Study Guide For Exam #1
Study Guide For Exam #1 Psych 110
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlin Reardon on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Jerika C Norona in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/10/15
820 Chapter 1 Science vs Intuition Psychology The scienti c study of the mind brain and behavior Multiple levels of analysis 0 Biological influences 0 Mental influences o Behavioral influences 0 Social influences The larger culture that we live in Take home point We need to consider all the different parts of our lives that make us human Everything comes together The challenges of psychology Behavior is multiply determined produces by many factors 0 Did the social environment around them contribute to the problem 0 We cannot explain behavior with a single variable Different factors work together 0 Example Anorexia nervosa disorder that is characterized by a person39s intense fear of gaining weight I Different factors Perfectionists exercise narcotically don t eat live in a culture where thinner people are idolized are anxious 0 Women who are perfectionists are also anxious also exercise a lot and are concerned with body image 0 These two things have similarities but are different because all factors work together Individual differences Variations among people in their thinking emotions personality and behavior 0 The things that make us all unique pose a challenge People influence each other 0 The way we act in one moment can be different than another moment because of the people that are in the room surrounding you You conform to your surroundings Cultural differences Our behaviors are governed by our surroundings o It is hard to tell what comes from an individual and what comes from the larger cultural context We can t trust common sense 0 Our intuitive understanding about ourselves and other people is almost always wrong 0 When we turn to research we see ways in which our common sense is wrong We are prone to naive realism The belief that we see the world precisely as it is 0 Example The dress White and gold or black and blue 0 What we see is not what it may be 0 Psychology helps us determine when we can trust our common sense and when we can t Psychology as a science Scienti c theory An explanation for a larger number of findings in the natural world Hypotheses Testable predictions generated by scientific theory 0 All scientific studies are biased 0 Good scientists are aware of their biases and can produce a study that will exclude it Con rmation bias Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our beliefs and deny dismiss or distort evidence that contradicts them 0 Example Taylor Swift 0 Our common sense can lead us astray 824 Warning signs of pseudoscience Pseudoscience Sets of claims that seem scientific but are not Warning signs 0 Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis Escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory used to protect their theory from falsification 0 Example ESP extra sensory perception psychic o Falsifiability They come up with an excuse to make it seem like there is a reason for it not working 0 Overreliance on anecdotes Using specific stories to generalize their belief or the theory to others 0 Example my cousin said that to be cured of ADHD o Pseudoscience takes this one step further saying because this worked for me this will work for you also Why are we so drawn to pseudoscience Our brains are predisposed to make order out of disorder Brains are programmed to take all this information in and make sense of it If we didn t have the tendency to make sense of everything we would go crazy Apophenia Perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated and even random phenomena o It is easier to believe the fabricated stories the assassination of JFK conspiracy theories then to believe that someone we loved died for no reason 0 We find comfort in our beliefs our ideas Why should we care about the dangers of pseudoscience Forgoing opportunities to seek scientifically effective treatments Example Depression and anxiety Direct harm Example Rebirthing therapy If we don t take a long hard look at the accounts of other it can cause harm to others Inability to think scientifically Scientific Thinking Fact vs Fiction Scienti c Skepticism Approach of evaluation all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them Critical Thinking Set of skills for evaluating all claims in an openminded and careful fashion 5 this natural herb caused my son In order for us to practice skepticism what it looks like is us practice critical thinking Practice claims in an open minded yet careful fashion 1 Consider rival hvpothesis There can be multiple findings about a certain thing When a claim comes to us we have to consider other claims as well Example Jay Z and Solange 2 Correlation isn t causation When two things happen at the same time that does not mean that one things caused the other 3 Falsifiability Being able to determine whether a claim theoretically can be disproven For a claim to be meaningful it must be falsifiable or able to be disproved Example Freud developed the idea of the unconscious where we hold all of the things that are too threatening for us to think about The problem with this theory is that there is always an excuse Of course you don t want to sleep with your mother you don t realize you want to 4 Replicability Being able to repeat a study and find the same findings When a study39s findings are able to be duplicated ideally by an independent investigator Whenever we evaluate a claim we need to be able to determine if these findings have shown up again and again or if it was just a fluke Example Levitation 5 Extraordinarv claims require extraordinarv evidence The more outlandish that a claim sounds the