Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001
Popular in Human Sexual Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Dunne on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 82679 - PSYC 3060 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Bruce Michael King in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 517 views. For similar materials see Human Sexual Behavior in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Chapter 1 Why A Course in Human Sexuality oz For the exam make sure to study syllabus grading and attendance policy 393 Know the female and male structures and their relation to one another oz Sexuality all of the sexual attitudes feelings and behaviors associated with being human Refers to a dimension of one s personality 0 The majority of Americans are ignorant about sexual behaviors oz CrossCultural Comparisons o Missionary position a facetoface position of sexual intercourse in which the woman lies on her back and the man lies on top Christian missionaries instructed people that other positions were unnatural o Ethnocentric the attitude that the behaviors and customs of one s own ethic group or culture are superior to others 0 Sexual Attractiveness Differ from culture to culture In the US armpits have a negative connotation while in Abkhazian men are highly aroused at seeing women s armpits Some cultures don t see breasts are erotic only for feeding babies Great deal of pressure in our culture to be t Plumb women were considered attractive in western cultures a few centuries ago 0 Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes Kissing is highly erotic in western cultures Japanese Hindus and other African cultures do not regard this as erotic Mangaians Most sexually permissive group of people Live in the cook islands in the south Pacific Mangians girls and boys play together till age of 3 or 4 but after that they separate into age groups according by sex When boys reach adolescent they are supersized Boys are then taught all aspects of sex how to pleasure a woman Girls receive similar instructions from older women o The boys are given to an experienced women who removes the superincision scab during intercourse and teaches the boy an array of sexual techniques 0 After that the boy seeks out girls at night having sex on average 1820 times a week 0 Have sex in huts with families and the parents have to act ignorant to it 0 Physical pleasure is emphasized and emotional attachment comes later lnis Baeg Most sexually repressed society in the world 0 On the coast of Ireland 0 Sex is taboo o Nudity is strictly forbidden Married adults do not see each other completely naked Foreplay is unheard ofalways done in missionary Wear under garments with openings 0 Cultural Diversity within the United States Religion level of education and socioeconomic status all play into their attitude on sex Oral sex is common among middle class people it was originally only practiced by African Americans African Americans tend to begin sexual intercourse earlier than Caucasians Asian Americans are generally the least permissive Very permissive culture Parents hesitate about the sex talk 0 Historical Perspectives 0 Americans are in a sexual revolution 0 We fail somewhere in the middle of the continuum o Judaism Life for the biblical Jews was harsh and they considered it a great advantage to have many children Primary purpose for sex was procreation Sex outside of marriage was bad AJewish woman caught having sex outside of marriage was stoned to death Had to ejaculate in the women s vagina or else it was considered quotspilling of seedquot 0 The Greeks and Romans Strong emphasis on marriage and the family Allowed sexual freedom outside of marriage Sexual relations between male teachers and young boys were encouraged Later in the Greek era there was a strong emphasis on spiritual development and denial of sexual pleasures Dualism the belief that body and soul are separate and antagonistic Plato believed immorality could be achieved by resisting sex 0 Christianity Christians separated physical love from spiritual love Saint Paul blamed Eve for the expulsion from the Garden of Eden and preached that a celibate lifestyle was the way to heaven Saint Augustine had a promiscuous lifestyle at rst He then converted to Christianity and solidi ed the Church s antisexual attitude All sex was sinful and thus all children were born from the sin of their parents Sex inside marriage was only for procreation o Victorianism Era of public prudery and purity All pleasurable aspects of sex were denied Sex was a quotwife s dutyquot Women were sexual temptress Women s dresses covered necks backs ankles Masturbation could lead to blindness and other physical disorders Loss of semen was detrimental to health 0 Had their boys wear antimasturbation devices Touching a menstruating women could spoil food It was