SUS 202 Exam 2 Study Guide
SUS 202 Exam 2 Study Guide SUS 202
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Noah Thompson on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SUS 202 at Chatham University taught by Dr. Ryan Utz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Dynamic Earth Systems in Sustainability at Chatham University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems Study Guide for Exam 2 Water properties to water on Earth (100 points) Definitions Polar molecule: Also called a dipole, Saturation: Frontal lift: Capillary a molecule in which the centroid of t Lifting also occurs the state or water: he positive process that along frontal bound water that charges is different from the centroid occurs when aries, which remains in the of the negative charges. no more of separate air masses soil after something of different density. gravitational wa can be In the case of a ter is drained absorbed, cold front, a colder, out combined denser air with, or mass lifts the added warm, moist air ahead of it. Phase change: he states in which Vapor Chinook wind: Gravitational matter can exist: as a solid, liquid, or pressure: unseasonably water: gas. When temperature changes, pressure exe warm winds that free water that matter can undergo a phase change, rted by can cause extreme moves through shifting from one form to another. a vapor in increases in the soil due to thermodyna temperatures within the force of mic a few hours gravity equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system Hydrogen bonds: a weak bond Adiabatic: Rain shadow: Field capacity: between two molecules resulting relating to or because it is amount of soil from an electrostatic attraction denoting a sheltered from moisture or between a proton in one molecule process or prevailing rain water content and an electronegative atom in the condition in bearing winds by a held in the soil other which heat range of hills after excess does not water has enter or leave drained away the system and the rate of concerned downward movement has decreased 1 SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems: Exam 2 study guide Heat capacity: the number of heat Condensatio Cold front: the Wilting point: units needed to raise the temperature n: water that boundary of an the of a body by one degree collects as advancing mass of minimal point o droplets on a cold air, in f soil moisture cold surface particular the the plant when humid trailing edge of the requires not air is in warm sector of a to wilt contact with lowpressure it system Latent heat: the heat required to Radiation Warm front: the Groundwater: convert a solid into a liquid or vapor, fog: an boundary of an water held or a liquid into a vapor, without evening fog advancing mass of underground in change of temperature over damp warm air, in the soil or in grounds or particular the pores and valleys leading edge of the crevices in rock resulting warm sector of a from cooling lowpressure by radiation system Sensible heat: related to changes in Advection Midlatitude Saturation zone: temperature of a gas or object with no fog: type cyclone: synoptic the area beneath change in phase of fog that scale low pressure the water table forms as cool weather systems where all pore and moist air that occur in the spaces are moves over middle latitudes of completely cooler the Earth (outside filled with water surfaces the tropics) not having tropical characteristics 2 SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems: Exam 2 study guide Water vapor: the gaseous phase of Evaporation Occluded front: a Aquifer: a body water. It is one state of water within fog: specific composite front of permeable the hydrosphere. type produced by rock that can of advection occlusion contain or fog. It occurs transmit when you get groundwater cold air advancing over warm water or warm, moist land surfaces. Condensation: water that collects as Air mass: a Evapotranspiration Cone of droplets on a cold surface when body of air : the process by depression: humid air is in contact with it with which water is occurs in an horizontally transferred from aquifer when uniform the land to the groundwater is temperature, atmosphere by pumped from a humidity, evaporation from well and pressure the soil and other surfaces and by transpiration from plants Specific humidity: is a ratio of the Orographic water vapor content of the mixture to lift: occurs the total air content on a mass basis. when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain Relative humidity: the amount of water vapor present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature Dew/frost point: The dew Convergent Hygroscopic point temperature is the temperature lift: water: absorbed 3 SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems: Exam 2 study guide to which the air must be cooled broad lifting from the before dew or frost begins to form. of an entire atmosphere and The dew point temperature is also a layer of air. held very tightly by measure of the amount of water Convergenc the soil particles, so vapor in the current air mass e is an that it is atmospheric unavailable to condition plants in amounts sufficient for them that exists when there is to survive a horizontal net inflow of air into a region Questions worth knowing the answers to: What electrochemical property of water makes it so special and what are some water properties that