Study Guide for Test #1
Study Guide for Test #1 GEOG 100
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Mossie Pfannerstill V
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Yonek on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 100 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Valentine James in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Intro World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Tuesday August 25 2015 Human Geography Places and Regions in Global Context 5e Chapter 1 Geography Matters 1 Core richdeveloped first world countries 2 Semiperipheryare the industrializing mostly capitalist countries which are positioned between the periphery and core countries 8 Korea Brazil 3 Periphery generally characterized by extreme poverty and a low standard of living Africa Geography matter because it is specific paces that provide the settings for people s daily lives Places and regions are highly interdependent each playing specialized roles in complex networks of interaction and change Interdependence between geographic scales are provided by the relationships between the global and the local Human geography provides ways of understanding places regions and spatial relationships Everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than are distant things Connectivity and interaction are dependent on channels of communications and transportation The Influence and Meaning of Places Places are settings for social interaction that among other things structure the daily routines of people s economic and social lives provide both opportunities and constraints in terms of people s longterm social well being provide a context in which everyday common sense knowledge and experience are gathered provide a setting for processes of socialization provide an arena for contesting social norms Tuesday August 25 2015 Spatial Levels Spatial Levels Levels or scales of spatial organization represent a tangible partitioning of space World regions Asia Europe or Latin America Supranational organizations 39 NAFTA European Union ASEAN World Trade Organization De Jure States 39 Legally recognized political entities Body and Self 39 Physical appearance and socially acceptable norms Geographers at Work o International Affairs Locations of Public Facilities Marketing and Location of Industry Geography and the Law Tuesday August 25 2015 Disease Ecology Urban and Regional Planning Economic Development the global credit crunch left the world economy facing the prospect of recession Security Interdependence in a Globalizing World 0 Globalization is the increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic environmental political and cultural change The Hyperglobalist View Open markets free trade and investment across the global markets allow more people to share in the prosperity of the world economy The Skeptical View Contemporary economic integration is much less significant than it was when the world was on the gold standard in the nineteenth century The Transformationalist View Globalization is a longterm historical process that is underlain by crises and contradictions that are likely to shape it in all sorts of unpredictable ways The Human Footprint Notice that the footprint is largely absent in places that are too wet dry cold or hot for wide spread human habitation Ex Antarctica Sahara Desert Amazonia Siberia Window on the World The Sormolo Family of Ethiopia and the Rust Family of Switzerland live worlds apart One family ekes out a living on 280 a year while the other thrives on 68000 What geographical factors played a role in this disparity Key Issues in a Globalizing World Sustainability Tuesday August 25 2015 Sustainability is about the interdependence of the economy the environment and social wellbeing It is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs Sustainable Development Diffusion of HIV Where does the medical and geographical evidence point as the origin of the HIV AIDS pandemic What historical geographical and social factors contribute to SubSaharan Africa being so stricken with HIVAIDS Key Issues in Globalizing World Security Floral tributes lie outside Edgware Road underground station in London England after alQaeda bombers killed 49 people and injured 700 during morning rush hour terrorist attacks that were targeted at London s transport links on July 7 2005 Tuesday August 25 2015 Geography in a Globalizing World 0 Will globalization render geography obsolete yes why no why 0 The new mobility of money labor productsand ideas actually increases the significance of place The more universal the diffusion of material culture and lifestyles the more valuable regional and ethic identities become The faster the information highway takes people into cyberspace the more they feel the need for a subjective setting a specific place or community they can call their own The greater the reach of transnational corporations the more easily they are able to respond to placetoplace variations The greater the integration of transnational gov and institutions the more sensitive people have become to local cleavages of race ethnicity and religion Studying Human Geography Physical geography deals with Earth s natural processes and its outcome Human Geography deals with the spatial organization of human activities and with peoples relationship with their environments Regional geography combines elements of both physical and human geography Applied geography fieldwork laboratory work archival