STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 LIFE 103
Popular in Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Popular in Biology
This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anna curry on Thursday September 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 368 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
Reviews for STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/10/15
Lecture 1 Concepts 91015 944 PM Describe the 7 Characteristics of Life Homeostasis o The ability to regulate the environmental environment 0 Organization 0 Metabolism o The ability to take nutrients from the environment and transform them into usable forms of energy 0 Growth 0 Adaptation 0 Response to stimuli Reproduction Describe the Differences between living and nonliving organisms 0 Living things exhibit the characteristics above and nonliving things do not Flow of Energy from the environment to an organism I f I l LL Z 39 quot quot 39 quot quoti VJ if k u My k H r 1 w l 1 J K i l A mum 39 f 8 I n er u l1 l W U 139 V A l l U ct 39 l L 39 WM g lw J x x 39 3 l i L 3 0 Primary producers transform sunlight and other environmental factors into usable energy and other substances 0 Consumers then eat these organisms to gain energy from their surroundings Decomposers recycle nutrients so that all of the energy is not tied up in dead organisms Lecture 2 Concepts 91015 944 PM The Origin of Life 0 Describe the 4 stages of the hypothesis for the origin of life on Earth by Chemical Evolution 0 The abiotic nonliving synthesis of small organic molecules such as amino acids and nitrogenous bases 0 The joining of these small molecules into macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids 0 The packaging of these molecules into protocells droplets with membranes that maintained an internal chemistry different from that of their surroundings o The origin of selfreplicating molecules that eventually made inheritance possible 0 Describe the Evidence that suggests that RNA was the first genetic material 0 RNA is simpler in structure than DNA it is single stranded o It can take various 3D shapes depending on their nucleotide sequence 0 It can act as an enzyme like catalyst to catalyze reactions Called robozymes o It is capable of self replicating short segments of itself 0 It plays a central role in protein synthesis 0 Describe how Natural Selection may have worked in an early RNA world 0 The most successful early cells would have increased in number because they could exploit their resources effectively and pass their abilities on to the next generations 0 Describe the Theory of the Origins of Protobionts protocell 0 Collections of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membranelife structure Can form spontaneously 0 There are two forms Introduction to the History of Life 0 Major events in Earth s history 0 46 billion years ago earth formed 0 35 billion years ago the first prokaryotes appeared the first life o 17 billion years ago the first eukaryotes appeared o 450 million years ago the Cambrian Explosion occurred 0 6 million years ago the most primitive form of man arose 0 Major elements necessary for life to begin 0 Water vapor nitrogen and nitrogen oxides carbon dioxide methane ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were all necessary for the atmosphere to form 0 Also simple building blocks for early organic molecules like nucleotides and amino acids 0 Describe the Mass Extinctions of the Permian Cretaceous Periods o The Permian extinction defines the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras claimed about 96 of marine animals and drastically altered life in the ocean occurred during an extreme episode of volcanism there was enough C02 released to raise the global climate by six degrees C Ocean acidification occurred as well thereby reducing the availability of calcium carbonate which is required by coral and shell building species 0 The Cretaceous Extinction extinguished more than half of all marine species and eliminated many families of terrestrial plants and animals including all dinosaurs except birds 0 Discuss a hypothesis that accounts for each of these mass ex nc ons o Permian an extreme episode of volcanism as detailed above 0 Cretaceous researchers believe that an asteroid or large comet was the cause of this The Major Lineages of Life 0 Describe the timing and significance of the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis amp explain the importance of oxygen for the evolution of eukaryotes o The amount of Atmospheric oxygen increased gradually from about 27 to 24 billion years ago but then shot up rapidly between 1 and 10 This rising 02 probably killed many prokaryotic groups Adaptations evolved including cellular respiration that uses 02 in the process of harvesting energy stored in organic molecules 0 This new more efficient type of aerobic metabolism allowed single celled organisms to grow into multicellular organisms o It also helped to reduce the amount of C02 in the atmosphere and gradually began to lower the atmospheric temperature This gave organisms their first chance to leave water and live on the land Explain the endosymbiotic theory for the evolution of the first eukaryotic cell and describe the evidence that supports this theory 0 This theory states that early prokaryotic cells may have been engulfed by larger cells where a mutually beneficial relationship formed The prokaryotes provided energy source and other nutrients and they were protected by the larger cell 0 Evidence of this can be found in plastids and mitochondria The inner membranes of both organelles have enzymes and transport systems that are homologous to those found in the plasma membrane of living prokaryotes Mitochondria and plastids replicate by a splitting process