thought to have sex during menstruating was the best time to get pregnant Circumcision was rst done in this era Kellog was an antimasturbation food 19505 rst time could say the word pregnant on TV Sexual Revolution Lack of leisure time limited opportunities for sex The industrial revolution also changed this Invention of cars allowed for young people to get away Women s right movement allowed women to take an active role in sexual matters Introduction of penicillin people worried less about STDs Birth control Began in the 1960s 19805 emergence of HIV however when most people diagnosed with it were gay sex did not decline by the mid 1990s people became more aware that HIV could be spread through heterosexual intercourse and sex began to decline 00 What In uences Our Attitudes About Sex Today 0 Socialization the process of internalizing society s beliefs the manner in which a society shapes individual behaviors and expectations of behaviors o Socializing agent the social in uences parents peers the media 0 Teens who identify themselves with religion have conservative views of sex 0 Sex is in the media Magazines and tabloids Play boy Cosmo Music sexual lyrics Radio Howard Stern Movies Rrated movies TV most powerful story teller Advertisements The internet porn 0 Sexual Socialization Cause and Effect TV39s effects on viewers 0 Overestimation of the prevalence of certain sexual activities in the general public 0 Disinhibitionmore liberal attitude about sex 0 Increased interest in sexual issues 0 Learning about sexual topics 0 Sex as a Science 0 Sigmund Freud 18561939 Developed psychoanalysis as a means for evaluating and treating unconscious sexual motivations Incorrect belief that the loss of semen was detrimental to a man s health as was loss of blood 0 Havelock Ellis 18591939 Grew up with many wet dreams and was told he was going to be blind insanity and eventually die When his health did not deteriorate he realized that loss of semen did not lead to death Argued that women were not asexual and that men s and women s orgasms were very similar I Devoted much of his life to sexual research I Believed that behaviors of masturbation and homosexuality are normal 0 Alfred C Kinsey 18941956 I Conducted several questionnaires and interviews I Found that most people masturbated engaged in oral sex women could have multiple orgasms and that many people had same sex experiences 0 Masters and Johnson I Started to observe sexual behavior in people under laboratory conditions 312 men and 382 women I Developed the rst methods for treating sexual problems I Opened a sexual therapy clinic 0 Edward O Laumann and the National Health and Social Life Surveys I NC senator introduced an amendment to eliminate sexual research funding I However laumann eventually received funding and they did this research in hopes of prevents HIVAIDS o The 2010 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior I Comprehensive study of people aged 1494 I Must of the data was collected via internet I Most important ndings were that Americans engage in a wide range of sexual behaviors 3 Scienti c Methodology 0 Surveys and Samples I Survey a study of people s attitudes opinions or behaviors Response are usually obtains face to face or on a paper and pencil questionnaire I Population the complete set of observations which a research wishes to draw conscious I Sample a subset of population of subjects I Random sample a sample in which observations are drawn so that all other possible samples of the same size have an equal change of being selected I Strati ed random sample a sample in which sub groups are randomly selected in the same proportion as they exist in the population Thus the sample is representative of the target population I Volunteer bias a bias in research results that is caused by differences between people who agree to participate and others who refuse Correlation a mathematical measure of the degree of relationship between two variables Direct observation observing and recording the activity of subjects as they conduct their activities Case Study an indepth study of an individual Observer bias the prejudicing of observations and conclusions by the observers own belief system Experimental method a study in which and investigator attempt to establish cause and effect relationship by manipulating a variable of interest while keeps all other factors the same 00 Sexuality Education 0 The United States sex education in schools originated as part of a social hygiene movement to prevent STDS o By 1940 the focus of sex education in the US was changing from prophylactics to personal relationships and longterm adjustment Still focused on sex within marriage 0 Today sexual education has become a battleground among groups with different moral and political ideologies 0 Syllabus Attendance and Grading Policy 0 Attendance You can earn bonus points for