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Study Guide

by: Desiree Notetaker

Study Guide History 110a

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77

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Unit one exam study guide questions
World Civilizations
Study Guide
world civilizations, Alexander the Great, mesopotamia, Ancient Greece, Roman Empire, Egypt, religion, mythology, Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 110a at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
WORLD CIVILIZATIONS STUDY GUIDE 1) How did geography play a role in the empires that were studied the first unit?  They had water In common  Egypt – gifted with the Nile. Floods and feeds the soil for irrigation.  Greeks – consisted of islands. Differences in ideology. Making unity difficult later i. Lack of good farmland, near sea, led to trade in Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations ii. Athens was center of art and education. Democracy. iii. Sparta was center of military. Authoritarian.  Rome – Encircled almost the entire Mediterranean. Traded for basic necessities and luxuries through the Ostia port. Center. Mountainous. After Constantine took control after Diocletian, he moved the capital to the city of Byzantium because it was well defensible on land and sea. 2) How did geography help these empires dominate their neighbors?  Greeks – mountainous landscape. Difficult to travel and attack. Strong navy and expert sailors. Such as in the Persian Wars, the Athenian navy defeated the Persians. Established as premier naval force. 3) Why Greece is considered the foundation of western culture?  Many Greek ideas were used. Concept of democratic government. Exemplified in arts and philosophy. Still valid.  Mythology, still heard of today  Art – telling stories through art. Neoclassical architecture used in public buildings 4) Why did their ideas on politics, culture and philosophy come to dominate Europe?  After Romans conquered and adopted their ideas, it spread through Europe 5) Why the Roman Empire is considered one of the world’s greatest empires?  Large empire. Surpassed Alexander the Great’s empire.  Augustus turned lands into Roman provinces while maintain peace at home with the Pax Romana. 6) What was the basis of Roman greatness? 7) What did they borrow from other cultures and what was their own creation?  Borrowed from the Greeks heavily in philosophy, sciences and arts but also developed their own unique culture.  Evolved the idea of natural law  Art –worked from Etruscan and Greek models. “Greek” statues in the world are Roman copies  Architectural style from the Greeks, but incorporated Hellenistic arches and circles  Marcus Aurelius (one of the greatest emperors) settled on Stoicism. Most upper class Romans did.  Mythology - Gods modeled after Greek gods. Jupiter (Zeus), Apollo, Neptune (Poseidon), Venus (Aphrodite) Minerva (Athena) and Mars (Ares)  Language – Latin is the basis for modern European language and into English 8) Why is Alexander the Great considered to be a central figure in the ancient world?  Expanded his kingdom. Cultures of Greek and Asia mixed – Hellenization. Greek was the common language. 9) What did he accomplish that no else had before?  He defeated the Persians  Maintained a large kingdom 10) How was his influence still felt thousands of years after his death?  Cities named after him 11) Mesopotamia and Egypt were both civilizations based on rivers surrounded by desert. What else did they have in common?  Irrigation techniques. Mesopotamia had areas with high water tables; Nile in Egypt would flood.  GRADUALLY UNIFIED. Egypt began with three kingdoms; around 3100 BC, the states came under control of Horus.  Both government systems controlled their people  Both used some sort of pictographs – Sumerians used cuneiform and Egyptians used hieroglyphics  Had religious temples  Social hierarchy 12) How did each thrive in their environment and what special challenges did they face?  Mesopotamia – irrigation was used. Farming produced perhaps the world’s first food surpluses, turning to manufacturing and trade. Would also pave the way to emergence of ruling elites. Each city was circled by villages of farmers. Trade wars and disputes over water, making a centralized power difficult. When one city managed to seize control, others attacked it. Conflicts were daily.  Egypt – trade was important. Phaorohs spent time building trade and organized naval expeditions. Extended from Indus Valley to modern-day Pakistan. Earliest global trade network in world history. 13) Explain the religion in the ancient world. What common practices were followed and how did religion function for Egypt, Greece and Romans? What were the commonalities in the non-Christian religions of the ancient world?  Polytheism  Greek – anthropomorphic gods, creatures molded in the human image. They were less threatening and less powerful than other people’s gods. Believed race of humans and gods were related. “Man is the measure of all things.” By Classical era, most educated people no longer believed in immortality, and gods came to be viewed as myths. Hubris –the gods were setting him up, disaster would follow. Not omniscient, omnipotent nor omnipresent.  Romans – adopted Greek gods. Made them into Roman gods. The 4 key components of Roman religion: formalistic, omens, virtues and civic religion.  Egypt – focused on new world and nature. Pharaohs were gods. Horus, Amon-Ra and Osiris were some major gods. The idea of Hell didn’t emerge until the New Kingdom, when things turned sour. Anubis weight soul against truth and Maat determined its fate. 14) Explain the idea of afterlife in the Egyptian, Greek and Christian religions.  Egypt – optimistic view. Pyramids and mummifying.  Romans – existence of after life was questionable. One could know nothing about it or secure admission to it through the gods.  Christians – optimistic view. Do good and will be sent to Heaven. 15) Discuss the difficulty of doing ancient history. How does it compare to doing modern history?  Ancient history – less sources. Underground. Process of dig sites.  Modern history – primary sources. Witnesses. 16) What are the special problems that historians face when discussing the distant past and what types of evidence do they generally have about the ancient world?  Some facts of ancient history are somewhat educated guesses. We cannot know for sure.  EX: Knowledge about the Minoans and Mycenaeans comes largely from archaeology and from Illiad and the Odyssey –no primary sources  Tools. Crafts. Pots.


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