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UD / Psychology / PSY 100 / Operational definition refers to what?

Operational definition refers to what?

Operational definition refers to what?

Description

School: University of Delaware
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Kristen begosh
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSYCH Exam 1 Vocab Study Guide
Description: Vocabulary from chapters 1, 2, 3, and 5 for Exam 1 All definitions from Psychology 11th Edition by David G. Myers and C. Nathan Dewall
Uploaded: 03/03/2016
5 Pages 35 Views 5 Unlocks
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Exam 1 Vocabulary


Operational definition refers to what?



CHAPTER 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

Part 1: The Need for Psychological Science 

● Intuition: An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

● Hindsight Bias: The tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (aka I­knew­it­all­along phenomenon)

● Critical Thinking: thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions appraises the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

Part 2: Research Strategies 

● Theory: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events


Replication means what?



● Hypothesis: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

● Operational Definition: a carefully worded statement is the exact procedures used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

● Replication: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

● Case Study: a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

● Naturalistic Observation: a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations and control situations


What is the meaning of naturalistic observation?



We also discuss several other topics like What is clitoral prepuce?
If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between plant and animals?

● Survey: a descriptive technique for obtaining the self­reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

CHAPTER 2: The Biology of Mind

Part 1: Neural and Hormonal Systems 

● Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

● Dendrites: a neuron's branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

● Axon: the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands

● Myelin Sheath: a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next

● Glial Cells: cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they may also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory

● Action Potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon ● Refractory Period: a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired

● All­or­none response: a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with full­strength response) or not firing Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of lattice energy?

● Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

● Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse

● Reuptake: a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron ● Agonist: a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action

● Antagonist: a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter's action ● Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and spinal cord If you want to learn more check out Why did the colonists rebel?

● Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body We also discuss several other topics like What are the problems with bureaucracy?

● Nerves: bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs

● Sensory (Afferent) Neurons: carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

● Motor (Efferent) Neurons: carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

● Interneurons: neurons within the brain and spinal cord; communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

● Somatic Nervous System: the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system

● Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): the part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). If you want to learn more check out What are the four qualifications of genetic material?

● Sympathetic Nervous System: the division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy

● Parasympathetic Nervous System: the division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy

● Reflex: a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee­jerk response

● Endocrine System: the body’s “slow” chemical communications system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

● Hormones: chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

● Adrenal Glands: a pair of glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress ● Pituitary Glands: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

Part 2: Older Brain Structures 

● Brainstem: the oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic survival functions

● Medulla: the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing ● Thalamus: brain's sensory center, it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transit replies to the cerebellum and medulla

● Reticular Formation: a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal (sensory switchboard) ● Cerebellum: the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory

● Limbic System: neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drives ● Hippocampus: helps process explicit memories for storage

● Amygdala: two lima bean sized neural clusters linked to emotion

● Hypothalamus: directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), homeostasis

Part 3: The Cerebral Cortex and Our Divided Brain 

● Cerebral Cortex: the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center ● Frontal Lobe: just behind forehead; speaking and muscle movements, making plans and judgements, language, thought, memory, motor, functioning

● Temporal Lobe: above ears; include auditory areas, language, memory, hearing, form perception

● Parietal Lobe: top towards rear of head; touch, sensations, vision, attention ● Occipital Lobe: back of head; visual processing

● Motor Cortex: at rear of frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements ● Association Areas: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

● Plasticity: the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

● Neurogenesis: the formation of new neurons

CHAPTER 3: Consciousness and the Two­Track Mind

Part 1: Brain States and Consciousness 

● consciousness: our awareness of ourselves and our environment

● cognitive neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (include perception, thinking, memory, and language)

● dual processing: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

● blindsight: a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it

● parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many

● selective attention: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus ● inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

● change blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment

CHAPTER 5: Developing Through the Lifespan

Part 1: Development Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn 

● developmental psychology: a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change through the lifespan

● zygote: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2­week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

● embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

● fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth ● teratogens: (literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

● fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include small, out­of­proportion head and abnormal facial features

● habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

● maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

● cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

● schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

● assimilation: interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas ● accommodation: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

● sensorimotor stage: in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to nearly 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

● object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

● preoperational stage: in

● piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learned to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic

● conservation: the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

● egocentrism: in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty talking another point of view

● theory of mind: people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states ­ about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict ● concrete operational stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from 7 to 11 of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

● formal operational stage: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

● attachment: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation ● critical period: an optional period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experience produces normal development

● imprinting: the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life

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