good class attendance but you can also lose points or poor attendance see attendance points below Excused absences will be made only for religious holidays military duty jury duty official Clemson duties and longterm medical problems registered with Student Disability Services 0 I am allowing everyone to miss class four times for personal unexcused reasons before it counts against you inmate Granite Eludente wlm EMTI err 31 um till Timur p imtt EIWEWE II39tEJl am 31 average and Whit have nut rniieee l Entire their Ii ul lectures will be t lieeigmited til E lg39upi t l lt39 titquot Em and exhumed ew the nal exam with Em A in the E 39Lll39Etfa Fur it Where 1 the time meme grande wil be tempute item the litrri39neritatl gl tti i earned an the mitt punt tlm exam and the three beet Stillpew exam gradue er irimt wwert yen hitET ewme tr percentage 11139 rm weregel pinh 1minte gainer nr urnHi by atterid nuu ll 39l39 l Eltjtlill tli raw simmeri sum thll E39E39 tttls lumen were 2 tilttEITIILt tttil paints WEEll 5H1 il EIHJI II EH lnurl quotgtmp quotEulaman urllalnnn it39teritlrit tuu Pillii39 tti Final friut39ee tiredI Miseet lltel lemma lneiiite Eliaureteth mealtime Missed 2 lectures I 3 iiiminis rt 25 tt liiquotii1i er Emiler Mier 3 lecleirus mine i 2 1 i4 nuniris Miami lm lectures l praim l HELENE i nriims Mieeerl tilquot mire lectures I 5 I L39Jttilth etiiiirr icrerl 39l39tir emit l lT m l tit prriiite lecture rimmed after the itnrr rli nu mm he priming ilie Lirimeiii eiil intimi im Quilter witl i ii grade Hr tt39l39 helmr Emtntp L lLi Litil li39li sin quotquotf t 45 1 45 all it 225 wt li39iCiLlLt illg Ltll IJLSI lit It lil39itlU IiLiiiitrali Male 9nd Female Structures B a U gt c m g E E w O m 1 4 D u o gt C m 2H m Cm 10 a j mg 2 OE 5 5 45 Q mo ago 0 gt a E E gt44 5 Fa 370 L OD E Em 0 1 c l 5 5 60 5 3 Hquot mm 5 lt0 r4 ogt a C Li a H G H b nthrnnv within the vagina In ad i FIGURE 2 7 a The internal female reproductive system viewed from the side b A frontal view of the internal female reproductive system a Fallopian tube e g 3 U E E E g 0 u I Q o E gtg k 6 b 3 5 93 toE g 5 E 95 3 0 E 5 I 0 5 5 383 mg ego n39Do l 0322 QE 3 09 egg 5 a Source Hock Human Sexuality 2007 Prentice Hall inc Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education lnc anthem iiii lrl39f flnn 41114110 EPYIIQI Clt anQt 3 W t 43 Bladder Vas defere ns Urethra Penile glans Urethral opening Corpora cavernosa Corpus Corona spongiosum Penile glans Urethral Scrotum opening Side View lGURE 2 11 The internal male reproductive system a penis Jrce Hock Human Sexuality 200739 Prentice Hall Inc Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education inc is Each tubule is 1 to 3 feet in length and if they e laid together end to end they would measure In between the iniferous tubules are cells called interstitial cells 39 onequarter mile in length internal Male Anatomy 51 courage you 6 course DMY Rectum Eiaculatory I6pr0duc duct 1e external the vulva Prostate gland E 22 The ria majora ginal and elf which in should r does not 1 As with ralia vary Ffering in 3 positive Nard her icipation ll lOltZ 86 Seminal vesicle Cowper39s gland Anus Corpora cavernosa Urethra Penile glans Fore 3km sponglosum Urethral opening Cross Section of Penile Shaft from a frontal view and cross section lt Front View top from a side view bottom itself only 1 to 2 have failed to descend b months but if it persists it can result in steri ity increased risk of hernia and cancer of the testicle Each testicle is suspended in the scrotum External Female Anatomy 35 Mons veneris Clitoral hood Cl39 oral glans Urethral Labia opening majora Vaginal Labia Openmg minora Hymen Perineum Anus FIGURE 2 2 The female genitalia vulva with the labia parted to show the vaginal and urethral openings Source Hock Human Sexuality 2007 Prentice Hall inc Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education inc Illa Chapter 2 Our Sexual and Reproductive Anatomy 393 Genitalia the external reproductive organs of the man or woman 3 External Female Anatomy 0 Vulva latin for covering Consists of the mons veneris the labia majora the labia minora the clitoris and the vaginal and urethral openings 0 Mons Veneris a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the area where the pubic bones come together 0 Labia Means quotmount of venusquot Considered to be very erotic after puberty Sensitivity to touch is dependent on the density of nerve endings in a particular area of skin Numerous never endings gently stimulation is pleasureable This fatty tissue cushions the pubic region during intercourse Becomes covered with pubic hair during puberty Researchers believe that pubic hair is meant to be sexually attractive Until the 19705 it was uncommon for women to shave their pubic area This changed as bikini bottoms and panties became smaller Consists of two outer labia majora and two inner labia minora elongated