changing how we live What is geospatial data 1 Geo Spatial info Location Where is it coordinateslat amp long 2 Spatial Non Spatial characteristics what is it Data Models how we simplify real world spatial information into a GIS 1 Raster data model Pixilation pictures satellite image that s real amp fast use when boundaries are not as precise ex vegetation cover soil coverage etc 2 Vector data model Points lines polygons use when you have absolute boundaries Raster is faster but vector looks more correctel Data Acquisition Where does data come from Scanning and referencing paper maps Satellite imagery amp aerial photos GPS data Field survey Government agenciesonline sources You location services on your phone when you tweet etc GIS applications public safety coastal management commercialbusiness health care ADDITIONAL EXAM INFO Exam 15 50 questions 2 pts each 34 mult choice 10 true false 6 short answerfill in the blank definitions etc Lectures Included lntro basic concepts thinking geographically placeregions maps amp geospatial technologies Know the mental map that s on the PowerPoint Everything we ve talked about Some include Types of maps Geospatial technologies Loca ons What is geog Diffusion Types of regions Space Place Site absolute location Example Questions TF The earths travel 15 degrees every hour true Lines of latitude converge at poles false Map of usc campus would be small scale compared to SC state map false A sphere is where the purest concentration of a phenomenon is found false Bible belt is an example of a formal region true


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