searches remote sensing and GIS input manipulation analysis etc Remotely Sensed Data Aerial Photographs Remotely sensed images can provide new ways of seeing the world as well as unique sources of data on all sorts of environmental conditions Such images can help explain problems and processes that would otherwise require expensive surveys and detailed cartography Tuesday August 25 2015 Studying Human Geography 0 LatitudeLongitude 0 SiteSituation 0 Distance Cognitive Friction Distancedecay function 0 Spatial Interaction Complementarity Transferability Intervening opportunity Spatial diffusion the spatial diffusion of many phenomena tends to follow an Scurve of slow buildup rapid spread and leveling off Spatial Analysis Like distance space can be measured in absolute relative and cognitive terms Topological space are the connections between or connectivity of particular points in space Regionalization 0 The geographer s equivalent of scientific classification is regionalization with the individual places or areal units being the objects of classification Logical division classification from above Grouping classification from below Formal regions Functional regions Tuesday August 25 2015 Regionalism Sectionalism Irredentism Ordinary Landscape Community Art Community art can provide and important element in the creation of a sense of place for members of local communities It displays an ordinary landscape or vernacular landscape in the Mission district in San Francisco Symbolic Landscape Tuscany Symbolic landscapes represent particular values or aspirations that the builders and financiers of those landscapes want to impart to the larger public like the neoclassical architecture of the federal gov buildings in Washington DC or the Risorgimento of the classical Tuscan landscape The Power of Place The West of Ireland came to symbolize the whole of Ireland to Irish nationalists in the early twentieth century as opposed to the more bucolic rural landscape ideal of England its former colonial master Regional Analysis A Sense of Place Intersubjectivity or the shared meanings that are derived from the lived experiences of everyday practice is how people become familiar with one another s vocabulary Developing a Geographical Imagination It is useful to think of places and regions as representing the cumulative legacy of successive periods of change Recognizing the General and the Unique Some places like Germany become distinctive because they were almost entirely bypassed by a period of change Tuesday August 25 2015 The Global Perspective Each place each region is largely the product of forces that are both local and global in origin Each is ultimately linked to many other places and regions through these same forces the ind char of places and regions cannot be accounted for by general processes alone Some local outcomes are the product of unusual circumstances or special local factors Unevenness of the World Core Periphery Mobilization has bridged the gap The Changing Global Context The modern worldsystems has evolved through several distinctive stages New technologies have created new global economic systems The world system is highly structured and is characterized by three itemsCore Semi peripheral and peripheral regions Hearth Areas Old and New Worlds Places and regions constantly change all geography is historical geography Systematically differentiated human geographies began with mini systems or societies with a single cultural base and a reciprocal social economy Carl 0 Sauer noted that agriculture breakthroughs could only occur in certain geographical settings plentiful natural food supplies diversified terrain and rich soil Tuesday August 25 2015 Minisystems A transition to foodproducing mini systems had several implications for the longterm evolution of the worlds geographies allowed for higher population densities it brought social organizations specialization in nonagricultural crafts beginnings of barter and trade between communities sometimes over substantial distances The Growth of Early Empires A world empire is a group of mini systems that have been absorbed into a common political system while retaining their fundamental cultural differences Urbanization Towns and cities became essential as centers of administration military garrisons and as theological centers for ruling classes Colonization The physical settlement in a new territory of people from a colonizing state an indirect consequence of the operation of the law of diminishing returns Law of Diminishing Returns continue to grow and expand your empire then you wont be able to control it Early Geographic Knowledge Greek scholars developed the idea that places embody fundamental relationships between people and the natural environment and that the study of geography provides the best way of addressing the interdependencies between places and between people and nature The romans were less interested than the greens in the scholastic and philosophical aspects of geography though they did appreciate geographical knowledge as an aid to conquest colonization and political control Tuesday August 25 2015 The Geography of the Pre lVlodern World The generalized framework of human geographies in the old worlds as they existed around AD 1400 are characteristically important Harsher environments in continental interiors were still characterized by isolated subsistencelevel kinordered huntingandgathering mini systems The dry belt of steppes and desert margins was