more evidence is needed to support it Example Aliens eating rice all the time will help you lose weight For these you need evidence that is as ridiculous as the claim 6 Occam s razor If there are two explanations to a foreign event we should first select the simplest one The simplest solution are the best Example Car breaking down out of gas Great Debates of Psychology Naturenurture debate 0 Genetics or environment 0 Are our behaviors attributable to our genes or to out rearing environments 0 Genes and the environment work together to determine human behaviors Free willdeterminism debate 0 To what extent are our behaviors freely selected rather than caused by factors outside of our control 0 Do we go to class because we want to or because we want to pass the class 0 It s not that we want to do something but its because we don t want to get hurt or get in trouble Chapter 2 Research Methods Behavioral Research 0 Goal of behavioral research to study the thoughts feelings and behavior of human beings and animals 0 Empirical Based of a systematic collection and analysis of data 0 We are systematically collecting data 0 Data Information collected through formal observation or measurement 0 Observational Watching right in front of your 0 Measurement Self reporting symptoms and experiences things like that Scientific Method 0 lntuition can be wrong 0 Hindsight Bias The tendency to think that we could have predicted something that we probably could not have predicted I I knew that was going to happen to me I knew I should have done this 0 Scienti c Method Set of assumptions rules and procedures that scientists use when conducting research 0 This method is objective Basic and Applied Research Basic Research Research designed to answer fundamental questions about behavior rather than to address as specific realworld problem 0 Example Studies on how children learn language or that serotonin is related to depression end of study Applied Research Research designed to investigate issues that have implications for everyday life and to provide solutions for realworld problems 0 Example Serotonin is related to depression and create a medication to help the problem Operational De nition Precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable 0 Happiness it can be defined by many people in many ways So instead you use a number the number of times someone smiles in one hour 0 There is no such thing as a correct or perfect operational definition but in order for a definition to be good there must be a number attached to a concept 5 H 826 4 Approaches to Studying Behavior Research Design Specific method a researcher uses to collect analyze and interpret data 1 Naturalistic Observation A form of research design in which researchers watch behaviors in real world settings without being able to manipulate people39s behaviors m Watch behavior in real world settings See how things unfold naturally Examples Animals one way mirror with children groups of people Strengths High in external validity the extent in which we can generalize findings Limitations Low in internal validity we can t really tell what causes the different things that we see We can not infer cause and effect 2 Case Studies The examination of one person or a small number of people 2 or 3 m To examine one person in depth Example People who have rare psychological disorders rare types of brain damage rare developmental conditions Genie Strengths Allow us to study rare or unusual phenomena can offer insights for later systematic testing Limitations Anecdotal evidence do not allow us to infer causation 3 Correlational Designs Examining whether two variables are related to one another Variable Any attribute that can assume different values about different people or across different times or places m Measure two or more relevant variables and an assessment of the relationship between or among those variables Correlations allow us to make predictions Examples GPA or ACT scores used to predict dropout in college Strengths Allows testing of expected relationships between and among variables and making of predictions Limitations Cannot be used to draw inferences about the causal relationships between and among variables there could be alternative explanations People who get better test grades may not get better test grades because they sit in the front they may sit in the front because they get to class first 4 Experimental Designs lnvolves the active creation or manipulation of a given situation orexpenence m To assess the impact of one or more experimental manipulations on a dependent variable Example Strength Allows drawing of conclusions about the causal relationships among variables Limitations Does not allow for experimental manipulation of many important variables Can only provide evidence for causal relationships but cannot actually prove a causal relationship Basic Goal of Ethical Research Protect participants from physical and psychological harm Stanley Milgram s study of authority electric shock study Provide freedom of choice about participating in research Each individual is entitled to the opportunity to learn about the research and to choose to participate or not participate without considering any other factors Maintain awareness of power differentials between researchers and participants Abuses of power Researcher is perceived to have more power than the participants Might affect participants comfort with opting out of the study Honestly describe the nature and use of the research to participate Whenever the research participants are not completely and fully informed about the sure of the research project before participating in it Example Milgram s study Necessary when it is needed to get participants to act naturally and to enable the study of social phenomena Used