New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

midterm study guide

by: Aimee Castillon

midterm study guide PSYC 372

Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Physiological Psychology
Jennifer Sontag

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Most of the content contain answers from previous quizzes and the practice exam. The diagrams in the document were taken from Google Images.
Physiological Psychology
Jennifer Sontag
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Physiological Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 372 at George Mason University taught by Jennifer Sontag in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


Reviews for midterm study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/10/15
PSYC 372 Midterm Study Guide Chapter 1 Biopsychology as a Neuroscience biopsychology is a biological approach to the study of psychology Biopsychology is also known as psychobiology behavioral biology and behavioral neuroscience The major method used in cognitive neuroscience research is functional brain imaging applied research is intended to bring about direct benefit to humankind The use of nonhuman animals in biopsychology research at universities is largely regulated Biopsychologists can have training in one or more of the following disciplines Neuroanatomy study of the structure of the nervous system Neurochemistry study of chemical bases of neural activity Neuropathology study of nervous system disorders Neuropharmacology study of effects of drugs on neural activity Neurophysiology study of functions and activities of the nervous system Experiment method used to determine whether a change in one variable causes a change in another variable Independent variable treatment condition manipulated by experimenter Dependent variable measured by the experimenter Marked by random assignment to treatment conditions Efforts are made to avoid confounding variables Subdisciplines of biopsychology Physiological psychology study of neural mechanisms in behavior e microdialysis Psychopharmacology study of behavioral andor neural effects of drugs on behavior Neuropsychology study of the psychological effects on brain damage Psychophysiology study of relationship bt physiological activity and psychological processes Cognitive neuroscience study of the neural bases of cognition thoughts memories attention complex perceptual processes Comparative psychology comparison of behavior of different species to understand evolution genetics and adaptiveness of behavior Chapter 3 Anatomy Two major divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system brain spinal cord retina of the eye and the Peripheral nervous system somatic nervous system Interacts with external environment Afferent nerves carry sensory information from sense organs skin skeletal muscles joints etc to the CNS while efferent nerves carry motor movement signals from CNS to skeletal muscles autonomic nervous system Regulates body s internal environment 2 kinds sympathetic nerves stimulate organize and mobilize energy resources in threateningstressful situations fight or flight parasympathetic nerves conserve energy resources rest and digest Brain s support system the meninges Dura mater hard mother closest to skullspine Arachnoid layer spider weblike middle layer that contains the subarachnoid space filled with many blood vessels Pia mater pious mother that adheres to surface of brain amp spinal cord Cerebrospinal fluid CSF supports and cushions the CNS Flows through the ventricular system The flow of CSF can be blocked and produce a buildup of fluid in the ventricles can result in hydrocephalus water on the brain Bloodbrain barrier What can cross Small uncharged molecules eg oxygen 02 and C02 Certain fatsoluble vitamins eg Vitamin A and Vitamin D Glucose certain amino acids that are pumped across by active transport systems What cannot cross Most viruses and bacteria exceptions rabies herpes Most drugs Figure 1 directions and planes of the brain l 1 7 r Llu 1 U P r l U M L r L l L L i 155 Enlagrzgrr i39 i1quot5ll J earsmiafl39mnlm 7 19 maagi na n ll Eh jqiul sulg IELEDUII at L J UEIE IUIJ JIIIpIIIHII i39lrarigln li ea Eli lllliill39 1 u I wen mung339 39i ia39giu u T E n rI E 39 vr II39i 39iu In a a l 2 mm 39m a m l g a 1 H 5 mi 3 lam a lii39il a r Cells of the Nervous System classes of neurons based on number of processes from the cell body Unipolar neuron a single process Bipolar neuron 2 processes Multipolar neuron more than 2 processes A neuron s cell body is composed of lipids Figure 1 Parts of a Neuron and their Functions 51min hummusfilm from hm Eleni wish a39hi Elliii 1 i iiil L E E flff l i 5135531525 3 5 ijllyIIEli1rrll iI In 