a continuous zone of kinordered pastoral mini systems The Silk Road TEST QUESTION The dominant centers of global civilization were China northern India and the Ottoman Empire of the eastern Mediterranean They were all liked by the Silk Road a series of overland trade routes between China and Mediterranean Europe The European Age of Discovery Cartography is the name given to the system of practical and theoretical knowledge about making distinctive visual representations of Earth s surface in the form of maps The Foundations of Modern Geography Kant von Humboldt Ritter and Ratzel were German scholars who wanted to love geography away from straightforward descriptions of Earth They wanted explanations and generalizations about the relationships of different phenomena within and among particular places Kant saw human activities heavily influenced by physical geography Von Humboldt emphasized the mutual causation among species and their physical environment Ethnocentrism and Masculinist Environmental determinism The more diverse our economy is the more stable Biodiversity 1O Tuesday August 25 2015 Technology and Economic Development The Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century was driven by a technology system based on water power and steam engines cotton textiles ironworking river transportation systems and canals Each new technology system opens new geographic frontiers and rewrites the geography of economic development shifting the balance of advantages between regions Europe Three Waves of Industrialization 1790 1850 based on the initial cluster of industrial technologies 18581870 involved the diffusion of industrialization to most of the rest of Britain and to parts of northwest Europe particularly the coalfields of northern France Belgium and Germany 18701914 a further industrialization of the geography of Europe as yet another cluster of tech imposed different needs and created new opportunities New World Systems Core Periphery 11 Capitalism truly became a global system with the new production and transportation technologies of the Industrial Revolution New transportation technologies triggered successive phases of geographic expansion allowing for internal development as well as for external colonization and imperialism Core Regions dominate trade control the most advanced tech and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies Peripheral Regions dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships by primitive or obsolescent tech undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity Semiperipheral Regions able to exploit peripheral regions but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions Americanization many places around the globe are connected like never before Tuesday August 25 2015 The Manufacturing Belt of the United States The cities of this region already thriving industrial centers that were well connected through the early railroad system were ideally placed to take advantage of a series of crucial shifts telegraph system manufacturing technologies railroad system Specialization required an increase in commodity flows The shopping routes reflect 1 the transatlantic trade between the bipolar core regions of the worldsystem at the time and 2 the colonial and imperial relations between the world s core economic International Division of Labor The fundamental logic behind all colonization was economic need for extended arena of trade need for an arena supplying foodstuffs and raw materials in return for industrial goods of the core The outcome was an international division of labor where an established demand existed in the industrial core The British Empire late 1800s Imperialism The core engaged in preemptive geographic expansion in order to protect their established interests and to limit the opportunities Commodity Chains and Containerization Commodity chains producerdriven consumerdriven and marketing driven Containerization revolutionized longdistance transport of goods wider geographical scope and faster pace Communication Flows and 24 hour Trading countries in the north dominate spatial justice 12 Tuesday August 25 2015 Contemporary Globalization Cultural anthropologist Arjun Appadurai described five kinds of cultural flows that contribute to global cultures Ethnoscapes produced by flows of people including tourists immigrants refugees exiles and guest workers Technoscapes resulting from the diffusion of goods technologies and architectural styles Finanscapes produced by rapid flows of money in currency markets and stock exchanges Mediascapes images of the world produced by news agencies magazines television and film ldeoscapes resulting from the diffusion of ideas and ideologies concepts of human rights democracy welfare and so on USAD UNICEF UNEPUNESCO CAlD JAID IMF KNOW THESE Internal Development of the Core Regions The canal systems that opened up the interiors of Europe and North America in the 18th century were initially dependent on horse power World Leadership Cycles Hegemony The modern worldsystem has so far experienced five full leadership cycles Portuguese dominance Atlantic exploration trade and plunder Dutch dominance fishing and shipping industries Dutch West India Company British dominance overseas trade and colonization strong navy Nelson at Trafalgar Wellington at Waterloo United States dominance economically dominant by 1920 hegemony in 1945 credit crisis in 2008 threatens US leadership status 13 Tuesday August 25 2015 Antiglobalization