Chapter 1,2,3 Study Guide
Chapter 1,2,3 Study Guide ED 121
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Yonek on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ED 121 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Deborah Ellermeyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Development & Learning in Education and Teacher Studies at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Friday September 11 2015 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Methods Human Development the scientific study of agerelated changes in behavior o thinking emotion personality How humans remain stable or constant A M behavior and explain why A Over an entire lifespan A 3 Philosophical Theories 1 Original Sin Augustine of Hippo Humans are born selfish and sinful comes from catholic faith that god created the world and created Adam and Eve and sinned Spiritual rebirth needed baptism Struggle involved 2 Blank Slate John Locke Children are born blank slates and are passive recipients of environmental expenences 3 Innate Goodness JeanJacques Rousseau children are born with innate goodness Friday September 11 2015 must struggle to remain good 4 Early Scientific Studies 1 Charles Darwin First organized study of human development Studied his own children baby biographies Evolution 2 G Stanley Hall First scientific study of child development more objective methods questionnaires and surveys norms 3 Arnold Gesell Systematic description of children across domains particularly in the first 5 years maturation used movie cameras and oneway mirrors findings because basis for normreferenced tests used today 4PauBa es Multicontextual nature of development plasticity and adaptability interdisciplinary perspective and research positive aspects of aging Friday September 11 2015 Empiricism is the view that humans possess no innate tendencies and that all differences among humans are attributable to experience baby biographies detailed record of the child s early development norms average ages at which developmental milestones are reached maturation the gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change normreferenced tests standardized tests that compare an individual child s score to the average score of others her age The Lifespan perspective maintains that important changes occur during every period of development and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur Children were sole focus of study but that has changed changes occur in each period Increased longevity This new perspective emphasizes these key elements Plasticity Individuals of all ages possess the capacity for positive change in response to environmental demands Ex Like a plastic hanger Interdisciplinary research research from different kinds of disciplinary perspectives is needed to fully understand lifespan development Multi contextual nature of development individual development occurs within several interrelated contexts Positive aspects of aging patience wise and put life into perspective What contexts influence development beyond the family culture Friday September 11 2015 neighborhood school occupations of parents Paul points out that as human beings age they adopt strategies that help them maximize gains and compensate for losses Domains and Periods of Development Domains of development scientist who study agerelated changes often group them in three broad categories 1 Physical domain changes in size shape and characteristics of the body 2 Cognitive domain changes in thinking memory problem solving and other intellectual skills 3 Social domain changes in variables associated with the relationship of an individual to others Using domain classifications helps to organize discussions of human development Periods of development is a system of agerelated categories scientists use 1 Prenatal Period is the only one that has clearly defined biological boundaries at its beginning and end it begins at conception and ends at birth 2 lnfancy begins at birth and ends when children begin to use language to communicate a milestone that marks the beginning of early childhood 024 months 3 Early Childhood the child s entrance into school or some other kind of formal training marks the transition from early to middle childhood Uses language to communicate 2 6 years Friday September 11 2015 4 Middle Childhood ends with puberty signals the end of middle childhood and the beginning of adolescence 612 years 5 Adolescence begins with puberty and ends with noting the legal boundaries that different cultures set for the end of adolescence 12 18 6 Early adulthood encompasses the late teens and early twenties 7 Middle Adulthood generally thought to occur around age 40 8 Late Adulthood beginning of age 60 Nature vs Nuture Nature inborn biological influences Nuture learning from environmental experiences NatureNurture debate the debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development Quantitative change a change in amount Qualitative change a change in kind or type stag qualitatively distinct periods of development normative agegraded changes changes that are common to every member of a species Social Clock set of age norms defining a sequence of life experiences that is considered normal in a given culture and that all individuals in that culture are expected to follow Ageism a prejudicial view of older adults that characterizes them in negative ways Normative historygraded changes changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific welldefined historical period Friday September 11 2015 Nonnormative Changes changes that result from unique unshared events Critical Period a specific period in development when an organism is especially sensitive to the presence or adsense of some particular kind of experience Sensitive Period a span of months or years during which a child may be particularly influenced by their absence Atypical development deviates from the typical developmental pathway in a direction harmful to the individual The Goals of Developmental Science Researchers who study human development use the scientific method to achieve four goals 1 Describe state what happens 2 Explain te why events and changes occur 3 Predict developmental events 4 Influence some development outcome Theories and Hypotheses Theories sets of statements that propose general principles to explain development Hypotheses predictions educated guesses that are testable by data collection good theories can turn into good hypotheses Descriptive Methods Descriptive Methods seek to identify relationships Variables characteristics that vary across people Ex hair color eye color Friday September 11 2015 Relationship when two or more variables vary together 1 Correlation a relationship between two variables that can be expressed as a number ranging from 100 to 100 The strength of the relationship between two variable Positive Correlation high scores on one variable usually accompany high scores on the other Ex Bettereducated people generally have higher family incomes Negative Correlation scores on the two variables move in opposite directions Ex Bettereducated people are less likely to smoke cigarettes A 0 means two variables are NOT related Ex Amount of fruit eaten each day has no relationship with driving ability Correlation is NOT causality Correlations measure the level or degree of covariation between two variables They do not prove casual relationships 2 Naturalistic Observations scientists are studying people in their natural environment Potential observer bias Limited generalizabilitycant apply the observation to everybody Time consuming 3 Case study an indepth examination of a single individual 4 Laboratory Observation observation of behavior under controlled conditions 5 Surveys datacollection method in which participants respond to questions lnterviews meeting at which info is obtained from a person Questionnaires a written set of questions that are given to people in order to collect facts or opinions about something Experimental Designs Test causal hypothesis Friday September 11 2015 Randomly assign participants to different treatment and control groups Population the entire group that is of interest to a researcher Sample subset of a group that is of interest to a researcher who participates in a study Representative Sample a sample that has the same characteristics as the population to which a study s findings apply Experimen a study that tests a casual hypothesis Experimental Group receives the treatment the experimenter thinks will produce a particular effect treatment group Control Group receives either no special treatment or a neutral treatment no treatment Independent variable the presumed casual element in an experiment cause Dependent variable the characteristic or behavior that is expected to be affected by the independent variable depends on the cause effect Quasiexperiments participants not randomly assigned Researcher will purposely put people into groups Crosssectional design a research design in which groups of people of different ages are compared Longitudinal Design a research design in which people in a single group are studied at different times in their lives Same people studied over a long period of time Problems practice or testing affect Study attrition subjects dropping out of study Sequential Design a research design that combines crosssectional and longitudinal examinations of development Friday September 11 2015 Cohort effects findings that are the result of historical factors to which one age group in a crosssectional study has been exposed Cross Cultural Research Ethnography a detailed description of a single culture or context May compare two or more cultures or subcultures Benefits of Cross Cultural Studies search for universal and unique development changes Demonstrate degree of environmental variation within human development Research Ethics Ethics ethical principle required for conducting research and use of any outcomes resulting from research ln Research Protection of animal rights and human subjects Universities government and organizations often have Institutional Review Boards lRBs Protection from harm unethical to cause permanent harm in a research study if temporary harm happens there needs to be a remedy Informed consent risksbenefitsright to withdraw at any time Confidentiality not allowed to disclose the findings by individual name Knowledge of result if the subject wants to know the results they are entitled to do that Deception must be disclosed immediately afterwards Friday September 11 2015 Chapter 2 Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud born in Austria was a psychologist travel phobia Doctor Love couldn t understand women Freud used the early memories of his seriously mentally ill adult patients as his primary source of data for his theory Psychoanalytic Psychosexual Theory Change in development happens because internal