that is similar to that of certain prokaryotes and they contain circular DNA molecules that are not associated with histones or large amount of other proteins like bacteria Mitochondria and Plastids also have the cellular machinery including ribosomes needed to transcribe and translate their DNA into proteins In terms of size RNA sequences and Sensitivity to certain antibiotics the ribosomes of mitochondria and plastids are more similar to prokaryotic ribosomes than they are to cytoplasmic ribisomes of eukaryotic cells Describe the FiveKingdom system 0 Monera singlecelled organusms that may or may not more they have a cell wall but have no chloroplasts or other organelles and have no nucleus they absorb nutrients through the cell wall or produce their own Protista singlecelled and usually move by cilia flagella or by amoeboid mechanisms there is usually no cell wall they have a nucleus and may have chloroplasts nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis ingestion of other organisms or both Fungi Multicellular with a cell wall organelles including a nucleus but no chloroplasts no mechanisms for locomotion fungi range in size nutrients are acquired by absorption mostly decayers Plantae multicellular and most don t move organelles include chloroplasts and a nucleus as well as a cell wall they ingest nutrients Animalia multicellular and move with the aid of cilia flagella or muscular proteins they have organelles including a nucleus but no chloroplasts or cell walls they acquire nutrients by ingestion Lecture 3 Concepts 91015 944 PM Phylogenies are Based on Common Ancestors Distinguish phylogeny and systematics o Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species Basically the ancestral history how one species is related to another and how closely they are linked o Systematics is the discipline of classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships Distinguish between homology and analogy o Homology phenotypic and genetic similarities due to shared ancestry Genes or other DNA sequences are homologous if they are descended from sequences carried by a common ancestor o Analogy similarities between organisms that is due to convergent evolution This occurs when similar environmental pressure and natural selection produce similar adaptations in organisms from different lineages Define Molecular Systematics explain some of the problems that systematics may face in carrying out molecular comparisons of nucleic acids 0 A scientific discipline that uses nucleic acids or other molecules in different species to infer evolutionary relationships 0 Different species usually have different bases as many sites and many have different lengths because of insertions and deletions accumulating over long periods of time It is important to align comparable sequences from the species being studied Researchers have developed computer programs that estimate the best way to align comparable DNA segments of differing lengths Phylogenic Systematics Connecting Classification with Evolutionary History 0 Explain these characteristics of the Linnaean System of Classification o Binomial nomenclature The two part format of the scientific name the first part is the genus the second is the species 0 Hierarchical classification Domain largest classification9 Kingdom Phylum9Class Order9Genus species smallestmost exclusive group List the major taxonomic categories from most to least inclusive 0 Domain Kingdom Phylum9Class90rder Genus9species Define a clade Distinguish between a monophyletic clade and a paraphyletic and phlyphyletic grouping or species 0 A clade is an organizational group that consists of a common ancestral species and all of its descendants This is also called a monophyletic group 0 A paraphyletic group consists of an ancestral species and some but not all of its descendants o A polyphyletic group consists of a distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor Distinghish between shared primitive characters and shared derived characters 0 Shared primitive ancestral characters characters that originated in an ancestor of the taxon 0 Shared derived character an evolutionary novelty to a clade the ancestor does not have the characteristic Distinguish between types of phylogenetic trees 0 Rooted trees have the most recent common ancestor of all the species in the tree at the root or beginning 0 Unrooted trees do not have an common ancestor at the end 0 The limbs of the phylogenetic tree can represent lengths of time if they are labeled that way if not do not assume that the lengths of the arms mean anything Explain why any phylogenetic diagram represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships between organisms 0 Because we do not have a fully complete picture of the history of all organisms Fossil records are biased to animals that lived for longer periods of time New evidence that can change a tree completely every single day in new fossils Distinguish between orthologous and paralogous genes Explain how gene duplication has led to families of paralogous genes 0 Orthologous genes are genes where a homology is the result of a speciation event so there are two copies of the same gene in two different species 0 Paralogous genes genes where a homology results from gene duplication so there are multiple copies of the same gene within the one genome in one species Gene duplication means that multiple genes control the same trait in a genome this creates gene families Lecture 4 Concepts 91015 944 PM Structural Functional and Genetic Adaptations Contribute to Prokaryotic Success 0 Explain why it might be said that the history on earth is one long age of prokaryotesquot o Prokaryotes were the first life forms on earth and have remained up until today Life as we know it would not exist without