7 r j r u mssu neat1515 Iae39 i v 7 D A frrrrall lg agiligl iza39fa f if j LLIi uwniaumja l i j untilHull alarm 5 i Ell tIlliil i Ilium lglnlll39 jail riupn W 7 5quot Ii 39 Ji39lllinti ifsElba A gt A Ltugwsiht amr ENE3E1 Hg P l n V auILI39iauJII pliel sap9w quot i i H39i39umlmg39ulii39 niuia ahil ii lgl t39itJl sigma HEWEl 15 ELEHE Iii39th39ll types of glial cells microglia engulf cellular debris and trigger inflammation Oligodendrocytes build the myelin sheaths that wrap around axons of certain CNS neurons Schwann cells same function as oligodendrocytes but found only in the PNS Astrocytes Starshaped cells with a variety of functions Radial glia Guide migration and growth of neurons during brain development later become neurons or a different type of glial cell Major CNS structures Gray matter of the spinal cord is largely composed of cell bodies Figure 2 The Five Major Divisions of the Brain Fr39cbrnfin r r TEEIH ajJEIWHJIJi E raldtlram quot 27 iaEE iznaini39laj n Hi tl r al x MEIEHEEII 39IEEI n x iy mn aphalum Figure 3 Lobes of the Brain and their function nuu L Parietal LEIHa 5 n5 curl Fmn li I LEI tm h l39 Enamel Ernniinal nunl ml Edi Fellith and Heathenm awareness motivation mealtime sumI u i menli as ning 39 a Beatnik A r 1 Wernerit ma Kandimlllgail n Jrl 1 ll39 n A 7 a l t L V L 4 u A U s L n il gm wl hflrig undemtinmg willed mutt r r E uvm mm J winrmma fmins ham reaming heart mile amass mi mmieuneae EilE39EFF a when Wellgm mam m ina in Chapter 4 Neural ConductionSynaptic Transmission Figure 4 Maintaining Resting Membrane Potential The resin tug mmbmne potential is established when movemente1quot If out at the sell equals If movement into 14 I ll I lit diffuse down their steep Hit also move into the sell mmmtration gradient out or they are m l t d the tall 1le leakage than rials to the negatlve charge Less at lit maulquotm in a established an the inner Marge on line inner plasma plasma imamnamne lees membrane faces l y 39 PM 3953 v I 1 L V L in I I 39 t 39 5 if n l 2quot J I a a l I A I 1 in H i gt 3 l t l i Potassium leakage n hann l Copyngntlti El n1i F nieetrrsu jn39EILIEILIciquotn Il39l39 publiiahng as ElenjEmmrh Eunn39iiragjs Figure 5 Action Potential Membrane peterrtiel fmtfj 5 1 01er Eating St l t rl quot3915 39 t talr rif39ir r quot pk J Eu U l l Hr p l fl l ig 39 4H 1 V phase 59 i phase I r I quoti l i 1 ii i 39l I 3 1 I lI39Ilt i Inu1gt Ti I Tirree 5 Resting potential is around 70millivolts mV Voltagegated Na ion channels open Na ions rush into cell Membrane potential rapidly becomes less negative At the peak Na ion channels become inactivated No more Na ions can enter the neuron K ion channels open K ions flow out of the neuron K channels stay open K ions continue to leave cell K ion channels close causes the membrane potential to return toward resting value refractory periods Absolute refractory period 12 ms after an action potential has been fired it is impossible to trigger another one Relative refractory period for a few more ms an action potential can only be fired by applying higher than normal amounts of stimulation allornone law Once an action potential is triggered the impulse travels the length of an axon without decreasing in strength Multiple sclerosis results in slower transmission of action potentials in the nervous system by causing destruction of neurons myelin sheaths Depolarizations are excitatory postsynaptic potentials EPSPs Increase the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire an action potential Hyperpolarizations are inhibitory postsynaptic potentials lPSPs Decrease the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire an action potential integration of postsynaptic potentials Spatial summation PSPs produced simultaneously on different parts of the postsynaptic neuron Temporal summation PSPs produced in rapid succession at the same part of the postsynaptic neuron Synapse amp Neurotransmitters synapse Tiny gap between neurons across which a chemical signal is communicated Presynaptic membrane cell membrane at the ends of the terminal buttons site from which chemical signals called neurotransmitters are released into the synapse Neurotransmitter molecules are stored in synaptic vesicles until release Postsynaptic membrane cell membrane of the neuron receiving the signal Synaptic transmission Contain receptors binding sites for signals released from the presynaptic cell classes of neurotransmitters Amino acids the building blocks of proteins Excitatory glutamate aspartate Inhibitory GABA glycine Monoamines Synthesized from a single amino acid Catetcholamines Dopamine Norepinephrine Epinephrine Indolamines Serotonin Acetylcholine ACh Choline molecule with an acetyl group added Neuropeptides Long