drives and emotions influence behavior Personality consists of 3 parts that develop over time 1 is present at birth entirely in our unconscious minds is pleasuredriven and home to the libido The Devil 2 Eg develops around ages 2 5 is the thinking part of the personality and its job is to keep the needs of the id satisfied and serve as a banal between the id and superego once it develops The Brain 3 Superego begins to develop around age 6 and is the moral judge of the personality that considers norms and values of society The Angel See page 26 for chart Psychosocial Theory Erik Erikson Germany development psychologist inventing the term identity crisis Psychosocial theory Development is influenced by common cultural demands and internal drives He believed development occurred across the entire life span 1O Friday September 11 2015 Proposed 8 psychosocial stages of development each requires a solution of a crisis Healthy development requires a favorable ratio of positive to negative experiences STAGES first four stages form foundation of the adult personality Childhoodadulthood transition is influential AGES Adult stages not strongly tied to age See chart on page 27 Learning Theories Classical Conditioning lvan Pavlov Classical Conditioning A learning process that occurs through making associations between the environment stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus Reflex Stimulusresponse connection Learning Conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned response Operant Conditioning BF Skinner interested in positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement Modifying behavior Hints for Parents and Caregivers Positive and negative reinforcement interact in complex ways in real life 11 Friday September 11 2015 The best chance for behavioral change exists when an appropriate consequence is administered first after the behavior occurs Social Cognitive Theory SelfEfficacy People s beliefs about their capabilities to produce effects self con dence Albert Bandura bobo do experiment Learn from observing others Attention memory physical capabilities motivation Cognitive Theories Thinking memory problem solving Jean Piaget Cognitive structure organization of info in the brain Schemes units of knowledge file folder Assimilation adding new info to an existing scheme Accommodation changing info in an existing scheme Equilibrium occurs when learning takes place 4 Distinct Stages of Development Sensorimotor Stage birth18 months Child is learning about the world through their senses and motor skills Pre operational Stage 18 months6 years Children learn to use symbols to think and communicate 12 Friday September 11 2015 Concrete Operational Stage 6 years to 12 years Children begin to use logical thinking and begin to solve problems Formal Operational Stage 12 Children can think logically about abstractions Such as Algebra Vygotsky s Socio Cultural Theory Learning is a social process Zone of Proximal Development ZPD tasks that are too difficult to do on their own but can do with others Scaffolding support the teacher gives a child Educational Implications Assessing prior knowledge Group Work Providing Scaffolding support Informationprocessing Theory Mind is like a computer Three stage theory of memory Sensory Memory Shortterm or working memory Long term memory Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner 13 Friday September 11 2015 Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments 5 contexts of development 1 Macrosystem cultural context that contains values and beliefs of the culture 2 Exosystem All of the institutions that effect the child s development indirectly 3 Microsystem the immediate context that directly effect the child 4 Mesosystem interconnections between those immediate context 5 Biological Context includes the child s genetic make up and developmental stage Instead of rightwrong try usefulnot useful Eclecticism Interdisciplinary builds on ideas from multiple sources Avoids rigid adherence to single theory Contributes to development of more comprehensive theories to support future research 14 Friday September 11 2015 Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth Conception and Genetics Chromosomes DNA and Genes Process of conception Ovum Sperm Zygote Conception and Genetics Conception occurs when a sperm penetrates an ovum typically in a woman s fallopian tube If the ovum is not fertilized it travels toward the uterus where it gradually disintegrates and is removed as part of the next menstrual cycle If the ovum or egg is fertilized by a male s sperm a child is conceived Awoman typically produce one egg per month from one of her two ovaries At conception the 23 chromosomes of the sperm the male gamete unite with the 23 chromosomes of the ovum the female gamete so that the fertilized egg has 23 m of chromosomes in an entirely new cell called a zygote a single cell created at concep on Sperm enters the female s body through the vagina It passes through the cervix and uterus Normally fertilization of the ovum takes place in the fallopian tube The fertilized egg then travels back down into the uterus and implants itself there 15 Friday September 11 2015 An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself within the fallopian tube In this case the pregnancy must be terminated because the female s life is in danger If not removed the fallopian tube will rupture as the fertilized egg continues to develop If an egg is