prokaryotes Explain why prokaryotes are unable to grow in a very salty or sugary foods such as cured meats or jam 0 Prokaryotes have a cell wall so when water is drawn out of them in a salty environment they pull away from their cell wall and cannot function efficiently It takes much longer to reproduce under these situations 0 State the function of each of the following prokaryotic features 0 Capsule a dense and well defined sticky layer of polysaccharides or proteins 0 Fimbria hairlike appendages that help prokaryotes stick to their substrate or to one another 0 Sex Pilus appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to another 0 Nucleoid a region of cytoplasm that is not enclosed by a membrane where the chromosomes are located 0 Plasmid smaller rings of independently replicating DNA molecules 0 Endospore resistant cells the original cell produces a copy of its chromosome and surrounds that copy with a tough multilayered structure and water is removed so that its metabolism halts 0 Describe how prokaryotes carry out cellular respiration when they lack compartmentalized organelles such as mitochondria 0 Some prokaryotes have specialized membranes that are infoldings of the plasma membrane which allow them to carry out metabolic functions These infoldings can function as mitochondria in cellular respiration List the three domains of life 0 Eukarya o Archaea o Bacteria Describe the structure composition and functions of prokaryotic cell walls 0 Functions maintains cell shape protects the cell and prevents it from bursting in certain environments 0 GramPositive bacteria simpler walls with a relatively large amount of peptidoglycan A polymer composed of modified sugars crosslinked by short polypeptides o GramNegative bacteria have less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex with an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides Distinguish the structure and staining properties of grampositive bacteria from those of gramnegative bacteria 0 Peptidoglycan is the component that stains because gram positive bacteria has more of this substance it is stained more by the gramstain Explain why diseasecausing gramnegative bacterial species are generally more deadly than diseasecausing grampositive bacteria 0 The lipid portion of the lipopolysaccharides are toxic causing fever or shock o The outer membrane of these bacteria helps to protect them from the body s defenses They also tend to be more antibiotic resistant because of their membranes Explain how the organization of prokaryotic genomes differs from that of eukaryotic genomes o Eukaryotic genomes are organized into linear chromosomes within a membrane bound compartment called the nucleus 0 Prokaryotic genomes are generally organized into circular chromosomes are not bound in any compartment but simply concentrated in an area called a nucleoid 0 Describe the evidence of parallel adaptive evolution found in Lenski s experiments on E Coli 0 Scientists sequenced the genome of a harmful E coli strain against a harmless strain and they discovered that 1000 out of 5000 genes had no counterpart in the harmless strain Nutritional and Metabolic Diversity Distinguish with prokaryotic examples among photoautotrophs chemoautotrophs protoheterotrophs and chemoheterotrophs o Photoautotrophs Photosynthetic organisms that use light as their source of energy to convert inorganic materials into their necessary carbon 0 Chemoautotrophs Oxidize inorganic substances into their energy form and need only an inorganic molecule like COAZ to synthesize their carbon 0 Photoheterotrophs Harness their energy needs from sun lights but cannot create their carbon needs from inorganic substances thus need organic substances for their carbon needs 0 Chemoheterotrophs Must consume organic molecules to obtain their necessary energy and carbon needs Distinguish among obligate aerobes facultative anaerobes and obligate anaerobes o Obligate aerobes An organism that requires 02 to perform cellular respiration o Facultative anaerobes Can use either 02 when available or fermentation or anaerobic respiration for cellular metabolism 0 Obligate anaerobes An organism that is poisoned by 02 and performs cellular respiration either by fermentation or anaerobic cellular respiration 0 Explain the importance of nitrogen fixation to life on Earth 0 Nitrogen is essential to all living organisms as it is an essential component of proteins and nucleic acids 0 Nitrogen fixation is a process where nitrogen fixating prokaryotes convert N2 into ammonia NH3 making atmospheric nitrogen available to themselves and eventually all other organisms A survey of Prokaryotic Diversity 0 Explain why some archaea are known as extremophiles Describe the distinguishing features of methanogens extreme halophiles and extreme thermophiles o Extremophiles lovers of extreme conditions 0 Methanogens release methane as a byproduct of their unique way of obtaining energy They use C02 to oxidize H2 in order to create energy and methane waste They are poisoned by 02 They can live in swamps or marshes where all of the 02 has been used or even under kilometers of ice 0 Halophiles live in highly saline environments Some species merely tolerate salinity while others require an environment that is several times saltier than seawater o Thermophiles thrive in very hot environments They have structural and biochemical adaptations that make their DNA and proteins stable at high temperatures The Ecological Impact of Prokaryotes In general terms describe the role of chemoheterotrophic and autotrophic prokaryotes in the cycling of chemical elements between the biological and chemical components of ecosystems o Chemoheterotrophic prokaryotes function as decomposers They break down dead organisms as well as waste products and thereby unlock