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PSYCH Exam 1 Vocab Study Guide

by: Kristen Pruett

PSYCH Exam 1 Vocab Study Guide Psych100

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Psychlogy > Psych100 > PSYCH Exam 1 Vocab Study Guide
Kristen Pruett

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Vocabulary from chapters 1, 2, 3, and 5 for Exam 1 All definitions from Psychology 11th Edition by David G. Myers and C. Nathan Dewall
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 390 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Exam 1 Vocabulary    CHAPTER 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science    Part 1: The Need for Psychological Science    ● Intuition​: An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with  explicit, conscious reasoning  ● Hindsight Bias​: The tendency to believe after learning an outcome, that one would have  foreseen it. (aka ​I­knew­it­all­alo​ henomenon)  ● Critical Thinking​: thinking that doesn't blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather,  it examines assumptions appraises the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates  evidence, and assesses conclusions.    Part 2: Research Strategies    ● Theory​: an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations  and predicts behaviors or events  ● Hypothesis​: a testable prediction, often implied by a theory  ● Operational Definition​: a carefully worded statement is the exact procedures used in a  research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what  an intelligence test measures  ● Replication​: repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants  in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and  circumstances  ● Case Study​: a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth  in the hope of revealing universal principles  ● Naturalistic Observation:​  a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in  naturally occurring situations and control situations   ● Survey​: a descriptive technique for obtaining the self­reported attitudes or behaviors of a  particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group    CHAPTER 2: The Biology of Mind     Part 1: Neural and Hormonal Systems    ● Neuron​: a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system  ● Dendrites: a neuron's branching extensions that receive messages and conduct  impulses toward the cell body  ● Axon​: the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other  neurons or to muscles or glands  ● Myelin Sheath​: a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons;  enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the  next  ● Glial Cells​: cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they  may also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory  ● Action Potential​: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon  ● Refractory Period​: a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired  ● All­or­none response​: a neuron’s reaction of either firing (with full­strength response) or  not firing   ● Synapse​: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and dendrite or cell  body of the receiving neuron.The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or  synaptic cleft  ● Neurotransmitters​: chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.  When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and  bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron  will generate a neural impulse  ● Reuptake​: a neurotransmitter’s reabsorption by the sending neuron  ● Agonist​: a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's action  ● Antagonist​: a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter's action   ● Central Nervous System (CNS): ​  the brain and spinal cord  ● Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)​: the sensory and motor neurons that connect the  CNS to the rest of the body  ● Nerves​: bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the CNS with muscles,  glands, and sense organs  ● Sensory (Afferent) Neurons​  carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to  the brain and spinal cord  ● Motor (Efferent) Neurons​  carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to  the muscles and glands  ● Interneurons​: neurons within the brain and spinal cord; communicate internally and  process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs  ● Somatic Nervous System​: the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the  body’s skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system  ● Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)​: the part of the PNS that controls the glands and the  muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart).   ● Sympathetic Nervous System​: the division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing  its energy  ● Parasympathetic Nervous System​: the division of the ANS that calms the body,  conserving its energy   ● Reflex​: a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee­jerk  response  ● Endocrine System​: the body’s “slow” chemical communications system; a set of glands  that secrete hormones into the bloodstream   ● Hormones​: chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel  through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues  ● Adrenal Glands​:  a pair of glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones  (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress  ● Pituitary Glands​: the endocrine system’s most influential gland. Under the influence of  the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands    Part 2: Older Brain Structures    ● Brainstem​: the oldest part and central core of the brain, responsible for automatic  survival functions  ● Medulla​: the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing   ● Thalamus​: brain's sensory center, it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in  the cortex and transit replies to the cerebellum and medulla  ● Reticular Formation​: a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the  thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal (sensory switchboard)  ● Cerebellum​: the “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing  sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal  learning and memory  ● Limbic System​: neural system (including hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus)  located below the cerebral hemisphere; associated with emotions and drives  ● Hippocampus​: helps process explicit memories for storage  ● Amygdala​: two lima bean sized neural clusters linked to emotion  ● Hypothalamus​: directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body  temperature), homeostasis     Part 3: The Cerebral Cortex and Our Divided Brain    ● Cerebral Cortex​: the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral  hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center  ● Frontal Lobe:​ just behind forehead; speaking and muscle movements, making plans and  judgements, language, thought, memory, motor, functioning  ● Temporal Lobe​: above ears; include auditory areas, language, memory, hearing, form  perception  ● Parietal Lobe​: top towards rear of head; touch, sensations, vision, attention  ● Occipital Lobe​: back of head; visual processing  ● Motor Cortex​: at rear of frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements  ● Association Areas​: areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or  sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning,  remembering, thinking, and speaking  ● Plasticity​: the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after  damage or by building new pathways based on experience   ● Neurogenesis​: the formation of new neurons    CHAPTER 3: Consciousness and the Two­Track Mind    Part 1: Brain States and Consciousness    ● consciousness​: our awareness of ourselves and our environment   ● cognitive neuroscience​: interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition  (include perception, thinking, memory, and language)  ● dual processing​: the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on  separate conscious and unconscious tracks  ● blindsight​: a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without  consciously experiencing it  ● parallel processing​: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the  brain’s natural mode of information processing for many   ● selective attention​: the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus  ● inattentional blindness​: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed  elsewhere  ● change blindness​: failing to notice changes in the environment    CHAPTER 5: Developing Through the Lifespan    Part 1: Development Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn    ● developmental psychology: ​  a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and  social change through the lifespan  ● zygote​: the fertilized egg; it enters a 2­week period of rapid cell division and develops  into an embryo  ● embryo​: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through  the second month  ● fetus​: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth  ● teratogens​: (literally, “monster maker”) agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can  reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm  ● fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)​: physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by  a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include small,  out­of­proportion head and abnormal facial features  ● habituation​: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain  familiarity with repeated exposure to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away  sooner  ● maturation​: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior,  relatively uninfluenced by experience  ● cognition​: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and  communicating   ● schema​: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information  ● assimilation​: interpreting our  new experiences in terms of our existing schemas  ● accommodation​: adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new  information  ● sensorimotor stage​: in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to nearly 2 years of age)  during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and  motor activities  ● object permanence​: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not  perceived  ● preoperational stag​  in   ● piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to about 6 or 7 years of age) during which a  child learned to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of  concrete logic  ● conservation​: the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational  reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite  changes in the forms of objects  ● egocentrism​: in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty talking another point  of view  ● theory of mind​: people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states ­ about their  feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict  ● concrete operational stag​  in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from  7 to 11 of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to  think logically about concrete events  ● formal operational stage​: in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development  (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about  abstract concepts  ● attachment​: an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their  seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation   ● critical period​: an optional period early in the life of an organism when exposure to  certain stimuli or experience produces normal development  ● imprinting​: the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early  life 


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