NOT fertilized it will be expelled with the woman s next menstrual cycle Most cells in the human body contain 23 pairs of chromosomes Gametes are sperm and ovum cells that have only 23 unpaired chromosomes Chromosomes are composed of molecules of a chemical called deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that is further subdivided into segments called genes Genes influence particular features Each gene controls or influences a specific part of some developmental pattern such as eye color hair color or blood type At conception the 23 chromosomes of the sperm the male gamete unite with the 23 chromosomes of the ovum the female gamete so that the fertilized egg has 23 m of chromosomes in an entirely new cell called a zygote a single cell created at conception There are two types of chromosomes autosomes and sex chromosomes Twentytwo of the pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes They look alike and contain matching genetic pairs These 22 pairs of chromosomes contain most of the genetic information for the new individual The 23ml pair the sex chromosomes determine the sex of the individual The sex chromosomes are called either X or Y A human fem ale has two X chromosomes XX and a m has one X and one Y chromosome XY The sex of a child is determined by the sex chromosome it receives from the father because the mother only has X chromosomes 16 Friday September 11 2015 Sometime between the weeks 4 and 8 following conception the SRY gene on the Y chromosome signals the male embryo s body to begin secreting hormones called androgens that cause male genitals to develop lf androgens are not present female genitals develop no matter the chromosomal status If female embryos are exposed to androgens either via medications that the mother is taking or a genetic disorder called congenital adrenal hyperplasia maleappearing external genitalia develop Conception and Genetics Identical twins also called monozygotic twins are conceived when a single fertilized ovum separates into two parts and each develops into a separate individual They have the same genetic makeup so they are always the same sex 13 of twins are iden cal Fraternal twins also called dizygotic twins are conceived when two eggs are fertilized by two separate sperm 23 of twins are fraternal Semiidentical twins occur when 2 sperm fertilize one egg at the same time Semi identical twins are extremely rare The number of multiple births has increased about 65 percent over the last 30 years More women over 35 are giving birth for the first time Women over the age of 35 are more likely to conceive twins and other multiples Women over 35 are more likely to be treated with fertility drugs The genotype is the specific genetic material on an individual s chromosomes The phenotype is the observable characteristics of the individual such as brown eyes and black hair The simplest set of genetic rules is the dominantrecessive pattern in which a single dominant gene strongly influences phenotype Because we inherit one chromosome from each parent our genetic instructions may be either homozygous the same or heterozygous different You are homozygous for curly hair if you received a gene 17 Friday September 11 2015 from each parent for curly hair If on the other hand you received one gene for curly hair and one gene for straight hair you would be heterozygous If a child receives a single dominant gene for a trait from one parent the child s phenotype will include the trait that goes with that gene In contrast a child s phenotype will contain a recessive trait only if she inherits a recessive gene from both parents Both dominant and recessive genes differ in expressivity meaning that the degree to which any gene influences phenotypes varies from person to person In other words all individuals with curly hair don t have equally curly hair With polygenetic inheritance many genes influence the phenotype The interaction of several genes rather than just one is responsible for our characteristics Skin color eye color and height are examples of polygenic traits with a dominantrecessive pattern Table 31 on p 52 lists dominant genes recessive genes and polygenetic traits Many disorders appear to be transmitted through the operation of dominant and recessive genes Autosomal disorders are caused by genes located on the autosomes The genes that cause sexlinked disorders are found on the X chromosome Most recessive disorders are diagnosed in infancy or early childhood The following are examples of autosomal disorders Phenylketonuria PKU involves a recessive gene that causes a baby to have problems digesting the amino acid phenylalanine It can cause developmental delays as the toxins build up in the baby s brain It is more likely to occur in Caucasian babies than infants in other ethnic groups Sicklecell disease is a recessive disorder that causes red blood cell deformities The result is that the blood can t carry enough oxygen to keep the body s tissues healthy It is more common in West African and African American infants Persons with this 18 Friday September 11 2015 sicklecell trait carry a single recessive gene for sickle cell disease that causes a few of their red blood cells to be abnormal They are carriers of the sicklecell gene and can pass the trait on to their children TaySachs disease is another recessive disorder that is most common in babies born to Jewish couples of Eastern European ancestry It causes severe mental delays and