supplies of carbon nitrogen and other elements for more use 0 Autotrophic prokaryotes use C02 to make organic compounds such as sugars which are passed up through food chains They also produce atmospheric oxygen Many fix atmospheric nitrogen into forms that other organisms can use to make the building blocks of proteins and nucleic acids 0 Describe the mutualistic interaction between humans and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron 0 Bacterial species live in different portions of the intestines and each type can process different foods They digest food that we cannot break down and in return they gain a home from us Distinguish among mutualism commensalism and parasitism Provide an example of a prokaryote partner in each type of symbiosis o Mutualism where both symbiotic organisms benefit from their relationship 0 Commensalism one symbiotic organism benefits where the other is either unharmed or benefits 0 Parasitism prokaryotes that have an ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents tissues or bodily fluids of it39s host Lecture 5 Concepts 91015 944 PM An Introduction to Animal Diversity 0 List the five characteristics that combine to define animals and which are unique to animals 0 a Eukaryotic it separates them from archaea and bacteria It also unites them with all other eukaryotes o Multicellular This separates animals from unicellular protists the cells are held together by protein collagen and nerve cells and muscle cells are what separates them from others 0 Reproduction and development adults are diploid o Heterotrophic They ingest food which separates them from plant like protists 0 Life Cycles Different stages in development in its life 0 Describe the role of Hox genes in animal development 0 Hox genes control the expressions of many different genes They control cell differentiation which produces many of the animal39s features Basically serves as the body plan for animals The Origins of Animal Diversity 0 Describe the evidence that suggests animals may have first evolved about a billion years ago 0 710millionyeaeold sediments containing the fossilized remains of steroids that are produced by a group of sponges Because of this the fossils suggest that animals had arisen by 710 million years ago 0 DNA analyses generally agree with this 0 Explain the significance of the Cambrian explosion Describe three hypotheses for the cause of the Cambrian explosion o The Cambrian Explosion was a time where many animals began to diversify creating new species Predators were first seen here As were larger soft bodied vertebrates 0 Three Hypotheses for the cause The predators evolved thus creating morenatural selection leading up to evolution The Hox gene and it39s evolution There might have been a rise in atmospheric oxygen which meant the animals would evolve with larger body sizes and faster metabolisms Outline the major grades of the animal kingdom based on symmetry embryonic germ layers the presence or absence and type of coeom and protostome or deuterostome development 0 Symmetry can be either lateral or bilateral 0 There are two different grades that regard embryonic germ layers Diploblastic which includes the ectoderm and endoderm Triploblastic which includes the ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm o Coelom has three different grades Pseudocolomates which have a coelem formed in the blastocoel Coelomates which is a coelom taken from the mesoderm tissue Acoelomates which lack a coelom o Planes of cell division as well as differentiation of cells are what protostome and deuterostome refer to protostome development determinate and spiral cleavage take place the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm and the mouth forms from the blastopore deutersome development radical and indeterminate cleavage takes place the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron and the mouth forms from a separate opening Distinguish between radial and bilateral symmetry Explain how animal symmetry may match the animal s way of life 0 Radial symmetry means that there is only a top and bottom There is no left or right or anything similar A jellyfish has a radial body plan since it just drifts and it must be able to equally feel and react from all sides 0 Bilateral symmetry means that there is a top dorsal bottom ventral front anterior and back posterior This is useful for animals that need to catch prey or escape from predators Distinguish among the acoelomate pseudocoelomate and coelomate grades Explain the functions of a body cavity 0 O O Acoelomate do not have a body cavity Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity from the blastocoel Coelomates have true coeloms that are formed in the mesoderm tissue Func ons A body cavity cushions organs and allows internal organs to grow without deforming the outer body wall 0 Distinguish between the following pairs of terms 0 Diploblastic and triploblastica Diploblastic is having only two layers of embryonic tissue layers the ectoderm and endoderm Triploblastic has a third layer the mesoderm 0 Spiral and radial cleavage Spiral cleavage the planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo Radial cleavage the planes of cell division are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the embryo o Determinate and indeterminate cleavage Determinate development rigidly cases the developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early Indeterminate each cell produced by early cleavage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo 0 Compare the developmental differences between protostomes and deuterostomes including 0 Pattern of cleavage Protostome spiral radical and indeterminate cleavage deuterostome radial and indeterminate cleavage o Fate of the blastopore Protostome the blastopore