Demonstrations Globalization ofter leads to the downward convergence of wages and environmental standards an undermining of democratic governance and a general recoding of nearly all aspects of life to the language and logic of global markets Chapter 3 Geographies of Populations Population geographers depend on a wide array of data sources to assess the geography of populations Populations geographers investigate the why of where Two imp factors that make up population dynamics are birth and death Push and pull factors impact the movement of populations around the globe The Demographer s Toolbox Demography is the study of the characteristics of human populations A census is a straight forward count of the number of people in a country region or city Population experts employ data sources like vital records which is a report of births deaths marriages divorces and the incidence of certain infectious diseases Federal funding can have a real impact on peoples lives Population Density and Composition One way to explore population dynamics is in terms of density a numerical measure of the relationship between the number of people and some other unit of interest expressed as a ratio Crude Density is the total number of people divided by total land area Nutritional Density is the ratio between the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in a given unit of area 14 Tuesday August 25 2015 Agricultural Density is the ratio between the number of agriculturists per unit of farmable land in a specific area Geodemographic analysis is the practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations Population Density Melbourne Australia Melbourne reps a classic low density urban settlement predicated on a quarteracre home and garden enable by the widespread use of automobiles Since the 1990s Melbourne has begun to address this sprawling urban form through Population Pyramids The shape of an agesex pyramid varies depending on the proportion of people in each cohort The pyramid for the peripheral countries reveals that many dependent children ages 014 exist relative to the rest of the population The core countries pyramid illustrates the typical shape for a country experiencing ow birthrates GIS Applications and Google Earth Georeferencing the key to using GIS effectively in marketing is the ability to link demographic data to particular locations 1 Trend Opportunity 2 Consequences Uses of population pyramids Agesex pyramids can vary within different census tracts of the same city The tracts show that even within a city variation in populations can be substantial Information like this can be very valuable in decision making and policymaking at varying government Baby boom and the Aging Population Demographic factors Political and economic factors The aging of the population 15 Tuesday August 25 2015 The impacts on younger americans World Crude Birthrate Crude birthrates and crude death rates are often indicators of the levels of economic development in individual countries The Doubling Time is a measure of how long it will take the population of an area to grow to twice its current size World Crude Death Rates The global pattern of crude death rates varies from crude birthrates Most apparent esthete the difference between highest and lowest crude death rates is relatively smaller than is the case for crude birthrates reflecting the impact of factors related to the middle phases of the demographic transition Total Fertility Rate and Birth Control Birth control programs coupled with improved educational and economic opportunities for women have proved to be far more effective than birth control policies alone But in India a good example of a Pluralistic Society issues of ethnicity complicate things because one ethnic group is fearful that if it limits is births it will soon be outnumbered by another ethnic group World Rates of Natural Increase The difference between the CBR and CDR is the rate of natural increase the surplus of births over deaths or the rate of natural decrease the deficit of births relative to deaths Demographic Transition Model A demographic transition is a model of population change in which high birth and death rates are replaced by low birth and death rates 16 Tuesday August 25 2015 World Infant Mortality Rate The geography of poverty underlies the patterns on this map These rates reflect a number of factors including inadequate or completely absent maternal health care as well as poor nutrition for infants Mobility and Migration Mobility may be used to describe a wide array of human movement ranging from a journey to work to an oceanspanning permanent move Emigration and Immigration International migration and internal migration Gross migration and net migration Push factors vs pull factors Voluntary migration vs forced migration Refugees IDPs guest workers and transnational migrants Population Debates and Policies Thomas Malthus and NeoMalthusians Food is necessary to the existence of humans The passion between the sexes is necessary and constant William Godwin Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles Human knowledge can overcome population pressure with technology and equitable distribution of resources UN World Summit MDGs The MDGs reflect the neoliberal turn in international development with the intent of enabling peripheral countries to achieve core economic standards of wealth and prosperity 17 18 Tuesday August 25 2015
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