Study Guide - 1
Popular in Industrial Psychology 3640
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie S on Friday September 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric McKibben in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 317 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology 3640 in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for Study Guide - 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/11/15
Study Guide Industrial Psychology Exam 1 ml Hofstede develops 5 dimensions of THEORY of CULTURE IC lndividualistic vs collectivistic PD Power Distance UA UNCERTAINTYAVOIDANCE MF Masculinity vs femininity LS Longterm vs Shortterm James McKeen Cattell measures individual differencefirst Mental Test Important to IO beginnings psychologyAmerican Counterpart Lillian Gilbreth TIME MOTION STUDIES All about efficiency and energy conservation Concepts Majority of IO psychologists end up in academia 41 Academic Ali Public Organizations Other 9 4 Private consulting Organizations 240quot Personnel psychology Part of Human Resources MGMT Field of psych that deals with selection recruitment promotion appraisal transfers terminations training and performances Goal is to find the best fit person for the job at hand Human Factors psychology Aka Human Engineering Study of human limitations in respect to environment Goal is to CREATE an environment that fits the Workers Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Army AlphaArmy Beta Early IO history mentalability tests distributed two ways 0 Army Alpha Test Military tests given to LITERATE people assessing strengths skills weaknesses in order to PLACE them in the correct job 0 Army Beta Test Tests given verbally to ILLITERATE people to assess their strengths etc Hawthorne Studies 1930s discovered that observation increases productivity Studies of job satisfaction Conducted in general electric plant increase the amount of light in a certain section of the plant Carefully measured saw that the performance of the workers INCREASED directly proportional to the amount of light added Noted that the performance ALSO INCREASED when light was dimmed Turns out the physical act of observing the workers was what was actually increasing Really spurred an interest in job satisfactionQuality studies HUMAN RELATIONS movement Civil Rights Act of 1964 previous experiences shape people s view of the world cause and effect 0 the requirements for success appear different for people of different socioeconomic situations 0 Former characteristic testing was done based on the white sense of the world selfserving biasesdidn t account for background differences 0 Realize that there are unfair differences between racesinequities evoking emotionsovercorrecting judgment Reverse discrimination highlighted existing difference creates more closeknitted groupsexclusion segregate Focuses on creating groups that emphasize DIFFERENCES instead of similarities and forced interactions Title VII of Civil Rights Act 0 Groups named in 1964 Race Color Gender National Origin Religion 0 Later added ADEA age 1967 ADA Disability 1990 Time and Motion Studies Efficiency studies conducted by LlLLlAN GlLBRETHFredrick Taylor 0 Broke down tasks to the second and determined the most efficient way to perform them least amount of time reduce fatigue and increase productivity Culture System in which individuals share meaning amp common ways of viewing events amp objects shared sense making Sharing of meanings amp interpretations Interacting with different cultures means having to compromise and understanding in order to merge views on subjects to achieve success Global Culture Organizational Culture Group Culture Individual Cultural self representation BaumUp Hofstede s 5 factors 5 dimensions of the Theory of Culture 1 Individualism or coectivism 0 Where does your identity reside Familyoriented use of l or we sense of selfimportance 0 USA very individualistic somewhat looking out for self 0 China communal the common good 2 Power Distance 0 Distance between authoritypower figures and the people 0 USA power distance is smaller than in ChinaEast 0 Authority can direct or collaborate Shapes the place a person has in hierarchy and how they can interact in the caste system Uncertainty Avoidance 00 The willingness to take on a riskstep out of comfort zone 0 USA is fairly low on UA take a lot of risks 0 FranceJapan very high goes along with the collectivism Masculinity or femininity Gender Role definition and assignmentduties Shapes the idea of gender and place in society 0 Authority Longterm or Shortterm Goals and decisions based on longevity and desired pay out 0 Immediate vs future 0 USA shortterm quarterlydaily reports To engage in a behavior with immediate outcome 0 China more longterm benefits come later These characteristics shape the way people make sense of things Must look at each dimension SEPARATELY they are individual not indicative of each othercan t draw conclusions from each other Regions may differ ex West coast individualistic SE less so 120 100 80 60 w 40 quot 20 1 a El Japan L J China El France 1 Indonesia Cl United States PD ID Key PD 2 Power Distance MA UA LT ID Individualism versus Collectivism MA Masculinity versus Femininity UA Uncertainty Avoidance LT LongTerm versus ShortTerm Orientation Disinterestedness In order to comply with the unbiased requirement in experimentation a scientist must be detached from his work Research design types in lO psychology 3 Research Designs 1 Experimental 0 Random assignment of participants to conditions 0 Random population strata Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace 0 Manipulate variables independent and dependent Have a control group and experimental of random people HIGH degree of control 0 Pros causeandeffect are established Cons Mistaken relationships 2 Quasiexperimental Nonrandom assignment of participants to conditions 3 Nonexperimental 0 Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions 0 2 common designs Observational design Observes and records behavior SurveyQuestionnaire design most common DES6N DESCRPlUN Experimental Random assignment of participants to conditions Laboratory Field Quasiexperimental Nonrandom assignment of participants to conditions Nonexperimental No unique conditions for participants Survey Observational Souncc Adapted from Spector P E IZUUII Research methods in industrial and organizational psychology Data collection and data analysis with special consideration to international issues In N Anderson D S Ines H K SinangiL amp C Viswesvaran Edsl Handbook ofr39ndustrial work and organizational psychology lpp Ill 26L London Sage Republished with permission of Sage Publications Inc Books permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center Inc Independent variable The treatment Observational design Observational design Observes and records behavior lntrospection Early scientific method in which the participant was also the experimenter recording his or her experiences in completing an experimental task considered very subjective by modern standards Triangulation Quantitative and