becomes the mouth Deuterostome the blastopore is the new anus o Coelom formation Protostome forms from the mesoderm Deuterostome forms from budding off the wall of the archenteron Name five major features of animal phylogeny that are supported by systematic analyses of morphological characters and recent molecular studies 0 All animals share a common ancestor All extant and extinct animal lineages have descended from a common ancestor they are a clade Metazoa o Sponges are basal animals Sponges branch from the base of the animal tree they are monophyletic o Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues All animals except for sponges and a few others are in a clade eumetazoans true tissues evolved in the common ancestor of living species 0 Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria Bilateral symmetry and the presence of three prominent germ layers are shared derived characers that help define the clade 0 There are three major clades of bilaterian animals Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa I These all include invertebrates n Chordata is the only phylum that includes vertebrates Distinguish between the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans Describe the characteristic features of each group 0 Ecdysozoans belong to the clade Ecdysozoa It refers to a characteristic where animals secrete external skeletons exoskeletons As the animal grows it molts the old one and grows a new one o Lophotrochozoans are in a clade called Lophotrochozoa It refers to features belonging to this clade organisms develop a Iophophore a crown of ciliated tenticles that function in feeding They go through a developmental stage called the trochophore larva Bio Vocabulary Terms Chapter 2527 and 32 Acoelomates animals that lack a body cavity altogether Adaptive Radiations periods of evolutionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adaptations allow them to ll different ecological roles or niches in their community Alkaline Vents release water that has a high pH 911 and is warm 4019 degrees C rather than hot Anaerobic Respiration substances other than 02 such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions accept electrons at the end of the Electron Transport Chain Analogy similarity between organisms that is due to convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry Anterior the front end Archenteron a blind pouch formed in an embryo s developing digestive tube that eventually becomes the gut Basal Taxon a lineage that diverges early in the history of a groups and lies on a branch point that originates near the common ancestor of the group Binomial twopart scientific name consisting of the genus and species Biofilms surfacecoating colonies that secrete signaling molecules to recruit other cells causing colonies to grow Bilateral Symmetry two sided symmetry with a back to front and a top to bottom axes Bilaterians an enormous clade whose members have a two sided or bilaterally symmetric form and a complete digestive tract an efficient system with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other Bioremediation the use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil air or water Blastopore the indentation that during gastrulation leads to the formation of the archenteron Blastula a multicellular that can take the form of a hollow ball Body Cavity a uid or airfilled space located between the digestive tract and the outer body wall Branch Points a two way branch that represent a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships Cambrian Explosion a period of time where predators over 1m in length emerged with claws and other features for capturing prey and prey gained new defensive adaptations such as spines and heavy body armor Capsule a thick and welldefined sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein Clades groups that consist of an ancestral species and all of its descendants Cladistics common ancestry is the primary criterion used to classify organisms Classes related orders are classified into these Clevage a succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between the divisions Coelom another name for the body cavity Coelomates animals with a true body cavity formed from the mesoderm and the inner and outer layers of tissue that surround the cavity connect and form structures that suspend the internal organs Conjugation DNA is transferred between two prokaryotic cells that are temporarily joined one cell donated and one cell receives Commensalism an ecological relationship on which one species benefits while the other is not harmed or helped in any significant way Decomposers breaking down dead organisms and waste products and thereby unlocking supplies of carbon nitrogen and other elements Determinate Cleavage protosome development rigidly casts the developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early Deuterostome Development radial intermediate cleavage in development the coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron and the mouth forms from a secondary opening Deuterostomia a bilaterian clade consisting of hemichordates echinoderms and chordates Diploblastic animal groups that have only endoderm and ectoderm are this Domains related kingdoms are placed in to one of the three main domains eukarya bacteria and archaea Dorsal Side the top side Ecdysozoa a clade where all organisms secrete external skeletons Ectoderm the germ layer covering the surface of the embryo gives rise to the outer covering of the animal and in some cases also gives rise to the central nervous system Edicaran Biota an early group of softbodied multicellular eukaryotes Endoderm the innermost germ layer lines the pouch that forms during gastrulation and gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and organs such