chains of amino acids Pituitary peptides eg oxytocin Hypothalamic peptides eg corticotropinreleasing hormone CRH Braingut peptides eg cholecystokinin CCK Opioid peptides eg substance P miscellaneous 4 major events Neurotransmitter synthesis and storage Neurotransmitters are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the cell body or terminal buttons and packaged into vesicles Vesicles are stored in clusters next to the presynaptic membrane A neuron can synthesize and release more than 1 kind of neurotransmitter coexistence ie GABA and neuropeptides Neurotransmitter release Exocytosis the process of release of neurotransmitter molecules from synaptic vesicles and into the synaptic cleft Depolarization causes voltagegated calcium Ca2 ion channels to open on the presynaptic membrane Activation of postsynaptic receptors Released neurotransmitter molecules attach to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane that are usually on the dendrites Ligand any molecule that binds to a receptor Each receptor contains binding sites for particular types of neurotransmitters Most neurotransmitters can bind to more than one receptor subtype eg GABAA and GABAB dopamine D1D5 Neurotransmitter inactivation and reuptake Reuptake Transporters proteins in the cell membrane that bring neurotransmitter molecules back into the presynaptic neuron for repackagingreuse eg serotonin 5HT is taken back up by serotonin transporters SERTs eg SSRls to treat depression Enzymatic degradation Enzymes break neurotransmitter molecules down into inactive chemicals that eventually wash away Effects of drugs Agonist a drug that mimics or facilitates the actions of a neurotransmitter eg nicotine is an agonist at ACh receptors Antagonist a drug that inhibits the actions of a neurotransmitter eg many antipsychotic drugs are dopamine Chapter 5 Research Methods Structural imaging Computerized tomography CT Scan a contrast Xray technique inject radioactive substance Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI can be 2D or 3D Advantage better resolution than CT scans no exposure to radiation functional imaging Positron emission tomography PET Scan Procedure Inject radioactive 2deoxyglucose 2DG into the patient s carotid artery Levels of 2 DG reflect amount of activity within a brain area Functional MRI fMRI records the bloodoxygenIeveIdependent BOLD signal generated by active brain areas advantage over PET scans No injections of radioactive substances Both structural and functional information provided Better spatial resolution Produces 3D images Disadvantage poortemporal resolution interpret BOLD signals with caution Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Only method for noninvasively stimulating the brain Used to affect activity within the cerebral cortex Psychophysiological Recordings in Humans Scalp electroencephalography EEG Measures electrical activity of the brain ie action potentials postsynaptic potentials only record signals from cerebral cortex procedure Attach electrodes to the scalp either directly or using an electrode cap Record average activity for a population of neurons located under the electrodes spontaneous activity or eventrelated potentials in response to a stimulus Traditional EEG has high temporal resolution but poor spatial resolution Electromyography EMG Records muscle tension Procedure Tape 2 electrodes to the skin over the muscle of interest Raw signal reflects number of muscle fibers contracting at any given time Integrated signal is a simpler measure of muscle tension Electrooculography EOG Records changes in electrical charge generated when the eyes move Electrodes placed either above and below the eye vertical movements or to the right and left of the eye horizontal movements Skin conductance response SCR Emotional thoughts and experiences are associated with increased skin conductance Ability of the skin to conduct electricity The skin conductance response SCR measures transient changes in skin conductance associated with specific eventsexperiences Most likely due to sweat gland activity Sensors placed on area of skin that contains a high concentration of sweat glands eg fingers Part of the measurements taken during a polygraph Cardiovascular activity Cardiovascular system blood vessels and heart Most commonly used measures blood pressure blood volume and heart rate Heart rate is measured using an electrocardiogram ECG measures the electrical activity of the heart using electrodes placed on the chest Can compare heart rate before and after presentation of an emotional stimulus Neuropsychological Testing Methods in Humans Most often done in patients with brain damage customizedtestbattery approach is the modernday approach to