A122 Midterm Exam Study Guide (ALL INCLUSIVE)
A122 Midterm Exam Study Guide (ALL INCLUSIVE) ANTH-A 122
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Goldhirsh on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH-A 122 at Indiana University taught by Lindsey Pullum in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Zoe Goldhirsh A122 Exam 1 Study Guide Intro: Interpersonal communication is linked to cultural understanding 3 tiered approached class: Comparative approach: considering our own communicative practices in relation to those of other sociocultural groups Ethnographic approach: cultural study of how and why people do what they do. A set of methods to observe what people say and do (written analysis of observations) Performance-based approach: Culture is performed and always changing Body Ritual among the Nacirema: (pg. 10) -Touches on American’s lifestyle and their consumption and obsession with hygiene. -Expresses how important the role of the ethnography is and how you must choose your words wisely in order to portray your participants as best as possible (unbiased) Culture Blends – Michael Agar (pg. 12-23) Circle around language: inside the circle there is grammar and vocabulary, outside the circle there is culture. Without culture you won’t communicationcircle needs to be erased Number 1 mentality: “Americans are the best, number one, free and rich and capable of doing anything” Deficit theory approach: notice all the things that the other person lacks when compared to you (how to look at differences between you and someone else) Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture – Clifford Geertz (29-31) Thick Description: Tries to convey the social context and cultural meaning (helps find out what phrases and actions mean) (i.e. an eye twitch means there’s something in my eye, a wink means something else) *pays attention to details Thin Description: describing only the behavior you observe and not an interpretation **KNOW why is thick description important? Thick description is important because it not only explains the behavior but it’s context as well and this helps the behavior become meaningful The Emergent Quality of Performance – Richard Bauman (38-40) Performance: Through performance people put themselves at the center of attention and reshape social structure to gain power *Performance can change social power with communication *Emergent quality of performance= interplay between communicative resources, individual competence and the goals of the participants. -Performer audience connection KNOW example of Dick Gregory and why he was successful: -Dick Gregory was picked on as a kid and it taught him to learn the power of a joke. He began to use jokes so they would laugh with him and not at him. Through performance, Dick Gregory was able to take control of the situation, putting himself at the center of the social structure. He has transformed the situation through performance, to benefit him. Culture: Can You Take It Anywhere? – Michael Agar (24- 26) “Traditional” Cultures: stays the same from one generation to the next **Rich Points: moment of difference in a culture/language, people doing something in a situation that we don’t understand because it is not traditional Translation: to explain the meaning of a rich point you must compare your languaculture to the one in play (investigation of languaculture of the people who produced the rich points) Five Principles – Richard Bauman (27-28) Principle 1: Communication is social. Society is built through communicative practices Principle 2: Expressive forms (art, play, display, performance) adds to culture and communication (performance reflects culture) Principle 3: Communicative forms are social means to accomplish social ends (social ends= social business) *communication=social resource *EX: ways of speaking, dressing, dancing, playing music are all means/resources that are available to accomplish social ends Principle 4: Different forms are differently valued (communication values change across different cultures) *EX: people who value Rachmaninoff’s music versus people who listen to and value rap Principle 5: Communicative forms vary and change throughout different cultures and different time periods (historically) *EX: the patterns and functions of communication of the 17 century Quakers differ than those of their contemporary descendants Winking as Social Business – Jane Goodman (32-33) *Social business that is explained by actions/movements Social Business: Refers to the ends that are achieved in particular interactions and the larger questions of value, identity or power that inform and emerge from these interactions. Reflexive Awareness: why things are done the way they are done and what is typically the norm *(reflectively thinking about events in your own life) Speaking of Ethnography –Leila Monaghan (34-37) SPEAKING