as the liver and lungs of vertebrates Endospores resistant cells formed when cells lack essential nutrients the original cell produces a copy of its chromosome and surrounds that copy with a tough multilayered structure and then water is removed and the metabolism halts Endosymbiont Theory posits that mitochondria and plastids were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells Endotoxins lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of a gramnegative bacteria released only when the bacteria die and their cell walls break down Eumetazoans a clade to which all animals except for sponges belong to true tissues Exotoxins proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms Extreme Halophiles live in highly saline environments Extreme Thermophiles thrive in very hot environments Extremophiles lovers of extreme conditions bacteria and archaea F Factor the ability to form pili an donate DNA during conjugation results from the presence of this piece of DNA F Plasmid cells with this circular piece of DNA function as the DNA donors during conjugation Facultative Anaerobes use 02 if it is present but can also carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration in an anaerobic environment Family related genera are classified in this Fimbriae hairlike appendages that help cells stick to their substrate Gastrulation layers of embryonic tissues that will develop into adult body parts are produced Gastrula a developmental stage of a embryo Geologic Record a standard time scale that divides Earth s history into four eons and further subdivisions Genus The first part of the binomial name part of Linnaean Classification Gram Negativebacteria with less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex with an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides Gram Positive bacteria with simpler walls that contain relatively large amounts of peptidoglycan Gram Stain a dye developed by Danish physician Hans Christian Gram HalfLife the time required for 50 of a parent isotope to decay Heterochrony an evolutionary change in the rate or timing of developmental events Heterocysts specialized cells that carry out only nitrogen xation Homeotic Genes determine such basic features as where a pair of wings or legs will develop Homoplasies analogous structure that arose independently Horizontal Gene Transfer a process in which genes are transferred from one genome to another through mechanisms such as exchange of transposable elements and plasmids viral infections and perhaps fusions of organisms Host the larger organism in the symbiotic relationship Hydrothermal Vents areas on the sea oor where heated water and minerals gush from the Earth s interior into the ocean Indeterminate Cleavage each cell produced by early cleavage divisions retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo Ingroup lineage that includes the species in question Invertebrates animals that lack a backbone Kingdoms related phyla are organized into thee Lophotrochozoa a clade consisting of two unique features a crown of ciliated tentacles and a distinct developmental stage Lophophore a crown of ciliated tentacles that function in feeding Macroevolution the broad pattern of evolution above the species level Mass Extinction where a large number of species became extinct worldwide Maximum Likelihood identifies the tree most likely to have produced a given set of DNA data based on certain probability rules about how DNA sequences change over time Maximum Parsimony first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts Metamorphosis a developmental transformation that turns the animal into a juvenile tj at resembles an adult but is not yet sexually mature Mesoderm a third germ layer that fills much of the space between the endoderm and ectoderm Methanogens archaea that release methane as a byproduct of their unique ways of obtaining energy they are poisoned by 02 Molecular Clock an approach for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of the genome appear to evolve at constant rates Monophyletic Group clade consists of an ancestral species and all of its descendants Mutualism an ecological interaction between two species in which both benefit Nitrogen Fixation conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia Nucleoid where the chromosomes are located in a prokaryotic cell a region of cytoplasm that is not enclosed by a membrane Obligate Aerobes must use 02 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it Obligate Anaerobes are poisoned by 02 some live exclusively by fermentation and others use anaerobic respiration Orders related families are organized into these Orthologus Genes homology is the result of a speciation event had hence occurs between genes found in different species Outgroup a species or group or species from an evolutionary lineage that diverged before the lineage in question Paedomorphosis reproductive organ development accelerates compared to other organs the sexually mature stage of a species may retain body features that were juvenile structures in ancestral species Pangaea a supercontinent composed of all land masses on earth Paralogous Genes homology results from gene duplication multiple copies of these genes have diverged from one another within a species Paraphyletic Group consists of an ancestral species and some but not all of its descendants Parasite the bacteria that enters a host in a parasitic relationship Parasitism an ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents tissues or body uids of its hosts Pathogens parasites that cause disease Peptidoglycan a polymer composed of modi ed sugars crosslinked by short polypeptides Phyla related classes are placed in these Phylogenetic Tree a branching diagram that matches how taxonomists have classi ed groups of