folds of skin which in the sexually unstimulated state cover the vaginal and urethral openings Labia majora two elongated folds of the skin extending from the mons to the perineum in women lts outer surfaces becomes covered with pubic hair during pube y Labia minora two hairless elongated folds of the skin located between the labia majora in women They meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood Perineum refers to the hairless bit of skin between the anus and either the vaginal opening or the scrotum The pinkish and hairless labia minora are located between and sometime protrude beyond the labia majora Some afrian groups Hottentots consider it to be highly erotic for the labia to be elongated Girls are taught at an early age to pull on it Clitoral hood the part of the labia minora that covers the clitoris in women very sensitive to touch Bartholin39s glands glands located at the base of the labia in women that contribute a small mount of an alkaline uid to their inner surfaces during sexual arousal the uid counteracts the normal acidity of the outer vagina because sperm cannot live in an acidic environment 0 Clitoris a small elongated erectile structure in women that develops from the same embryonic tissue as the penis It has no know function other than to focus sexual sensations Greek word meaning hill or slope The body or shaft of the clitoris is located beneath the clitoral hood 1 inch long and onequarter diameter Contains two parallel cylinders of spongy tissue called corpora cavernosa which towards the rear form much larger structures called crura The spongy tissues of the clitoris engorge with blood during sexual arousal Surgical removal of the clitoris was sometimes performed in the United States and Europe during the victoria times in order to prevent girls from masturbating and growing up quotoversexedquot Clitoridectomy is no longer legal in America but is common in Northern African countries middle east Malaysia and Indonesia This secretions of magma can accumulate beneath the clitoral hood and result in discomfort during sex 0 The Vaginal Opening Vestibular area refers to the area between the two labia minora 0 Latin for quotentrance hallquot Lots of nerve endingssensitive to touch Bulbocavernosus muscle a ring of sphincter muscles that surrounds the vaginal opening in women or the root of the penis in men Sexually experiences woman can learn to contract these muscles during sex 0 lnexperienced women may involuntarily contact as a result of nervousness making penetration difficult Hymen the thin membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening in sexually inexperienced women 0 Until shortly before birth the hymen separated the vagina from urinary system 0 Has one or more openings that allows for menstrual ow 0 The hymen sometimes ruptures before sex tampon sports 0 The Urethral Opening Uretha the passageway from the bladder to the exterior of the body 0 Breasts in women glands that provide milk for infants mammary glands Considered highly erotic by most men in Western societies Develop due to an increase of estrogen during puberty produced by ovaries Common for one breast left to be larger than the other Each gland is connected to a nipple which is also sensitive to touch The darkened area around the nipple is called the areola and the small bumps are glands that secrete oil to keep the nipples lubricated during breastfeeding During the late stages of pregnancy a hormone called prolactin causes the glands to produce milk A baby s sucking causes the pituitary gland to produce a hormone called oxytocin which results in the ejection of milk 19605 boobs jobs began 0 Internal Female Anatomy 0 Vagina The shreathlike canal in a woman that extends from the vulva to the cervix and that receives the penis during sex Serves as the birth canal The vaginal walls have three layers 0 The inner layers has a soft mucosal surface similar to that of the inside of the mouth 0 The rising levels of puberty causes the walls to thicken and becomes more elastic and highly vascularized During menopause the ovaries atrophy and the walls become thin again like before puberty also decrease in blood supply which decreases lubrication The vagina is a self cleansing organ A large muscle pubococcygeus muscle which is more richly innervated with nerves surrounds the vagina o It has been found that women who have vaginal sensation during intercourse have a weak pubococcygeus muscle Grafenberg G spot small sensitive area in the front wall 0 Only 10 or fewer women have a G spot One is every 4000 to 5000 girls is born without a vagina it can be surgically construcuted o Uterus The womb The hollow muscular organ in women where the fertilized egg normally implants The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus Broad part of the uterus is called the fundus Three layers 0 Endormetrium where the