if participants are likely to change their behavior if they knew what was being studied Informed Consent The practice of providing research participants with information about the nature of the research project before they make a decision about whether or not to participate Description of the study and duration Description of risks and benefits Compensation Contact information Description of voluntary participation Deb e ng Participants should be fully debriefed after studies Debrie ng Information given to a participant designed to explain the purposes and procedures of the research and remove harmful after effects of participation Simulation Studies 0 Special kinds of studies where participants are fully informed about the study and are asked to behave as if they were in the social setting of interest 0 Problems Stanford Prison Experiment 831 Chapter 3 Biological Psychology Nerve Cells Communication Portals Neurons Nerve cells specialized for communication 0 There are 100 billion in the brain 0 Communicate with one another 0 Anatomy of the neuron o Dendrite Responsible for receiving information from neighboring neurons I Receptors antenna on cell phones pick up external information I Transmits information into the cell body and through a long piece called the axon I Goal to transmit information to cell body through the axon to the axon terminal 0 Cell Body Central region of the neuron I Contains the nucleus I Most important part Axon Portion of the neuron that sends signals Myelin Sheath Nucleus o Schwann Cell 0 Axon Terminal Knoblike structures at the end of an axon that send out information I Contains synaptic vesicles Tiny spheres that contain neurotransmitters 0 Contains the information and energy 0 Neurotransmitters inside the Synaptic Vesicles are what do the communicating o Synapse Space between two connecting neurons through which messages are transmitted Neurotransmitters and Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Medication Drugs that interact with neurotransmitters systems 0 Opiates o Reduces emotional response to painful stimuli o Tranquilizers o Stimulate GABA receptor sites and reducing neural activity 0 Schizophrenia Medication o Prevents dopamine from binding to receptors 0 Neurotransmitters are target for these drugs Neural Plasticity How and when the brain changes Plasticity The ability of the nervous system to change 0 Our brains are constantly changing and that is thanks to the experiences we have 0 Growth of dendrites and axons 0 They extend longer than before and have the ability to communicate with different neurons 0 Synaptogenesis Formation of new synapses o This is a result of the growth of axon and dendrites Pruning Death of certain neurons that aren t useful Myelination Insulation of axons with myelin sheath 0 When the myelin growths the information can travel faster The nervous System Central Nervous System CNS 0 Connects the brain and the spinal cord and controls the mind and behavior Forebrain cerebrum Part of the brain that allows advanced intellectual abilities o Frontal Lobe Motor functions language memory and planning 0 Most evolved and complex part of the brain Highly developed 0 Parietal Lobe Touch and perception 0 Temporal Lobe Hearing understanding language and memory 0 One function is not always correlated with one part of the brain Multiple parts of the brain are responsible for memory o Occipital Lobe Vision As we get closer to the back of the brain and the spinal cord we fall further from the primitive functions such as vision Peripheral Nervous System PNS 0 Includes nerves that extend outside the CNS 0 Somatic Responsible for everything voluntary everything that we consciously chose to do 0 Autonomic Everything that is involuntary like breathing or the heart beating 0 Things that we automatically do I Sympathetic Fight or flight response 0 Readies the body for action 0 Adrenaline I Parasvmpathetic Responsible for when you are sleeping ie building up energy you have lost during the day digestion o Calms the body down 92 Brain Mapping Methods Phrenology Early attempt to map the brain 0 Patients with brain damage in various areas did not have the predicted psychological deficits Brain Damage 0 Lesions created in animals to pinpoint different areas 0 Different parts of the brain work together although there are some areas primarily responsible for broad areas like language and memory 0 They are not compartmentalized Measuring Brain Activity 0 ElectroencephalographyEEG Magnetic resonance imaging MRI 0 Uses magnets to see brain structure 0 2 dimensional 0 Better for soft tissue detect energy output Computer tomography CT 0 Uses x rays to use magnetic field to see brain structure 0 3 dimensional image Positron emission tomography PET 0 Measures consumption of glucose like molecules tagged with radioactive molecules 0 Show living brain activity Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI 0 Measure BOLD Blood oxygenation level dependent changes in blood oxygen level The Brain in Action 0 How much of our brains do we use 0 Myth We only use 10 of our brains 0 Reality Every part of the brain has a function 0 Which parts of our brains do we use for what 0 Localization of function Identified brain areas that are active during a particular psychological task 0 Just as multiple brain regions contribute to each psychological function individual brain areas contribute to multiple psychological functions 0 What side of our brains do we use for what 0 Lateralization Cognitive function that relies more on one side of the brain than the other 0 Splitbrain surgery Procedure that involves severing the corpus callosum to reduce the spread of epileptic seizures I Present stimuli to the left or right visual fields I Most information ends up on the opposite side of the visual cortex 