organisms nested within more inclusive groups Phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species or group if species Pili appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to another Plasmids a typical prokaryotic cell may also have much smaller rings or independently replicating DNA molecules Plate Tectonics the continents are part of great plates of Earth s crust that oat on the hot underlying portion of the mantle Posterior the back end Polytomy a branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge Polyphyletic Group includes distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor Protosome Development spiral determinate cleavage in development the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm and the mouth forms from the blastopore Pseudocoelomates animals with a body cavity that is formed from mesoderm and endoderm R Plasmids resistance genes are carried in these plasmids Radial Cleavage cleavage planes are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical aXis of the embryo Radial Symmetry the type of symmetry where there is no front and back or left and right sides only a top and a bottom think of a pizza Radiometric Dating based on the decay of a radioactive parent isotope to a daughter isotope Ribozymes RNA catalyst enzyme like Rooted Tree the terminal branch point represents the more recent common ancestor or all taxa in the tree Serial Endosymbiosis supposed that mitochondria evolved before plastids through a sequence of endosymbiotic events Shared Ancestral Character a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon Shared Derived Character an evolutionary novelty unique to a clade Sister Taxa groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor Spiral Cleavagethe planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical aXis of the embryo Stromatolites layered rocks that form when certain prokaryotes bind thin films of sediment together Symbiont the smaller organism in a symbiotic relationship Symbiosis an ecological in which two species live in close contact with each other Systematics a discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships Taxis a directed movement toward or away from stimulus Taxonomy the scienti c discipline of how organisms are named and classi ed Taxon the named taxonomic unit at any level or the hierarchy Tissues groups of smaller cells that act as a functional unit Transduction phages carry prokaryotic genes from one host cell to another Transformation the genotype and possibly phenotype of a prokaryotic cell are altered by the uptake of foreign DNA from its surroundings Triploblastic organisms with three germ layers the mesoderm forms muscles and most other organs in these organisms Trochophore Larva a distinctive developmental stage in the Lophotrochozoa clade Ventral Side the bottom side Vertebratesanimals with a backbone Yeasts single cell fungi Weak One NMCE xbg rTS UPC F a i L DR S a Chowadcnghc 0P orgamaw mf exhib quot E i k ilg quot ngamzm vmh H meiM m i rmmh Rd p m he f quot Rtapmwsc 0 Sh mu if RPPrOdk J flb ham mgawrfam ex rmd39 h 39 g mm Jmc anmorwmcmlr w i f i L b rmxm EnCYQH Frown Ex CHDV HMFCQS fth mum 12 mag prrnc iumr g pm K 4v hman h m me r orgmqu M m E 06mm ng Eximam3 E1 wk SQ USE 01m W0f Crafin 39 kWhquot Cer j L V ig f fg iw LC d E mum C291 if i J g 8 01 cwui C WOLSQOZ r Jl 9 1 Rmmmg Bay s C DNLSg 7 7 cg ma 3 quot cm A mwx H W i r 9 0m cmw f S r n gmc rm How03648 Rmhm o quotELkaan muslr chumlt6 bpbw pnm r39f pvcjdmers decayen Rmmmg mummy 31m rm 5 rs an 7 39 0 ODE APE On EOWHn bUagSWx can r h f D am am quot 1ampthde P 3mg um CkDuS h m Ovd 39X M amxg BEEF if gt w r 239 7 w V I I Earthmas CYEC if Cd Mo b1cnng ear3 mama iLlF FW SJY Capp ar d lonhcm gawk axng 9 YS r EjukamlplcES my Pd L1 301W Ml if EVSJC mgwwccuumwr Orgmn m men fcmg Jm mbvxmn EXPIGSEM H50 mmlhon gem mac MEN 0 mkaxn gear3 ago mag Pm ww uf 5mm 9 Chmg rf Chmmgja 2 No A new Wm 4 r U r 7 quot1 P m f WP MW NQ W acct termquotth n Mira L Cam Ngmm Zl x w ij sUmj m 39g za t39 lm we E cjuujh quotm Ewag39tw z f b Hexa3 Ex rmchw 39Ev fu g Ljh r ma a mw 50 OF C 53 d 16d L H i mm M x m3 0 fm S f CCQMCV Hum mm m 315 ev n rg 7739 MW C e hl m WS L C0 W gw MLWV kC Laumggv m T w39mlul b LaEVoMi WON f if f i Rh m We Crimphcmh OYg mSm S i if gudu gxmn has he glmh Hr mimp hi l in Q 1W r m 7 mwk Cavhw nm St a Quicgguwxmh a ume f quotquot1 U m 1 gt er d w i Cnnd mums 0h Emw E i f iCM xrf mmlcm 3 H mm pmcc s an m xi39 91er W xmx i jhgm xmduwd gym 19m GUS Wm h Ccr hum Shh 368 7 L Rbm nn SN rr u l S Q 3mm 0 L Emmg mSt Furmg Wmmrcymwmawg if f 1mm mm w mg ma mtkmg fd Wm pmmcws rngan mi 39 y i b xg r 1 g mmg g f m MW mek mm QNR 39mngjk xkdxi Umxfm WEEK f V H w C f mm WmJWC LQWPLBM EW NE E M i 0R1 Shaw i eckxcg UK RNA L EmeQY m Ephca rc H a C33 Sh H E Wm Chum C S rmwm c1 D N Ex bQng mx 39RENQ Mrmm Ozwm lewtiks bccjom msmgl 39 v g r m H W WGRW Uth A bcgmmt Sm mmx d mm H 339 mm x axr moS vOg From bxo0w 0mm DWKQQFK 6231 WSK r m iS thhm GEOchbe FQQWSW S W W L REV39C JbEC orgammg i WE Fm m exammm cgtp rgr39 h i quot 0 pi Cd Hm dmr FONT b q r Ctgmmsami W Cmnqb mnE mesmn 7quot SOH de aEid mmum 39s 0 hard bodt d camma 7 9 EVE39R39CAPPEQVQHFR 0F pf idmhrg and 39ver fgbvm ttzs Bl nd Crankmmzahm i a Fur3 HT was hm hat lm rCMS momd demth and UVQ MXK P g Louid li m tam KMEIH TV on HwyE 1mg mUCh CU r 7 med cw h h pmn r bagmw 0 U36 g 06 WWTWMME pvmdumv mna lmavFd ccmgmm rWE i mm M m d a m g on 36wa m M m moSP aer RYHWQ PODXE I 1 E w H RVs Omxmmg f mamaRf land Wm rechpm ig La 633 e SW QWQ VOMWSLTHC dams k omm FUS SHS L Shams W ai PYQKDYximklS RMEFE ic mh 0 Wm H m man WK on m q bE dCDSYmblCih ITHCQW if i Prw39ldm ng im Ea tkr zrl Ehgju ed bx KQYQELV GEMS and 39 f m n a j l f L Miochomdvm 1M PWB K39HUES hme doubkel f if f Wmh rmmgDMRomamp 601ng MS wld ih OF HF VV Lgt Ongm 0F HUWCCHURIOM