fertilized egg implants Myometrium strong middle layer of muscles which contract during labor 0 Perimetrium external cover 0 Fallopian Tubes Extend 4 inches laterally from both sides Finger like projections called mbria are at the ends and they pick up an egg after it is expelled from the ovary o Ovaries Two functions 0 Produce eggs 0 Produce female hormones estrogen and progensterone At birth a girl will have all the immature eggs that she will ever have 300000 to 400000 Each egg is surrounded by some other cells and contained within a thin capsule to form what is called primary follicle Only 400 eggs will ever mature 00 External Male Anatomy 0 The Penis Outer Appearance Both reproductive and a urinary function Primary organ Circumcision in men the removal of all or part of the foreskin of the penis In women the removal of the clitoral hood 0 The Penis lnternal Structure Body visible Consist of three parallel cylinders of spongy tissue two corpora cavernosa on top of a corpus spongiosum on the bottom Corona the raised rim at the boarder of the shaft and glans Uretha passageway for sperm and urine Glans Roots Surrounded by bulbocavernosus and the ischiocavernosus that aid in urination and ejaculation When a man becomes sexually aroused the arteries going to the penis dilate and the many cavities of the cavernous and spongy bodies ll with blood Values in the veins close and the penis expands o Scrotum Sac located beneath the penis that contains testicles Produces sperm Typically 93 degrees Sparsely covered with hair many sweat glans Small muscle bers that contract when it is cold to help draw the testicles closer to the body cavity for warmth When it is hot they relax and hang 0 Internal Male Anatomy 0 Testicles Develop from the same embryonic tissue as the ovaries Two functions 0 Produce sperms 0 Produce male hormones androgens and testosterone Millions of new sperm start to be produced each day in several hundred seminiferous tubules Each testicle is suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord helps raise and lower the testicles in response to the environment ln right handed men its normal for the left testicle to hang lower and vice versa 0 Duct System Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubules They pass through a four part duct system The seminiferous tubules converge to form the epididymis coiled tubes that can be felt o the top and back of each testicle Sperm take up to 6 weeks to mature Then they go through the vas deferens During orgasm they are forced into the ejaculatory ducts Two ejaculatory ducts open into the urethra o Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles Seminal vesicles two structures in a man that contribute many substances 0 the seminal uid Prostate gland secretes all of these substances and another substance that causes semen to temporarily coagulate after ejaculation thus helping to prevent spillage fro the vagina Also secretes antibiotic possibly to prevent the male and female reproductive systems from infections 0 Cowper39s Gland Two pea sized structures located beneath the prostate Product alkaline uid prior to orgasm The uid neutralizes acidity of the urethra so sperm is not destroyed Chapter 3 Hormones and Sexuality 3 The Endocrine System 0 O O Hormones are important for growth metabolism water retention reaction to stress Endocrine system network of ductless glands that secrete their chemical substances hormones Hormones chemical substances that are secreted by ductless glands into the bloodstream They are carried in the blood to other parts of the body where they exert their effects on other glands or target organs The testicles release testosterone Ovaries release estrogen and progesterone Adrenal gland also produces small amounts of these hormones this all three hormones are found in men and women Pituitary gland causes the testicles anol ovaries to release the hormones Located at the base of the brain Releases 8 different hormones Two of these have their effect on the ovaries and testicles called gonadotropins Folliclestimulating hormone FSH stimulates the maturation of a follicle an immature egg in one of the ovaries and the production of sperm Luteinizing hormone LH triggers ovulation and in men it stimulates the testicles to product male hormones Prolactin a hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates milk production in the breasts I Oxytocin a pituitary hormone associated with milk release labor and orgasmic contractions and erotic attraction and touch quotlovequot hormone Pituitary gland was once called the master gland Gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH a hormone released by the hypothalamus in the brain that causes the pituitary gland to release the hormone FSH and LH In women increases in blood levels of GnRH from the hypothalamus cause an increase in the release of FSH from the pituitary gland