0 Leftbrained vs Rightbrain 0 Myth Left brained people are logical and right brained people are more artistic Nature and Nurture Chromosomes Slender thread inside a cell39s nucleus that carries genes Genes Genetic material composed of DNA Genotype A set of genes transmitted from parents to offspring Phenotype Set of observable traits 0 Dominant gene Masks other genes effects 0 Recessive Gene Expressed only in the absence of a dominant gene Behavioral Genetics 0 Examine the influence of nature and nurture on psychological traits o Heritability Percentage of the variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes 0 The extent to which genes contribute to difference in a trait 0 Major misconceptions I Heritability applies to a single individual 0 Wrong It applies to groups of people I Heritability tells us whether a trait can be changed 0 Wrong A trait can be changed no matter how heritable it is I Heritability is a fixed number 0 Wrong Heritability can differ across different time periods and populations Behavioral Genetic Designs 0 Allows us to study the presence of absence of a trait among different relatives 0 How much both genes and environment contribute to a trait 0 Family Study How characteristics run in intact families 0 Twin Study How traits differ in identical vs fraternal twins 0 Adoption Study How traits vary in individuals raised apart from their biological parents 99 Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception Sensation Detection of physical energy by sense organs Taste smelling hearing When our senses pick up on stimulation Perception Brain39s interpretation of senses Making sense of a sensation Someone taps you on the shoulder and you think there is someone behind me Visual Perception o Retina Converts light into neural activity 0 Translates light into different information that your brain can understand 0 Responsible for perception 0 Receptor Cells I Cells that receive information I Rods Shapes and forms 0 When in a movie theatre when it is dark it is hard to see the color of the chairs you can mostly see the shape Used when there is not enough light to see color More rods than cones to survive we do not need to see color but we need to see the shapes of objects to survive I Cones Colors Macula Optic Nerve Vitreous Rests on top of the cornea o Focuses light adjusts the amount of light that is coming in to let the pupil know to expand or contract 0 Accommodations Changing the shape of the lens to focuses so you can see sharper images 0 M Opening at the center of an iris o Lets in light Control center of how much light the eye allows into the back of the eye 0 Expands and contracts based on how much light it wants to let in o Pupil dilates with darkness to allow more light to come into your eye 0 Pupil gets smaller if it is light because too much light can be damaging to eye 0 Cornea The curved transparent dome Layer over the sclera pupil and iris o Bendnght o m The colored part of the eye 0 lris varies from each individual 0 Contains muscles that controls the pupil o Sclera The main white eyeball part of the eye Gestalt Principles Gestalt Seeing things as a whole Road map for how we make sense of our perceptual worlds 0 Term used for the various rules that our brain uses to make sense of the information that is in front of us Proximity Similarity Continuity Closure Symmetry 6 Figureground Depth Perception Being able to see how far something is o 2 cues to gauge depth 0 Monocular Depth Cues Stimuli that allow us to judge depth using one eye I Relative Size Distant objects look smaller than closer object o The farther away an object is the smaller they look I Texture Gradient Texture becomes less apparent with more distance 0 Details become less clear the farther away it is o Binocular Depth Cues Need both eyes to be able to judge depth I Binocular Disbarity Our eyes transmit different information for near objects but see distant objects similarly o The closer an object is the more discrepant those objects are going to be c Farther away there may not be that many differences between what your left and right eyes see 01erpr Our Bodily Senses o Somatosensorv Svstem Touch and pain 0 The system we use for touch and pain 0 When we sense touch or temperature especially pain we are able to sense them because of nerve endings I Nerve Endings Distributed all over the body 0 They are not distributed in the same amount throughout the body Fingertips have the largest abundance of nerve endings Places like our back has fewer nerve endings I Examples Stubbing your toe Touch transmits to your nervous system faster than pain Sometimes you realize you stubbed your toes faster than your body can realize its in pain because the extremities are the farthest from your nervous system I Pain Thresholds Some people are really sensitive and some people are not Individuals vary in how much pain that they can tolerate I Controlling Pain Psychologists believe that everyone has the ability to control pain psychologically I Pain Insensitivity Without it we wouldn t be able to tell if we were being harmed o Proprioception kinesthetic Sense body movement position 0 Kinesthetic Sense Helps us keep track of where we are and move efficiently 0 We use proprioceptors to sense muscle strength and force I Two kinds of proprioceptors 0 Stretch Receptors embedded in our muscles 0 Forced Detectors in embedded in our muscle tendons o Vestibular Sense Equilibrium and balance our sense of equilibrium enables us to sense and maintain our balance as we move 0 This is the process that happens within our ears 0 Due to 3 fluidfilled semicircular canals in the inner ear I We don t have entire control of it because we don t really know that we are out of balance until we are falling 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