neuropsychological testing Common battery of tests Psychological abilities tested Intelligence Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Used to determine the patient s IQ Language The token test 20 tokens of different shapes and colors Directions proceed from simple touch a green square to complex touch the large green square then the small white circle Language Iateralization unequal division of function between the hemispheres ie one hemisphere is dominant 2 tests of language lateralization Dichotic listening test Noninvasive test Pairs of spoken digits or syllables presented through earphones Different digitssyllables presented to each ear simultaneously Ask patient to report all of the digitssyllables they heard Will report slightly of the digitssyllables presented to the ear contralateral to the hemisphere dominant for language Sodium amytal Wada test Invasive given to patients prior to neurosurgery Anesthetize one hemisphere at a time via injection of sodium amytal into the carotid artery Give the patient a series of simple tests such as counting naming objects speaking and understanding language More impairments will be seen when the languagedominant hemisphere is anesthetized Tests of specific neuropsychological functions Memory Patients with amnesia are often impaired on tests of explicit memory while performing well on implicit memory tests Language ie Broca s aphasia testing Frontal lobe function The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Each card contains 14 symbols of a certain color Patient must sort by color number or symbol doesn t know the rules Once 10 correct card placements are made the task switches sorting method Perseveration failure to switch to the new sorting rule Invasive Methods in Animals stereotaxic surgery Procedure to position experimental devices in the depths of the brain Basic procedure A stereotaxic atlas is used to locate the brain structure of interest Animal is anesthetized and placed into the stereotaxic instrument A hole is drilled through the skull at desired position and device lowered into the hole Types of invasive methods Electrical stimulation methods Weak electrical current passed through an electrode gt increased firing of neurons near the electrode Used to gain information about the function of a brain structure Stimulation can elicit behavioral sequences in animals ie eating drinking etc Invasive recording methods 4 types Intracellular unit recording position a microelectrode inside a neuron s cell membrane Must anesthetize or immobilize the animal Extracellular unit recording microelectrode positioned in the extracellular fluid Multipleunit recording electrode picks up signals from many neurons Invasive EEG recording large electrodes pick up general electrical activity with a brain area Lesion methods All require stereotaxic surgery to be performed first Lesion removal damage or destruction of part of the brain Observe behavior before and after lesion or in Iesioned vs nonIesioned control group Can be unilateral or bilateral interpreting lesion effects Lesions rarely leave adjacent brain tissue unaffected Effects of lesion may be due to damage to adjacent tissue not the tissue targeted Genetic techniques Knockoutknockin mice Delete or overexpress a gene of interest Transgenic mice Insert a human gene into the animal s genome Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior Speciescommon behaviors those displayed by nearly all members of a species Openfield test Place the rat in a large empty chamber Record activity Tests of aggressive and defensive behavior Colonyintruder paradigm introduce a smaller intruder rat into the cage of a dominant rat and observe behavior Aggression dominant rat piloerection lateral approach flank and backbiting Defensiveness intruder rat freezing boxing rolling over Elevatedplusmaze A test of defensive behavior The maze 4 arms arranged in a shape 50 cm above the floor 2 closed arms with side walls secure 2 open arms with no side walls vulnerable Place rat on the maze and measure time spent on open arms vs closed arms Traditional conditioning paradigms Pavlovian conditioning Initially neutral stimulus conditioned stimulus CS paired with an unconditioned stimulus US that elicits an unconditioned response UR After enough pairings presentation of the CS alone elicits a conditioned response CR Operant conditioning Rat performs a response that is followed by a particular consequence Reinforcement Punishment Examples Press a lever gt food pellet presented reinforcement Turn a wheel gt shock administered punishment Seminatural animal learning paradigms Conditioned taste aversion avoidance response developed to the taste of a food when consumption was previously