which in turn results in increased blood levels of estrogen from the ovary The increased estrogen levels then work to decrease the production of GnRH There is a similar feedback loop among GnRH LH and progesterone lnhibin a hormone produced by the testicle and ovaries that inhibits release of folliclestimulating hormone from the pituitary gland 3 The Menstrual Cycle 0 O O The monthly cycle of hormonal events in a woman that leaders to ovulation and menstruation During this phase of growth the endometrium of the uterus thickens and becomes highly vascularized in preparation for implementation of a fertilized egg If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm endometrial tissues are discharged from the body accompanied by bleeding and a new follicle then begins with the nal stage of maturation This process will end at menopause 400 menstrual cycles Average length of cycle is 28 days Preovulatory Phase Days 513 Also referred to as the follicular or proliferative phase The pituitary secretes high FSH which stimulates the development of a follicle in the ovary He growing follicle secretes high levels of estrogen Estrogen also stimulates the release of LH Ovulation Day 14 The LH surge signals the onset of ovulation within 12 to 24 hours A mature follicle Graa an has moved 0 the surface of the ovary Ovulation the follicle ruptures and the egg is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity Corpus luteum the follicular cells that remain in the ovary after the follicle expels the ovum during ovulation They begin to secrete progesterone in large quantities in the postovulatory Hormonal changes induce a change in the quantity and consistency of cervical mucus from white and sticky to clear and slippery like an egg white to provide a more hospitable environment for sperm An egg remains ripe for only 24 hours but sperm can live up to 5 days in the uterus so the fertile period for women is 5 days before ovulation Postovulatory Phase Days 15 to 28 Also referred to as the luteal or secretory phase The cells of the corpus luteum begin to secrete large levels of progesterone after ovulation which inhibits further release of LH from the pituitary and further prepares the thickened endometrium in case the egg is fertilized If the egg is fertilized it continue its trip through the fallopian tube and implants itself in the endometrium The development of the placenta produces the hormone human chronic gonadotropin HCG which ensure that the corpus luteum will continue to maintain the endometrium o Menstruation Days 14 With the decline in the levels of estrogen and progesterone there is loss of the hormones that were responsible for the development and maintenance of the endometrium The endometrium is shed over a 3 to 6 day period Menstruation is the discharge of endometrium tissue cervical mucus and blood The loss of estrogen results in FHS and a new cycle begins 09 Length of the Menstrual Cycle 0 0 During adolescence most girls cycles average longer than 28 days Considerable variety in women 0 Menstrual Synchrony and Pheromones O O O Pheromones chemical substances secreted externally by animals that convey information to and produce speci c response in members of the same species Roommates have similar menstrual cycles Studies found that women who had regular sexual experiences with a man had a more regular menstrual cycle 0 The Menstrual Cycle and Sexual Desire 0 Estrous cycle the cycle of hormonal events that occurs in most nonhuman mammals The females are sexually receptive to males only during ovulation An increase in women s sexual activity and fantasies in the days leading up to ovulation Many studies have found that men nd women to be more attractive during ovulation Women can be sexually aroused during anytime of the cycle unlike other species 0 Attitudes About Menstruation Historical Perspectives o Biblical Hebrews regarded a menstruating woman as unclean or impure and believed that she could transfer her unceaniness to a man during sex 0 Girl was required to leave the house during menstrual cycle 0 Attitudes About Menstruation Today 0 Negative feelings of men and women 0 Many people believe menstrual myths women should not swim exercise avoid bathing 0 Menstrual Problems 0 Amenorrhea the absence of mensuration for 3 months or longer Menarche the term for a girl s st menstrual period Girls with high body fat start menstruating earlier Common among female athletes eating disorders 0 Premenstrual Syndrome PMS Physical andor emotional changed that many women experience in the last 3 to 14 days before the start of their menstrual period Bloating breast tenderness abdominal swellings swollen handfeet weight gain constipation and headaches Premenstrual dysphonic disorder PMDD a severe form of PMS that markedly interferes with social relations work or education Women with PMS or PMDD generally have normal hormone