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K405 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Zoe Goldhirsh

K405 Exam 2 Study Guide SPEA-K 405

Marketplace > Indiana University > Public Health > SPEA-K 405 > K405 Exam 2 Study Guide
Zoe Goldhirsh
GPA 3.6
Sport Psychology
Kelzi Bebee

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About this Document

All inclusive notes for Exam 2
Sport Psychology
Kelzi Bebee
Study Guide
Sport, Psychology, exercise
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Zoe Goldhirsh on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPEA-K 405 at Indiana University taught by Kelzi Bebee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Sport Psychology in Public Health at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Zoe Goldhirsh K405 Study Guide Exam 2 Exam Material Page 47 slide 3pg 98 slide 3 Study Designs Research Contaminants Personality in sport Adherence Identify the primary steps of the quotafteronlyquot and quotbeforeafter designs a b 2 What a 3 What a quotAfteronlyquot crosssectional design Step 1 randomly assign your subjects to the groups controlexperimental Step 2 evaluate the results quotBeforeafterquot longitudinal design Step 1 randomly assign your subjects to the groups Step 2 conduct a pretest baseline to insure groups are similar Step 3 Administer the experimental treatment and retest the groups Step 4 Evaluate the results What are their strengths quotAfteronlyquot random assignment is the key to successful research quotBeforeafterquot protects against bad randomization by conducting a pretest to know baseHne What are their weaknesses quotAfteronlyquot the differences found between the control and experimental group could have been due to chance because of randomization quotBeforeafterquot can be effected if participants quothold backquot during the initial performance is a counterbalanced design To balance out an experiment by changing the order of treatments What is the purpose of the approach i The purpose is to solve pretest sensitization is quotpretest sensitizationquot Changes in the beforeafter measures may be due to the inhibition holding back of initial performance Order effect the order things are done in has an effect What experimental design is it a potential problem It is a potential problem in beforeafter experimental design i What technique can be used to control it 1 Solution to counterbalance or change the order of the treatments 4 De ne and know steps that lead to each methodological problem a The Halo Effect Contamination that occurs because the experimenter either actually knows or thinks they know something about the participant i The experiment can get messed up based off of assumption made about the subject based off how they look as an example b The Hawthorne effect quotthe special attention effectquot Inert agents or procedures aimed at pleasing a patient rather than exhibiting a speci c effect i Placebo effect a substance or procedure that results in a genuine psychological or physiological effect but which lacks the active ingredients or therapeutic basis to cause those effects c The Rosenthal effect Contamination that occurs because the experimenter actually knows or thinks they know something about the desired results i Can cause demand characteristics which are cues or clues given by the experiment to the participant so that their expected results are more likely to happen ii Can either be caused by the researcher or by the participant 5 What is a single blind experimental design A single blind study is run by experimenters who are not told the purpose of the study or the hypothesis They are also not given information about the participants This is a solution for the Rosenthal and Halo effects 6 What is a double blind experimental design A double blind study is run by experimenters who are not told the purpose of the study and are not given information about the participants Also the subjects in the experiment do not know if they are receiving the real treatment or placebo treatment Gold standard of research both experimenter and participant are blind to what is happening a What experimental effects are controlled by these designs 10 11 What are quotdemand characteristics Demand characteristics are clue or cues given by the experimenter to the participant that alert the participant of the expected resultshypothesis a Which methodological problem do they result in i Results in the Rosenthal Effect What is the quotpact of ignorance The pact of ignorance is that when asked the participant doe not admit to having any knowledge about the hypothesis or altering her behavior and the researcher believes them When and why should placebo conditions be included in research a What experimental effect is controlled by the use of placebos i The Hawthorne effect is controlled by the use of placebos Questions on placebo documentary a Are placebos effective for elite athletes i Yes seem to improve by 23 b List at least 3 examples of speci c placebo effects that could bene t athletic performance C Is there any evidence that placebos must be given blindly to be effective Can a patient still bene t if they know it s a placebo ol What evidence is there that placebos have a direct effect on the brain i Neurotransmitter PGE2 helps us feel less pain which leads us to work harder What is the de nition of personality 1 Temporally stable crosssituational individual differences 2 Related to cognition emotionsfeelings and behavior Latent traits may be there but not always expressed a What factors in uence the development of personality traits 1 Genetics 2 Environment 3 Developmental factors growth maturity b What factors are personality traits related to 12 What are the two categories of measures used in personality research Projective measures used to infer psychological traits from interpretations of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli Nonprojectiveobjective measures questionnaires developed to measure speci c psychological variables including personality traits 13 What is test validity Test validity the degree that a personality test measures what is supposed to measure a How do we determine if personality measures posses test validity or not A high correlation between test scores and target behavior Validity predictive validity content construct validity 14 Why is test validity an important issue in the eld of sport psychology a When is it important for other areas such as education 15 De ne a Predictive validity A correlationassociation between test score and a behavior b Content validity The quotcontentquot or items on the test must accurately re ect the behavior or skill of interest c Construct validity Abstractions or arti cial variables 16 How can we determine if personality questionnaires have each of these forms of validity above 17 Which forms are necessary and which or the most important The most important form is the construct validity but all are necessary 18 What is convergent evidence Convergent evidence The construct test must be substantially relatedcorrelated with other measures of the same construct or with similar constructs Ex correlation between ACT and SAT 19 What is discriminant evidence Discriminant evidence The construct test must NOT be substantially relatedcorrelated with measured of constructs that are logicallytheoretically dissimilar Ex SAT and hand eye coordination the correlations should