andness Huntington s disease is caused by dominant genes and it is usually not diagnosed until adulthood It causes the brain to deteriorate and it affects both psychological and motor functions of the brain Avariety of problems can be caused when a child has too many or too few chromosomes a condition referred to as a chromosomal error or chromosomal anomaly Like genetic disorders they are distinguished by the involvement of either autosomes OF SEX chromosomes Trisomies Three chromosomes rather than usual pair are present Monosomies Absence of one member of chromosome pair Avariety of problems can be caused when a child has too many chromosomes a condition referred to as a chromosomal error or chromosomal anomaly The most common is trisomy 21 or Down syndrome in which the child has three copies of chromosome 21 Children with Down syndrome have mental challenges and have distinctive facial features reduced total brain size and often other physical abnormalities such as heart defects It affects 1 in 8001000 children The risk of having a Down Syndrome child dramatically increased with the age of the mother beginning at age 35 The following are examples of anomalies associated with the sex chromosomes 19 Friday September 11 2015 Klinefelter s syndrome is associated with an XXY pattern Affected boys usually look normal but have underdeveloped testes and as adults a sparsity of sperm Most are not mentally retarded but language and learning disabilities are common At puberty they experience both male and female changes Turner s syndrome is associated with a singleX pattern XO Individuals are anatomically female but show stunted growth and are usually sterile Without hormone therapy they do not menstruate or develop breasts at puberty Boys with an extra Y chromosome XYY are taller than average and have large teeth They usually experience normal puberty and they have no difficulty fathering children Most sexlinked disorders are caused by recessive genes The following are examples of common sexlinked disorders Redgreen color blindness is a sexlinked recessive disorder People with it have difficulty distinguishing between the colors red and green when they are next to each other Hemophilia is a sexlinked recessive disorder The blood of people with hemophilia lacks the chemical components that cause blood to clot FragileX syndrome is a sexlinked disorder in which the person has a fragile or damaged spot on the X chromosome It can cause mental challenges that becomes progressively worse as children get older Week 011 The zygote implants into the lining of the uterus A chemical HCG is released in the urine that can help to diagnose pregnancy The cervix thickens and secretes mucus serving as a barrier and protecting the baby from bacteria Prenatal care is critical because all of the baby s organs are developing in the first eight weeks of pregnancy Week 12 Week 24 weight gain uterus expands Ultrasound can be used to monitor baby s health The risk of miscarriage drops 20 21 Friday September 11 2015 Fetus grows rapidly Sex can be determined after Week 13 Fetal movement felt between Week 16 and 18 Prenatal care may detect gestational diabetes Week 25 Week 38 additional weight gain and abdominal enlargement Week O Week 2 Day 2 1 cell becomes 4 and the zygote drifts down the fallopian tube by day 12 it buries itself in the lining of the uterus hormones are released to stop the woman s menstrual cycle a blastocyst is 60 100 cells that begin to specialize into different developmental support parts Specialization of cells is needed to support development Placenta Umbilical cord Yolk sac Amnion 28 weeks after conception Forms foundations of all body organs Neural tube develops All major organs and systems begin to develop Many organs and systems begin to function Week 3 Week 8 Neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord heart and kidneys develop during Week 3 Week 5 Arms and legs develop Week 6 Brainwave activity starts Friday September 11 2015 Week 7 penis development skeletal system and bones begin to develop eyelids seal shut to protect developing eyes Week 8 Liver and spleen begin to function digestive and urinary systems are functioning organogenesis Week 9 Week 38 Organs systems grow to become functioning during this period especially the brain andlungs Week 25 recognize the mother s voice Week 24 39 age of viability Week 37 onward fullterm status Structure of a Single Neuron Cell bodies first to develop Axons and dendrites develop ater Axons continue to increase in size and complexity after birth Males More physically active Higher rates of miscarriage More vulnerable to prenatal problems 22 Friday September 11 2015 Females More sensitive to external stimulation More rapid skeletal development Fetuses can differentiate between familiar and novel stimuli by 32 to 33 weeks Newborns can remember prenatal stimuli and react accordingly Very active fetuses tend to be active children who can be labeled hyperactive later on Ultrasound imaging helps to identify new information about fetal behavior Fetal response to sounds and vibrations as seen by changes in heart rate head turns and body movements appears as early as Week 25 Fetuses can differentiate between familiar and novel stimuli by Week 32 or 33 Fetal learning is evidenced by the remembering of familiar rhymes a Dr Seuss story the mother s heartbeat and the odor of amniotic fluid 23
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