followed by illness Basic procedure Give rat a novel food Administer an emetic nauseainducing drug Rats learn to avoid the food after only a single pairing with the emetic drug Radial arm maze A test ofspatial navigation Array of arms radiating from a center area Some arms contain food Other arms do not Rat must learn to remember which arms have food based on external cues in room Morris water maze Another spatial navigation test Rat is placed in a circular pool of milky water Platform located 2 cm under surface of water Visual cues on walls around pool Several training trials per day for several days Rat must learn to use external cues to find the platform Chapter 6 Visual System the human eye can detect wavelengths of light that fall between 380 and 760 nanometers nm Elal39lggj Fupli L39b39l Figure 6 Parts of the Eye Eri a 5 MIT IEIIHl39r Information about the fine details of a visual stimulus is likely to be transmitted along the retinogeniculostriate pathway to layers 36 of the lateral geniculate nucleus The lens of the eye is capable of changing its shape or accommodating in order to focus on objects that are near to us as well as those that are far away The fovea of the retina is the site of greatest visual acuity Rods and cones are the two kinds of photoreceptor cells in the retina In what order does visual information pass through the 3 main cell layers of the retina photoreceptor cells bipolar cells retinal ganglion cells The primary visual cortex V1 is located in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex magnocellular cells movement parvocellular cells colors The retinohypothalamic pathway consists of axons that project from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus which indirectly controls production of the hormone melatonin by the pineal gland Information about the location of an object is likely to be transmitted to the posterior parietal cortex Information about the color of an object is likely to be transmitted to inferotemporal cortex of the cerebral cortex The blind spot in each eye is blind because there are no photoreceptors there the general function of the visual pathway to the superior colliculus is orienting movements to a visual stimulus The process of phototransduction or conversion of light energy into neural signals triggers a biochemical cascade that ultimately causes sodium ion channels in photoreceptor cell membranes to open or close theories of color vision Component trichromatic theory by Young amp von Helmholtz 18003 There are 3 different kinds of cones each of which are sensitive to light of different wavelengths Shortwavelength Mediumwavelength blue gt green gt yellow Longwavelength yellow gt red Color perceived ratio of activity in the 3 cone types Opponentprocess theory by Ewald Hering 1878 There are 3 kinds of cells in the retina Redgreen color Blueyellow color Blackwhite brightness May explain complementary afterimages Retinex theory The visual system compares information from multiple adjacent surfaces of an object to determine color and brightness Explains color constancy ability to recognize colors despite changes in brightness visual system disorders Color vision deficiency Usually due to genetic mutations that result in 1 or 2 cone types being missing More common in men Scotomas and blindsight Scotoma an area of blindness where a patient cannot see objects that appear in one or more parts of visual space Results from damage to primary visual cortex Can also occur during migraines Prosopagnosia inability to recognize faces aka face blindness Usually after damage to the fusiform gyrus in the temporal lobe Akinetopsia impairment in the perception of motion Usually results from damage to the MT area V5 in the temporal lobe Can also be triggered by high doses of certain antidepressants eg nefazadone photopic vision bright light color perception scotopic dim light silhouettes Chapter 7 other visual systems the major principles of the sensory system organizations are hierarchical organizations functional segregation and parallel processing auditory system The human ear can detect sounds at frequencies between 20 and 20000 hertz Hz Figure 7 Auditory System SEEluv glam 39 lllll lrrlt ia mlimlusi Harrir oilyr EEEHE39UE39FFLEIZHEUE The inferior colliculus is known as the quotmidbrain auditory centerquot the primary auditory cortex contains a tonotopic map The pathway from the primary auditory cortex to the prefrontal cortex is involved in identification of sounds whereas the pathway from the primary auditory cortex to the posterior parietal cortex is involved in the localization of sounds The receptor cells of the auditory system found within the cochlea of the inner ear are called hair cells