model: S-setting (where), P-participants (who), E-ends (social business power, identity, values), A- Act sequence (what happened and in what order), K- Key (tone of the event), I- Instrumentality (the language of communication), N- norms (norms with in the certain culture), G- genre (ex: greeting, first date, hanging out) Ethnography: The formal presentation of all findings “Fallacy of normality”- the assumption that your own behaviors are normal because you have not compared other society and groups cultures **Cross-Cultural Comparison: comparing your own practices to that of a different society **Triangulation: looking at date from multiple different perspectives to compare **How are they used to achieve reflexive awareness? Cross- cultural comparison and triangulation are used to achieve reflexive awareness because it by comparing different cultures and looking at different perspectives you can gain a better understanding of why things are done that certain way and what the norm typically is (compare events in your life to those of others to gain a better understanding) Poetics, play, process, and power: The performative turn in anthropology – Dwight Conquergood (41-43) Poetics: language (creative use) Play: parody to breech assumed norms Process: Culture is ongoing/ever changing Power: struggle with different ideas and views and competing interests *Poetics, play, process, power all in word bank* Ideology: one of the key words in power because in performance there is a competing of different ideas (performance can uphold and challenge ideology) Greetings in the desert- Youssouf (pg. 47-59) -Greetings are ritualized and formulaic for safety purposes -Once you see each other you must meet and the newcomer is required to initiate interaction -**ALL done for safety precautions in the desert to make sure the stranger is not dangerous to you Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of speaking and silence among seventeenth century Quakers – Richard Bauman (60-72) Plain speech: Quakers didn’t engage in greetings and leave takings, titles and pronouns, they just had the nature of “plain speech” Positive Face: positive consistent self-image or personality claimed by people interacting with them Negative face: basic claim to territories, personal preserves, rights to non-distraction (do what you want) Face threatening acts: failure to employ politeness forms and strategies appropriately *The Quakers opposed religion and challenged politics and used silence to show their values, they did not lie they value the truth and would not say, “Hi how are you, good” if things were not so. The Quakers silence challenged social structure (power). To Give Up words- Basso (73-83) -The Apachi used silence in 5 ways: 1. When meeting strangers 2. Courting (initial dates) 3. When children come home from school 4. When getting cussed out 5. In sad times/being with people who are sad *The social business of silence in the case of the apache is used in times of uncertainty and ambiguity of who they are with to show respect, less power. The License- Lepsletter (pg. 120-131) *Lepsletter writes a story about her experience living in an American conspiracies town near Area 51. She expands on the alien legend and conspiracy theories and how uncanny events disrupt ordinary flow Monolithic/master narrative: The one idea that everyone goes along with Ex: the government is here to take care of us so everyone goes along with it and doesn’t question it Counter narrative= they’re hiding things *The social business of the UFO genre is power, they have insight and knowledge and they challenge the government’s power through their narrative Writing Cousin Joe… -Harriet Joseph (93-109) Orthography: how you spell/conventional spelling of words (Standard language) Dialect: how we say it Authorial Persona/Voice: how the author wants to say it *Authenticity: the authenticity of the artist versus what the audience expects from him *Representation: how the artist wants to represent himself versus how the author wants to represent him and what the audience expects An then She Texted Me: Entextualization and the End of Relationships –Illana Gershon (110- 119) Deictics: words that require context to make sense (he, she, that) Entextualization: selecting and binding conversations into circuable text (somewhere else) Decontextualization: removing words from the context which they were typed Recontextualization: interwoven into a new context *John Stuart Video: He took a clip of Mitt Romney, entexualized it (put it somewhere else) into his TV show, and the clip was Mitt Romney talked about expanding jobs for women and how he has “A binder full of women”. By recontextualizing the clip into John Stewart show Mitt Romney was made to seem as though he has binders full of women for different reasons. The Triangle of Linguistic Structure – Robin Lakoff (135-140) Form: syntax/grammar (words forming together to create grammatically correct sentences) Meaning: semantics (meaning of individual words and their combinations in sentenceslinks form to meaning) Function: pragmatics (speakers intentions and the hearers understandingcommunication) Speech Acts: a linguistic form of speaking that alters reality (rely on power relationships and dynamics) EX: “I now pronounce you husband and wife” “I promise ill pay you tomorrow” (creates obligation) The Grammar of Politics and The Politics of Grammar –James Wilce (141-151) Icons: words that imitate or resemble it’s meaning (i.e. “moo”) Indexes: words that can shift meaning by context (i.e. “here”) Symbols: words that refer to an object or state of being but don’t resemble the meaning (i.e. chair) Prejudice: Mistaking a perceived index for an icon Metalanguage: talking about talk (a message in a message) *** Stereotypes come from a collapse of index and icon*** Conversations: The link between Words and the World –Monaghan (152-156) Conversation Analysis: using form, meaning and function you can begin to analyze any sentence, ultimately analyzing the conversation *You can see how a sentence or a part of a sentence can be manipulated to change the meaning and pragmatic outcome of an affair SPEAKING model (value): allows to situate an observation by looking at different aspects of the event Transcription Conventions: .?!=End of phrase  =Nonverbal behavior ()= Uncertain hearing (.) =Pause within turn (# of seconds) if pause is longer than second, use number of seconds Bolding the word means vocal emphasis Capitalizing the whole word means increased volume [[LF]] vocalizations such as laughing [ Talk over, simultaneous behavior =Rapid speech or latching - Cut off or self-interruption *Quiet speech xxx unintelligible *KNOW what each convention means!!!!! Conversational Signals and Devices – Tannen (157-167) Signals: Pacing – how fast or slow a person is talking (tempo) Pausing – gap in between thoughts/words Loudness – shows the point, expresses emotion (Volume) Pitch and intonation- high, low/tone (music of talk which can change the message of the words) Cross-Cultural Stereotypes: across cultures people have different conversational styles and those are often stereotyped to those cultures Metamessage- a message in a message Devices: Expressive reaction: “OH MY GOD” “WOW” sometimes intended to encourage Asking questions: A request for information. “What are you doing” instead of don’t do that. Complaining: people have different notions of complaining. Some people complain to others as a sign of friendship. Device can be used in different ways Setting a good example: “first me, then you” Ex: Myrna apologized, not because she thought she was at fault, but so that Lillian would apologize too and the disagreement would end. Talking Text and Talking Back- (pg. 199) -The BFF Jill commercial: an example of generational communication. Depicts a world out of balance, while the parents monopolize access to the means of communication, children direct communication in ways that are linguistically unfavorable to adults (standard English versus text message lingo) -Youtube: provides a section for comments that reflect how we communicate. Allows users to express their reactions *success= dialogic character A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication –Daniel Maltz and Ruth Borker (168- 185) Cross-sex conversation: conversation between two people of the opposite sex Cross-ethnic conversation: conversation between people of different ethnicities Subcultures: the different cultures that men and women grew up in. They learned to communicate and play in different subcultures which has ultimately led to miscommunication Minimal response: “mhm” (nodding of heads) -For women shows engagement -For men shows agreement Put Down that Paper and Talk to Me!- (Pg. 186-198) Report Talking: public speaking, to relay information (mostly men) Rapport talking: private speaking, more personal (mostly female) On the Uses of Obscenity- (pg. 220-232) -Comedians use the word fuck connotatively Connotatively: secondary meaning of the word or a different way to express it (not literal definition) Denotatively: dictionary definition (swearing is more than just denotative) Transgressive speech: acts in direct proportion to the extent to which they are cordoned off as taboo *Comedians swear to neutralize their power by equalizing to the audience Swearing as a Function of Gender: (pg. 233-243) -People think that men swear more than women but actually they swear an equal amount **Swearing serves as a rite of passage so they swear so much because it represent the change between childhood and adulthood (marker of identity) *Social business of swearing is a marker of their identity from young adulthood to adulthood
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