ANTH 130 Exam I Review Questions
This does not encompass all materials which may be tested on the exam. It is the students’ responsibility
to keep up with course materials and to study thoroughly for the exam.
1. Define the sub-fields of anthropology and give one example of the type of research each might
Linguistic: studies the way a culture or where people start based on language
Biological: studies the changed in the body overtime (includes some primates i.e. homonin)
Archaeological: study of cultural materials and items in “features” (study of peoples trash)
Cultural: studies the way cultures interact with one another and how they work within themselves
3. What is applied anthropology? What type of research might an applied anthropologist do? Applied Anthropology is the application of data, perspective, theory and methods used to identify/asses/solve social problems. They could run program analysis, political analysis, researchers, trainers (for companies, etc.), Culture brokers, etc.
4. Describe some of the difficulties and dilemmas Rabinow, Small, and Pendry encountered during
research. Rabinow wrote Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco he ran into difficulties of not having good informants, and not being able to connect to the people as well at first because of language issues, he also could not become close with anyone in particular because the revolution was a touchy subject and is had only been 12 years prior.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the abdominal bone called?
Small wrote Voyages and she as well needed to learn the language but also she had to keep her Jewish heritage a secret because no one would talk to her if they knew. She also had to become a of a family to ultimately be accepted because she was too high-up in ranking for people to talk to her
Pendry did research on single mothers in the USA, she was looking into the African American culture set, and there she found a lot of personal safety problems of people not wanting her to go to certain areas because of her race. She also had a
tough time finding people to fit her categories, she ran into an issue of age where one lady did not want to her to talk to the people in her housing complex because Pendry could not connect with her since Pendry was so much younger, etc.
5. What are some main anthropological methods? “Field work” Quantitative Research (30%) vs Qualitative Research (70%) i.e. Participant Observation, Interviews: Informal Conversations, Semi-Structured Interviews, Structured
Interviews (for systematic data), Survey (random samples and variables involved), Open ended questions vs Close ended questions
6. What is qualitative data? What is quantitative data? Qualitative data is something you do not express in numbers, but with language and description; i.e. favorite color, or measurements such as tall vs small, medium vs large etc.
Quantitative data is something that you can put a number to and divide; generally deals with numbers and you can quantify; i.e. length (ex: 3 feet), height (ex: 56 inches), weight (ex: 140 lbs), etc. Don't forget about the age old question of How federal court gets jurisdiction?
7. What methods might give you qualitative data? Quantitative? You can gather Qualitative data from conducting interviews with open ended questions and from participant observation. Quantitative data can be gathered by using closed ended questions, and surveys etc.
8. Review your dream research project and the feedback from your TA. WE have to be able to rewrite our projects so try to cut it down to a size that you can easily write in the allotted time for the exam. AKA big picture hit major parts.
2. What is a sub-culture? The idea that there are cultures within a culture, generally based on region, ethnicity, language, class, religion, and age, i.e. hip-hop, Amish, Italian-American, etc. Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we need to justify things?
3. Key terms to know, define, and apply: ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, cultural rights, and
human rights. Ethnocentrism: to view one’s own culture as best and try to judge others based on your own standards; judging as a protestant Christian that women in Islam are oppressed because they HAVE to wear head coverings.
Cultural relativism: a position that the values and ideas of cultures are not all the same and deserve respect; not making moral judgement, but suspending your own to see what the culture is to its people.
Cultural rights: the doctrine that certain rights are vested not in the individuals but in the groups as a whole; speaking about religious/ethnic minorities and indigenous societies. Don't forget about the age old question of What message actually gets put out to the public?
Human rights: the doctrine that invokes a realm of justice/morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions; this includes the rights to speak freely, think of our Bill of Rights
1. What is a mayordomo? What do they do? Why? They throw lavish parties as praise to God either asking or thanking for health, wealth, and life. Mayordomo means person in charge of a group project, in Zapotec this is generally one or two families dependent on the party. It is tradition to the Zapotec culture again to praise God and remind themselves of their culture. This follows tradition of redistribution to combat against the changing society.
2. How did migration affect religious practices seen in the film? Due to migration there are fewer and fewer people to participate in practices, and this means children are being exposed to other cultures and things over time have changed in the base of the Zapotec society. From a community that would help one another to now a larger gap in the economics of the society. Not everyone speaks the Zapotec language, there has been a large shift to Spanish, and Catholic religion comes to being part their original religious practices. Don't forget about the age old question of When did the first african arrive in america?
1. What is animism? What is religion? Animism is the belief in spiritual powers. Religion is the beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, forces and powers
3. Define: mana, taboo, liminality, communitas, collective effervescence, shaman, totems. Think of We also discuss several other topics like How do you escape american dream?
an example of each of these using the case studies from class (the texts or film clips).
Mana: Scared impersonal force existing in the universe; in Melanesian/Polynesian religions
Liminality: change in the position of society, rite of passage; i.e. Batmisva, Barmisva,
Communitas: Strong community spirit
4. What are rituals and rites of passages? How are they different? Think of an example of each
from class. Rituals are formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped. They include liturgical orders, and actions. They are social acts and some participants are more committed than others.
Rites of passage can be individualized or collective. It is when there is a change from one stage of life to another.
5. What, according to Kottak, is the role or function of religion? Religion is either to oppress or spark change. It is a way to cope with adversity, allows
6. How does religion operate as a form of social control or change? Pages 194-195 and 199-200 in Kottak. This idea that religion creates a common ground to either control or change; control think Salem Witch trials; change think Islamic Revolution in Iran
80% over Cathy Smalls Examples,
Who is Malia from Tonga informant for Cathy
Who is Lio Jr/ what happens to him when he migrates What is Tapa/ Tapa making groups (how has it changed) Cloth used once as currency, groups where
Jewish vs Catholics
Shows how culture can be learned and shared without actual
What is Cathy’s subject position? How did it change when she came back to the United States, and Tongan’s start moving over.
Female, White, something else in religious, single: compared to the Tongan society she would be relatively low on the totem pole she ends up combating that because she becomes an elder daughter for Malia and Atu; this raises Malia and Atu’s status in the village.
She became the informant for the Tongans; she is the helper instead of being the helpie
“Money dance” eldest daughter dancing, described on paged 150 in Cathy Smalls book. Used as a fund raising event, the move overseas has not changed that much
“Challenge dance” “War dance” goes into a liminality of sorts, many cultures have a Haka or form of it.
Extended response Roughly: RESPOND TO THESE EVEN BULLPOINTS SHOULD GET YOU SOME POINTS (10pt= 2 questions; 4pt=1; 20pt=1=Dream Research)
1) Discuss two examples that illustrate how Cathy Smalls subject position and how that effected the relationship with people during her field work and how that effected the content and interpretation of her research. (has four parts)
2) Supposed Lio Jr went to college and is becoming an anthropologist, he chooses the Tongan/ Tongan-Americans, explain what he would choose to investigate, why he would choose it, and one example of how his subject position is going to affect his research. (has five parts)
3) Describe one example how life in Tonga has been effected by Tongans who have migrated out of Tonga.
4) Dream Research Project