levels and normal estrogenprogesterone ratios I Ovarian hormones act in combination with a brain chemical called serotonin to produce the symptoms 0 Dysmenorrhea painful menstruation Backaches headaches and feeling bloated 0 Heavy Bleeding Menorrhagia heavy vaginal bleeding Treatments include birth control tranexamic acid 0 Endometriosis the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus Causes adhesions and abnormal growth that binds organs together 0 Toxic Shock Syndrome SSS caused by toxins produced by a bacterium Fever vomiting diarrhea fainting low blood pressure can result in death The staphylococcus bacteria needs oxygen to multiply air pockets in tampons contain oxygen oz Regulation of Male Hormones 0 Release of GnRH from the hypothalamus causes release of FSH from the pituitary Increased in blood levels of FSH stimulate production of sperm on the seminiferous tubules of the testicles FSH production is inhibited by increases in blood levels of inhibin produced by men in Sertoli cells in the testicles Testosterone production increases when GnRH from the hypothalamus stimulates release of LH High levels of testosterone then inhibit the production of GnRH Levels of FSH LH and testosterone are relatively stable The difference between men and women are the hypothalamus not the pituitary glands oz Testosterone and Sexual Desire 0 O In humans there is evidence of testosterone playing a role in sexual desires The loss of estrogen and progesterone does not reduce sexual desire in most women Chapter 4 Similarities and Differences in Our Sexual Responses 3 Measurement of Sexual Responses 0 Penile strain gauge a thin rubber tube lled with mercury that ts over the base of the penis and transmits a small electric current that can record even a slight change in the circumference of the penis o Vaginal photoplethysmograph ts like a tampon into the vagina and has a light and photocell to record blood volume in the vaginal walls 0 Models of Sexual Response 0 Sexual Response Cycle 1 Excitement 2 Plateau 3 Orgasm 4 Resolution 0 Helen Kaplan 1 Desire 2 Excitement 3 Orgasm 393 Men39s Sexual Response Cycle 0 Desire a psychological state subjectively experienced by an individual as an awareness that he or she wants or wishes to attain a sexual goal lntrinsic motivation to pursue sex Regardless of the stimulation once a man has a desire it is the same physical response 0 Excitement Arousal First sign is the erection of the penis vascongestive response I Starts within 3 to 8 seconds of stimuli Excitement phase men the rst phase of sexual response cycle leading to the erection Two centers in the spinal cord responsible for erection 0 Lowest sacral is the most important Nerve impulses caused by stimulation of the penis travel to this center which then sends nerve impulses back to the penis in a re ex action 0 Thoracolumbar also receives impulse originating in the brain Men with spinal cords cut above sacral can still get erections but cant feel stimulation of the penis Increase in heart rate and blood pressure Scrotum thickets and the spermatic cord shortens Testicles become engorged with blood o Plateau The second phase of the sexual response cycle High state of arousal sets the stage for orgasm Diameter of the penis increases The cowpers gland secrete a few drops of clear uid that may appear at the tip of the penis About 25 of men experience a sextension ush on various areas of the skin rash 0 Orgasm Intense physical sensations last a few seconds Rhythmic muscular contractions occur in certain tissues in both the man and woman Orgasm is a perceptual experience does not require genital stimulation In men it occurs in two stages 0 Emissions rhythmic muscular contractions in the vas deferens prostate gland and seminal vesicles force the sperm and the prostate and seminal uids into the ejaculatory ductsforming semen o Expulsion ejaculation The sphincter muscles surrounding the part of the urethra coming from the bladder are tightly contacted so that urine is not mixed with semen 0 Resolution Return to the unaroused state Loss of erection decrease in testicle size movement of the testicles away from the body cavity and disappearance of the sex ush Refractory period the period if time after an orgasm in which their physiological response fall below the plateau level thus making it impossible for them to have another orgasm 3 Women39s Sexual Response Cycle 0 DesireInterest For many women sexual desire is motivated less by biological urges than it is by relationship and intimacy needs Men s sexual desire is determined largely by biological factors such as levels of testosterone Most women sexual desire is motivated less by biological urges than it is by relationship and intimacy needs 0 Excitement Arousal The rst sign of sexual arousal in women is a vasgongestive response just as in men it begins within seconds after the start