result from this property? o They hydrogen bonds; creates a polarity which allows water molecules to form weak bonds with any change What is the difference between latent and sensible heat? o Latent heat refers to the heat required for a phase change to occur. Sensible heat is heat is change in temperature of a substance without a phase change What is the difference between a stable and unstable air mass and what are the weather patterns for each? o Stable air is simply air that does not possess a tendency to rise. It is denser than the air above it, thus it remains in place. Unstable air is simply air that either is rising on it's own, or "wants" to rise. It is less dense than the surrounding air and thus more buoyant What happens when a parcel of air moves in altitude with respect to: temperature, heat, relative humidity? 4 SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems: Exam 2 study guide o Two opposing forces – an upward buoyant force and a downward gravitational force – decide the vertical position of a parcel of air o The temperature of the volume of air decides the vertical position of a parcel of air What is water vapor and can we see it? o Water vapor is water in its gaseous state instead of liquid or solid (ice). Water vapor is totally invisible. If you see a cloud, fog, or mist, these are all liquid water, not water vapor. How do clouds form? o When warm air rises, it expands and cools. Cool air can't hold as much water vapor as warm air, so some of the vapor condenses onto tiny pieces of dust that are floating in the air and forms a tiny droplet around each dust particle. When billions of these droplets come together they become a visible cloud. What are some ways that fog forms and what are the atmospheric physics principles behind these processes? o Fog is a collection of water droplets suspended in the atmosphere in the vicinity of the earth's surface that affects visibility o The presence of fog tells us that the air temperature and the dewpoint temperature at ground level are nearly identical, indicating saturated conditions. Where do the major air masses of North America come from and what are their properties in terms of temperature and humidity? How does lake effect snow form and why is it so abundant? o Lakeeffect snow forms when cold air passes over the warmer waters of a lake. Water holds on to heat more than air. As a result, below freezing air often passes over much warmer water. This causes some lake water to evaporate into the air and warm it. 5 SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems: Exam 2 study guide What are four ways in which adiabatic lift occurs and what weather patterns ensue as a result of each? o Orographic: occurs when air is forcibly lifted upslope as it is pushed against a mountain. The lifting air cools adiabatically – no loss of heat o Convergent: Air flowing from different directions into the same lowpressure area is covering, displacing air upward. These form intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) o Convectional: The warmer surfaces produce this. When an air mass passes from a maritime source region to a warmer continental region, heating from the warmer land surfaces causing lifting and convection of the air mass o Frontal: A narrow zone forming a line of conflict between two air masses of different temperature, pressure, humidity, wind direction, and cloud development Why is the U.S. southeast so much more humid than the southwest at the same latitude? o Think about ocean water temperatures. Along the west coast there is a much cooler pattern, as ocean water currents come from the north. Along the east coast there is warmer water that comes from the south. o Both create sea breezes (water is cooler than air temps) and bring in some levels of humidity but temperatures are warmer near the warmer water, and warmer air can hold more humidity. Thus, more humid air (Florida gets it from all sides). What are the consequences for temperature, humidity, and precipitation as an air parcel undergoes orographic lifting and falling? o On the windward slope of the mountain, air is lifted and cools, causing moisture to condense and form precipitation; on the leeward slope, the descending air mass heats by gaining density, and any remaining water in the air evaporates. o Thus, air beginning its ascent up a mountain can be warm and moist, but finishing its descent on the leeward slope, it becomes denser and therefore hot and dry. o Also, chinook winds are the warm, downward flows. What causes cold and warm fronts and how do the air masses interact with each other when they collide? o A cold weather front is defined as the changeover region where a cold air mass is replacing a warmer air mass. Cold weather fronts usually move from northwest to southeast. The air behind a cold front is colder and drier than the air in front. 6 SUS 202 Dynamic Earth systems: Exam 2 study guide o The rotation of the Earth causes the wind that would normally flow directly from one air mass to another to, instead, flow around the air masses. This helps maintain the air masses’ identity, as well as the “front” between the air masses. Where does precipitation occur with respect to cold and warm fronts? o Precipitation occurs when a cold front tries to over power a warm front. The cold front pushes the warm air higher in the atmosphere. 7
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