be near zero 20 What type of test validity is convergent evidence and discriminant evidence related to a Construct Validity 21 Arguments in the CredulousSkeptical debate of trait psychology Credulous Perspective believes that the traits are very useful and accurate predictors of behavior Skeptical Perspective believes that traits are not useful or accurate predictors of behavior a What are the major problems with research supporting the skeptical viewpoint i In 19605 sport psychologist started using personality scales to test athletes but most were not trained in academics and this often resulted in faulty research that yielded no ndings in support of skeptical perspective ii Poor research has led to the conclusion that personality has nothing to do with athleticism or success in sport 22 De ne gravitation vs change argument when explaining the reason for personality differences between athletes and non athletes Change Hypothesis after sport participation the environment can change desiresdifference Gravitation Hypothesis Differences are baked inyou are born with psychological differences a Which position does the research support i Most research supports the gravitation hypothesis Athletes appear to be born psychologically different rather than develop psychological differences once they begin participation in sport 23 De ne the mental health model of performance i Story of personality and the Mental Health Model 1 Athletes have different personalities than nonathletes 2 Athletes are born with this personality gravitation hypothesis 3 Athletes may have different personalities than nonathletes but there are no consistent sportspeci c personalities 4 There are no gender differences in athlete personalities lboth females and males exhibit the iceberg pro le 1 Iceberg pro le shape of a peakice berg in a graph 5 Successful athletes exhibit a quotmorequot iceberg pro le than unsuccessful athletes 6 This difference in personalitymood pro le is consistent over time 7 This difference in personalitymood pro le I consistent across sports in elites 8 This difference in personalitymood pro le is consistent across elite and non elite ii Morgan39s Mental Health Model as mental disturbance increases performance decreases instrument POMS 1 Psychopathology is inversely correlated with sports performance iii Hypothetically allows us to PREDICT who will be successfulwith enough certainty NO b What types of psychological measures are used in this research c What evidence supports the mental health model of performance d What are the ndings of these studies and what do the results indicate i Findings psychological differences between successful and unsuccessful athletes are consistent over time 24 How well do the ndings work in predicting success and failure a Cannot predict success or failure with enough certainty i False positive a prediction of success is made but the individual actually fails ii False negative a prediction of failure is made but the individual actually succeeds 25 What are some of the reasons the mental health model approach should not be used to select athletes a Prediction rates do not reach the level of accuracy required for application b Some athletes are misidenti ed c Some athletes have intermediate pro les neither successful or unsuccessful d The mental health model does not account for important physiological factors in athletic success e The use of psychological information to select athletes for teams present ethical problems con dentiality professionalism 26 What factors associated with extroversion may contribute to athletic success Extroversion can contribute to athletic success because extroverts can tolerate a lot of pain which is good in sport 27 What does research indicate regarding pain perception in athletes Sports with physical contact have the highest pain tolerance noncontact athletes next and than non athletes have the lowest pain tolerance 1 Extroversion is positively associated with perceptual reduction including pain 2 Extroversion is positively associated with physical strength 28 What factors appear to contribute to these differences Genetics environment behavior determine extrovert vs introverts Adherence 29 About what percent of the American public is currently physically active to some degree 45 of Americans are physically active in some way 30 What is the trend for physical activity over the past two decades a No increase in adherence 31 What percentages of exercisers are training regularly and intensively enough to actually improve tness a 22 of the US population exercises 3 times a week for atleast 20 minutes 32 What is the average dropout rate to an exercise program On average 50 of people who begin a physical tness exercise program drop out a When is the major dropout period i Most dropouts will quit during the rst 68 weeks of the program b How does this compare to other health change behaviors such as smoking cessation i People drop out of exercise programs as often as people relapse addiction 33 What is the in uence of physiological psychological personal and programmatic factors on adherence Physiological Age sex weight height tness level does not determine success Percent body fat sometimes has an impact because people who have higher percent body fat are more likely to drop out Physical characteristic have very little to do with adherence Psychological attitude healthy consciousness locus of control emotional health no impact self motivation has slight impact but is hard to change Psych doesn39t impact that much PersonalSocial credit rating has correlation but no causation socioeconomic state social support the ONLY thing that has vast impact on adherence Programmatic mode intensity duration frequency and setting Mode makes no difference in adherence offering more options is overwhelming a Speci cally what factors have been found to consistently in uence exercise adherence both in terms of success and failure i Social Support is the only known thing to have vast impact on adherence 34 What are the major strategies that have been used to improve exercise adherence Intensity aim for low to moderate intensity to increase adherence a In what cases are these methods likely to fail i Intensity too high ii Too many modes to choose from iii Duration is too long 35 De ne abstinence violation The quotAll or nothingquot syndrome Missing one day at the gym leads people to psychological feelings and they drop out a Know the initial factor that initiates it and the major steps in this phenomenon i Initial factor missing one day ii Major steps to xing 1 Education 2 Determine what is an acceptable miss 3 Identify high risk situations for missing 4 Flexible programs that emphasize success 36 Be aware of how goal setting works Set goals that are easier to attain short term goals long term goes are harder to stay focused on and you easily drop out a SMART method to applying goal setting to exercise adherence i 5 Speci c the more speci c the better ii M measurable iii A actionorientedtake personal responsibility iv R reasonable attainable v T timedshortterm is better 37 Be aware of two types of reinforcement that in uence motivation Social support and selfmotivation a Recognize examples of each 38 Know how goal setting works to change behavior Directing activity Mobilizing effort Increasing persistence Motivating the search for appropriate tasks punw


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