Qualitative are NOT mutually exclusive 0 Triangulation technique capturing both quantitative and qualitative to hone in a full view of the study 0 Examining converging information from different sources qualitative and quantitative research 0 Combining all aspects to create a holistic view we get puzzle pieces quantitative but need to have an abstract idea qualitative in order to assemble the puzzle Job analysis Process used by IO psychologists to gain understanding of a job 1 investigating the jobs and duties 2 human attributes necessary to perform the job 3 Context in which job is performed Typically involves Triangulating data sources to get a complete understanding Generalizability Generalizability in research 0 Application of results from one study or sample to other participants or s ua ons o The more areas a study includes the greater its generalizability the broader context is derived from more diverse samplings larger number of subjects 0 Want to be able to make findings more generalized more predictable is applying results from one study to a larger scale 0 Every time a compromise is made the generalizability of results is reduced IF more variablesless controls are used it is much harder to pinpoint the results of an experiment versus additional influencers o Generalizability decrease over TIME continual process Participants Personality consciences as a predictor for job performance 0 Want to sample the ENTIRE organization 0 Measure both con and job performance 0 Now any future applicants will receive a con test there scores will determine if I should hire them based on this exp 0 However if you had just tested engineers job title you cannot expect the same results generalizing isn t possible Experimental control Experimental control 0 Eliminates influences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret o Standardize the experiment as much as possible control the experience allowing us to measure a SINGLE point Assess other variables that might be making an impact a Ex selfesteem measure selfesteem and performance but maybe mood affects esteem So theoretically positive mood may have the correlation SO if you add mood data point you are able to account for it in experiment However can make it much harder to generalize very specific to its situation Histogram Histograms random data assembled into a graph Positive skew scores are high ranged bunched at the bottom of the score range Negative skew scores arranged at the lower top of the score range All depends on where the MEAN is Measures of central tendency Measures of central tendency clustering 0 Mean the average of the data 0 Mode most often data component repeated 0 Median Once data is arranged low to high middle Standard deviation Variability Standard deviation an averaging the amount it is allowed to vary ie SD 13 means with a mean of 5 can vary fromwithin 33 to 63 Lopsidedness or skew Mean is affected by high or low scores median is not 0 Mean pulls in direction of skew Calculate mean of a set of data Add up all the data points and divide by the number of points gathered Example of inferential statistics Creating inferences from a study Ex a mental test is given to two groups High school kids and College kids IF the results were that the lower MEAN scoring group was the high school group it could be inferred that education is associated with higher test scores Why can you do this It is an average Correlation Ex selfefficacy experiment There is a normally distributed curve AFTER the Test we will see distribution of scores on performance 0 Intelligence is 6 Correlation Coefficient but is a STRONG correlation of performance But 0 Intelligence does NOT necessarily cause performance performance does not cause intelligence It may indicate education is a factor environment a third variable influencing BOTH x and y xaxis confidence curve yaxis performance curve zscore how far a single point is from the mean in STD units Scatterplot 0 Displays correlational relationship between 2 variables Regression 0 Straight line that best fits the scatterplot and describes the relationship between the variables in the graph Correlation Coefficient tells in z score units 0 Statistic or measure of association 0 Reflects magnitude numerical value amp direction or of relationship between 2 variables 0 Ranges from 000 and 100 COEFFICIENT IS THE SLOPE OF THE Z SCORE Correlation Coefficient has a valence and magnitude Ranges from 1 to 1 Positive correlation gt As one variable increases other variable also increases amp vice versa Positive slope Negative correlation gt As one variable increases other variable decreases amp vice versa negative slope Positive linear correlation 100 75 60 50 Training Grade 25 Cognitive Test Score High High Low Low High High High Low Low I Low ReHabH y The consistency or stability of a measure 0 Needs to be repeatable with consistent results 0 Le can we predict the outcome of this experiment once repeated Is the conclusion we drew consistent Validity The accuracy of lnferences made based on test 0 Does this data accurately represent the intended measure 0 Are these valid conclusions Testretest reliability A type of reliability calculated by correlating coefficient measurements taken at time 1 with measurements taken at time 2 0 Method to measure reliability tested once then retested should get same results 0 Testing to see if over time results are the same consistent answers 0 There is often contamination in experiments 0 Tested with the EXACT same test to same individual Pitfall amount of time between two tests less time consistency of Memory essentially butttt over too much time integrityfeelings may change D But is this due to personal change or testing inconsistencies Equivalent forms reliability Type of reliability calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who completed 2 different forms of the same test 0 Can have 5 very similar questions in one test to get a bit of consistency slightly reworded but with the same end meaningmeasurement Pitfall If there are too many questions people lose interest can put a bit more emphasislevel of importance on the first answer in each set Predictorcriterion Predictor the Test chosen to assess attributes once the desired attributes are Identified Criterion an outcome variable that describes important aspects of the job The variable that we predict when evaluating the validity of a predictor When the demands are identified Predictive validity Criterionrelated validity design in which there is time lag between gathering test scores and performance data Able to predict what WOULD have happened had you actually used the test scores to make the hiring decisions Concurrent validity Criterionrelated validity design in which there is NO time lag between gathering test scores and performance data Test scores are concurring with performance data Give test to CURRENT employees IF performances are good you can use the test later for new hires Construct validity Investigators gather evidence to support decisions or inferences about psychological constructs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'