The axons of the auditory nerve carry information from the ear directly to the cochlear nuclei of the brainstem Smell and taste The amygdala piriform cortex and the hippocampus are known to receive olfactory information When odorant molecules bind to olfactory receptor neurons in the nasal mucosa the axons of the receptor cells transmit information directly to the olfactory bulb The taste buds which are the receptors of the gustatory system are located within structures called the papillae in the oral cavity The primary taste cortex is located in the insula somatosensory system The somatosensory system processes information about pain touch and temperature Biting into a hot pepper activates pain not taste receptors Experiments have found that these analgesic effects are a result of stimulating the periaqueductal gray of the midbrain an area known to exert descending control over pain signals The ventral posterior of the thalamus is part of the pathways that transmit somatosensory information to the brain The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the parietal lobe of the cerebral conex Homunculus little man body surface drawn in proportion to size of its representation in primary somatosensory cortex S1 pheromones and synesthesia Pheromones have a profound effect on reproductive physiology in rodents Whitten effect female mice s estrous cycles synchronized when exposed to odor of a male mouse Vandenbergh effect exposure to male odor accelerates onset of puberty in female mice synesthesia The experience of 1 sense in response to the stimulation of a different sense eg seeing images while listening to music somatosensory agnosias Result from damage to somatosensory cortex Agnosia recognition impairment Astereognosia inability to recognize objects by touch rare Asomatognosia inability to recognize parts of one s own body Chapter 8 sensorimotor systems The skeletal muscles are the lowest level of the sensorimotor system hierarchy Axons from the primary motor cortex descend in tracts to the spinal cord where they synapse onto motor neurons that directly control the skeletal muscles of the body Touching a hot stove will most likely activate the anterolateral somatosensory pathways sensorimotor association cortex Posterior parietal association cortex Provides spatial information Directs attention to objects of interest secondary and primary motor cortex The primary motor cortex is located in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex A researcher is conducting an fMRl study to determine which brain areas are active when participants are asked to imagine performing a sequence of movements Thus the premotor cortex is most likely to show increased activity during this task A study being conducted in monkeys involves having an quotobserverquot monkey watch a quotdemonstratorquot monkey perform goaldirected movements eg reaching for a toy This study is likely to find that neurons have been activated in the ventral premotor cortex of the observer and demonstrator monkeys descending motor pathways The knee jerk reflex is an example of the stretch reflex Tapping the kneecap with a reflex hammer causes a stretch in the quadriceps muscle When information about this stretch reaches the spinal cord an excitatory signal is sent to the motor neurons innervating the quadriceps causing it to contract At the same time an inhibitory signal is sent to the motor neurons innervating the hamstring preventing it from contracting cerebellum and basal ganglia cerebellar damage Cerebellar ataxia impairment in coordinated movements Resembles the effects of alcohol intoxication clumsiness slurred speech inaccurate eye movements Fingertonose test often a clear indicator of damage movement disorders Parkinson s disease PD Symptoms resting tremor slow movements difficulty initiating movements rigidity and possible cognitive impairment Currently used treatments for Parkinson s Disease LDOPA precursor of dopamine that crosses the bloodbrain barrier Con Unpleasant side effects becomes less effective over time Deep brain stimulation DBS see video Stem cell implantation to replace lost DA neurons Gene therapy to replace defective copies of genes Smoking cigarettes has been shown to reduce the risk of developing Parkinson39s disease Huntington s disease HD Symptoms Arm jerks Facial twitches Tremors and writhing choreiform movements Inability to learn and improve new movements Psychological disorders depression anxiety substance abuse etiology Mutation in huntingtin gene on chromosome 4 Leads to degeneration of striatum neurons Dominant inheritance pattern Children of a parent with HD have a 50 chance of developing it


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.