W Edimcm an mi m 6596 andmm m BeWW WJFaboHSm m h OXYQJEZH as Rad Q Q39C was qummmmmmr W C y wnanakTgtvWW m m ef DxckgHjci JrW Chmwerf b caUSi 0F if dxFFErch math 393 mw39mn i E Pangma f mecammw lama Gager 5 EWV bacaua i W h mmg hl f Edd 016 l FMV k aquot akgf 39 quot amp 0 Shanam lqu hmbi f meg UTET6 dccp ntcJ i anti 0 mqf Exhndneh Q occam Amwxmg 0cm YfJd b H awk mm Mtgmm S chi 6 MCH an Pew a d QWJE EW 0m COMch qume Pm lac q h Cm famous Ewa sx t i mom 6 W mssxc 7 TDCWXQW f 39sz kmzmc CmbumFemUS f Dauehx Gm mm mm fOleow 10 cm Cambh an wed Z N 0 63 Phx osjemxif waol m Etc L WPhx oqjem 1 3 C JDWHO UaHW OP a pam S r k i 3mm 0 idm r d SPEQC E quot SKIISWWWQHCS Cm SEQ8 rjlw39gjamS cW E Mud A mr mm WW awokuhanwwlt Yemehmawswm e i L E as m mdewt cw and Ql tz daf m m USCci Jro i m icr S6 re tc x wmgwgzs b ho h 3 c TEE 0x kxm39j xam39a Oxbow evduhmw ra xm oms mpS f quotquot OutgrouP Ox 39691638 gr 3va o ign cxtia om om waywngmaw Marge mi KS kmowm 4m hm Amara 2Fmquot W6 39 quotT 39 ml r midst d S39WXB g i gamma U HE MWDUP Exsmrmgai qmum o orqmmsms 4609 Share WW 6d 110 E 7 CGWW Wme WIquot aSa k Jrcvxxm a Miami rm d39N x qQS Ear nil m x hx romm l foup n Jiim rcdj W661 Oa bviamch p0m Ud hl Wye W66 Ep f Ada1 mg ih 15er mmmcm CATWCESJFCJF 0 a faxm m H1 Wm if if QHW OWN Gm bmm Lb pter owx hm n mom WNW hm oxammmm 0er0 u EDS em surge 7m c wmx r rs f f Ema 4 F W T b g gq s r L Twin Bquot 7 mem 1 m U j Rmfagh QmecmEJ quotWm 39 meanw 39 m meg rmi Tm E an l gr Lxmmg L Tam Fl Yf Tmmh 57 EBMEM Exam E 7351 wJVUWW ZUWTESAOWCCA DCW H r OE Am rm anti i r mm mm ml Spr 163 and 0WRDF KEATHHC 7 CEEVOUPS U wallow S H T bui wmmom 0163mm l9 Ude 2 m group OF Emma s Jrher hdudQS Om on CESWE Epemag and m 09 Ursa Jemmomms F Mommahxf39lu c ipmrmgbhx hg mmd whwhxf c group 5 WW E39Hra mgt WE WWDWW a 9M Pm t hc Gm e r r Fu 39 Fry p a 2 x g r Lac E 4 l We m ma CAhM M GW Spencfx m d Ptle 011 m fHrs Macadam 3 buquot O W members 152 ajlr daS Lethth V S f r m makeup a Jn A m quot quotgar gm LMHQEUE PubMa a CA 3le Siwam EDP m dam ES am E g l u39QQSQnik 5mg i I 039 thmbmg swim a dam 7 Mae 6 9 iom are mgnwg 9 magma L 36mva 1 Speech 2 Eme c mwxg L Shm Ed mm DEVNCCX MamaWV 113ch 39 Shmeci Hm w rm m mwma rfi f f iC a hammer WQquot Dvxcgjmmf a mm mm mmc3 m 0 x rmmh a Sh mm mecd Ch foxdrtr Cm mmme mail mwakxg m as gm m c r Shame bxg mi cm CBS CUV Ear ALJ jJJ ix g u L9 Evakmc rmg Mmemxm aglgf f 1 y quot3395 m rigrgcgmumqmgm mL mz mht39m 0m akxg zx rWCj rmxporahm DN E31 86 3 im mm OWEEEKEW V mg mug WV L Humhoms ChmWm m DNA 3 Ch GJEQx m Orgawsms Ea Megaquot ma DNEX amaw w ovcsjomi imi Wat Cam MP H 1 Smm omw be rmt h mmw r m a Emma Dakahong DY MSCYMGWSI MEWCM WW W S E XWRPECWS quottt rS ShotW quotxji moc ma m bxchcm mm bEmuSQ Hr YEpHCm mS m d mum kc S mewE mpi an x11 Longaw wxaaa 0 Use nmtem DNR ijE E Duphtmhcmg Anal baht am M133 4 wph achm ncmm We 11me 0E qxpma m Jane OnghD r39 G S 139 ff u i h S Ur EVO M CWOW r DEE W SUK C m gleam Wng Ori hokogus clams tar a mm m a smgm Copx m glam U uz bu r CW E ham aim he snumb Jame Sgt3Can bThaxg Maniac mw AF x Spemm ajh OCCUR Pardoglu s form HORNquot dug a39xcm ncm m we an m mewE me mg mp m1 Ham aim of m Sm 6 k 1 awakeS NEW ijR RT39EQN XQNTINUES TO 3135 OUR 3NDERBT Mmva 0vij 1 REE OF LUE e 4i kw SHE Emc rcxm 39Omt RTCMO COK HomnpmS II 339 00h J r c 4r FLW chum CM Pk Am 394mm was 1 L Rrrmmph w avtv x nmg ma do 0 3 0 SWELE tau ay ww DUE bEE39W ow cmm t WW l x q si L9 U36 Crikth N f MW 0 mew Ww wt Ohm DE aw wh w E2 Ewan m GamaRS 4750 omtkic m EQVC xg I 506 mm CIT m mm 1w 0 air OYgWMSW S EHrngir mxcvc wmqu lel ma huge m nu mb v b Mom mm mwmx m Lark m Sou Wm m W humrms ka ever Ntd Shaw s an Sphek mcum oa Rh f 0v Spwm bNOWb ham 3 make rm ham D1 4 6 Sn E 39uc m Vl ib 1 mammm Ehmpt it pkavams burghwa Qim vmm g d cgtc3fmw Ch nakmm k of Sugar paw mesa kmmc wm vh gm p ampf3 b Wass B mer W06 0 qfaww 1903mm hmj rmx L9 Rm m t k Con quotbeam w smth oar LolaS mm 10 WE buquot Kayaks 39PEPthgKKECQW quot Gram 3mm f 3 393 fMWS paphcm gulcm w m yrth a HM E lms W m L3 UV39GWW gphw mm Eqm E w W W mmmh i m3 jp phc og uli f Dx i g 3m daw r S rmm OU EV WE hWb f WC O mi 3 f0 4 a a 5quot PWwa 0amp1 cg mrg Jr ptfphdrthmmm anddg w 1ampng a H mm a L ramm ncgafwt M fx lanf Wighi 0 t f a xag39a f39 w f mm mum s N am i 1m g quot Em39hrmfzi hmrr hk EWUCK UVES WQ I m mm mug S39th WW waa vm c Y giter wmiwmwa xa m m mmm hPM MB th cr 0m amp oHem gala C GC 4m exchaw Zia i DH P39s m Sam s 139 Epw39odwchow LUV Pmkme RawMquot Cmf 0 Cmpik bMO an39 Toxm We mb 1W 0 39cht Ewart 0f RWY Raw 1 E W UlUS La hamo roxxm movcmew lh forW Qua m Q CWmwml S wmm 7 quot Rags m m uad ms gunw mrmca or Lownqamrakd 0f 0 06 1r ahd Hit23 0 mam Hm EH L9 1ndepah m5r EVO MJHEWYZ ng uq bemuSc 0 the QWEW TW pro m g UStd 4N an revnak S W U cwch mtm quot K 33ch WVFOMMQJS mi 39 m m nm hwwxhvmwj wPFC r lr he smarch Ravobm Ema Qumcmbkc are LC ethmS f LESS UN Pquot hom EUKCW5 QJV39CS CWC UN mquot ghmm CJ SQHWCS 7N C THEMquot US r Burt mw i h a quot a ltf wfm ui nk Cm nutMad V gmh Ugfi eh mamko Km d EmmaM rxngg f 14 Px Cmm gm Mia i bizapvmawchmw f 7 f f Brian 53mm 0 and 0 EPFGOIUQ39hm gem mmi divide QV vxla rE hmri m C wd La dl a QJYUVES 6 Qcprbdt sh in laqu OWE mm LiThex aprodum bwlr bm aw Hakim i hamm 1r CECMM wme Aruww ig Ei2 pfn uc u fr GosRa adap ro rmm i ARDWEQXWESWk mb hcmw W l xC h C qx nEHc Wmi rmf or can 39mmrmm jmbk m ha ih gatiynriu n h FD iCEMfU ES H bgmpkd 639de uCl39m mufm m h Omd Q h ihe 1me bn m m Wowmi Q5611 E39Hc dN E f m pm lr g 9 Hu m on GaES duqu bmmwi 933 mYE 63m buf alpha mm m EEEVOO UCMOW E mwamm mm mawmukafe mpxdw quot lqh dNt LYSIW hwy mu f xhcgw33 KEEP d ewdwnn b fjem c R wmbmuho i mmbmmrq 01 W9 Ham Sau39m s f f f f quot f mSFormm UW JW a Slt 1UCh am Ck d mvmgu t cx mh quot Ho m mi among mdmdumg 9mm 1F6ve 5r RgEix Hawmmm 33cm Tmn gm
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'