of stimulation The vaginal walls become engorged with blood and the pressure soon causes the walls to secrete drops of uid on the inner surfaces vaginal lubrication Vaginal lubrication does not mean a women is emotionally or physically ready for intercourse The labia majora begins to move apart The walls of the vagina begin to balloon out and the cervix and uterus pull up thus getting it ready to accommodate the penis The clitoris becomes engorged with blood Nipples become erect For many women subjective arousal is very poorly correlated with genital measures of physiological arousal It is the relational context that is important emotional closeness Women s sexual arousal commonly precedes sexual desWe Women do not distinguish desire from arousal it is all one process 0 Plateau While the inner two thirds of the vagina continue to expand like an in ated balloon and the uterus continues to elevate the outer third of the vagina becomes greatly engorged with blood and swell an orgasmic platform The swelling of the tissues results in a narrowing of the vaginal opening by 30 to 50 the outer third grip the penis during this stage Changes in blood ow causes a measleslike rash to appear on areas of the skin This sexual tension ush appears in 5075 of all women 3 additional response occurring in women during the plateau stage that are sometimes misinterpreted by men to mean that the women is no longer aroused when in fact she is at a very heightened stage 0 Clitoris pulls pack against the pubic bone and disappears beneath the clitoral hood 0 The breasts and particularly the areola become engorged with blood and swell lesser extent to those who have breast fed o The secretion of uids from the vaginal walls may slow down if the plateau phase is prolonged Clitoris becomes sensitive to touch The labia minora also becomes engorged with blood during the plateau phase 0 Orgasm Women s orgasms occur in a single stage Rhythmic muscular contractions in speci c tissues that were initially 08 seconds apart Nearly identical feeling to men 0 Resolution Some women are capable of having multiple orgasms As many as 10 of women have never had an orgasm After a single orgasm or multiple women s response will start to fall below the plateau level Blood drains from tissues and the clitoris moves back to its normal position 09 Controversies About Orgasms o Are all women capable of orgasm during sexual intercourse About 510 of women never had an orgasm Both psychological and biological factors come into play 0 Why do women have orgasms One theory is that it serves in mate selection quotSperm completion theoryquot 0 Women are more likely to achieve orgasm with desired partners and the uterine contractions during orgasm suck up the man s semen Byproduct theory proposed that some women have orgasms only because of the early shared embryonic development of males and females 0 How many types of female orgasms are there Freud claimed that clitoral orgasms were infantile and a sign of immaturity Vaginal orgasms were authentic and mature and a sign of normal psychosexual development Most women cant tell when their vagina is being stimulated PC muscle G Spot sensitive area on the front wall of the vagina found in about 10 of all women Orgasms are a little blip on a curve that can lest for over a minute Degrees of intensity 0 Do women ejaculate during orgasm The emission of a uid by some women during orgasm was noted as early as 300 years ago Skene39s gland glands located in the urethras of some women that are through to develop from the same embryonic tissue as the man s prostate and that may be the source of a uid emitted by some women during orgasm 0 Can Men have multiple orgasms Many men can have multiple quotminiorgasms by withholding ejaculation 0 Penis Size Does it matter 0 No real advantage of having a penis longer than 6 inches 0 Most sensations are in the clitoris which does not come in direct contact with the penis 3 Aphrodisiacs Do they help 0 O O O O Aphrodisiacs substances that enhance sexual functioning Any temporary improvement in sexual functioning is purely a psychological effect and the effect will wear off shortly Alcohol is common dilation of blood vessels which gives a feeling of warmth and wellbeing Anaphrosiacs substances that suppress sexual functioning Cocaine is a central nervous system stimulant and thus may give the user a burst of energy Amphetamines in low doses can also give a burst of energy but will decrease sexual functioning in higher doses Marijuana decreases desire or arousal and inhibits orgasm Ecstasy is popular aphrodisiac 3 Sexuality and People with Disabilities 0 0 People with disabilities have just as much sexual desire People with spinal cord injuries initially shut out their partner They go through a phase of sexual exploration All handicaps have sexual needs
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