Intro to Communication Disorders Unti 3
Intro to Communication Disorders Unti 3 SLPA 15000-01
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie Iveson on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SLPA 15000-01 at Ithaca College taught by Marie Sanford in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Disorders in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Unit 3 Developmental Language Impairment Language impairments are a complex group of diverse disorders and delays with a wide range of characteristics, levels of severity, and causes The term language impairments can be applied across the lifespan Includes comprehension and production Language Development Through Lifespan 3 months: responds vocally to caretaker 8 months: begins gesturing 12 months: first word 18 months: begins to combine words 24 months: average utterances are two word combinations of MLU of 20. 3 years: simple sentence structure begins 4 years: style of talking begins to fit conversationally 5 years: 90% of language learned 6 years: beings to learn reading and writing 7-12 years: participates in conversations and in narratives. Knows multiple meaning words and figurative language uses a gender style 13-adult: vocab expands to 30-60k words. Personalized communication-style established Pre-language infants are highly responsive to caregivers’ voices and faces o examples: learn signals through rituals and learns predictability to develop spoken language, the child must: store sounds use this information for identification and comparison relate those sound elements to meaning. Communication Behaviors Babbling Gaze-referencing Stimulus response Predictability Intentionally PCF’s Phonetically Consistent Forms o Transition to words because of consistent vocal patterns, which vary with different languages Representations process of having one thing stand for another Symbolization words or sign/signals with meaning Toddler Language By 18 months an average of 50 single words emerge and utterances increase in length Use o Want o Greetings o Protest 2 o Verbal accomplishment o Content question Content and Form o By 24 months’ vocabulary increases to 150-300 words o Personal lexicons o Early word combinations Preschool Language Expanding conversational ability and begin to recount past and tell short stories Language rules increase; environment dependent Use o Topic and role playing most common Content o vocab increases to 900-1500 words and relationship words develop o Fast mapping: infers meaning from content o Relational vocab Form o MLU: mean length of utterance Short 2-5 morphemes Significant increase in imitation skills o From increases dramatically Child introduces intonational shifts for meaning “WH” words appear: who, what, when, where, why relational words in place 3 by age 5, using conjoiners School-age and Adolescent Language Metalinguistic skills merge o Ability to think about language and consider language in the abstract, ability of to self correct, self monitor language Use o Conversational skills o Narratives develop Content o Vocabulary increases up to 60k words by high school o Figurative language Form o Morphology, grammar, syntax approach adult level o Written form developed Associated Disorders and Related Causes Cognitive Impairments/Developmental Disabilities 1. Substantial limitations in present functioning 2. Significantly sub-average intellectual functioning 3. Concurrent limitations in 2 or more of the following: o Communication o Social skills o Self-direction o Functional academics o Self-care and home living 4 o Community use o Health and safety leisure and work 4. Manifestation before the age of 18 o to fit the classification of cognitively impaired/developmental disabled an individual must have all 4 areas. About 25% of the U.S. population have developmental disabilities Variability often dependent on: causality, severity, home support, living environment, made of communication, age Etiology o Biological factors Genetics Gestational/delivery Toxins o Socio-environmental factors Environment, lack of stimulation, diet, hygiene, lack of medical care, lack of emotional care Lifespan issues o Language characteristics of CI/DD Language the single most important limitation o Initial language developmental similar but slower o Qualitatively different Shorter utterances 5 Language Learning Disabilities About 3% of US identified as having learning disabilities Males 4x more than females 75% of LD fall under group of language-learning disabilities Six categories o Motor o Attention o Perception o Symbol o Memory o Emotion Memory difficulties affect: o Short term retrieval o Long term retrieval Processing strategies impaired: o Different and deficient ways of accessing stored information o Difficulty deciding on what is relevant Informational Processing Emotional problems often accompany LD Mot children with LD have normal IQ’s Often exhibit aggression, impatience, poor judgment, unusual fears, and/or poor adjustment to change Familial history patterns are common More common in children with premature or difficult births 6 ADHD o Motor and attention o Short attention span o Impulsive o Language difficulties generally decrease focus o Auditory perception difficulties decrease focus o Sensory integration issues Dyslexia o Perceptual difficulties that lead to confusion with similarities o Characterized by Word recognition difficulties Reading comprehension problems Lifespan Issues Preschool o Reduced interest in language, reading, books Early school years o Learn to memorize word shapes rather than use phonic based word attack skills visual preferred over auditory. Later school years o Receive special services, adaption strategies Adolescence and adult years o Some outgrow manifestations o Some require accommodations throughout life LLD Language Characteristics 7 All aspects of language usually are affected in children with LD Difficulties with Form, Content, and Use Syntactic complexity often reduced Overall oral language development slower with frequent communicative breakdowns Word-finding problems common, need more time to respond Cluttering over use of fillers, circulations, rapid speech, word and phrase repetitions Specific Language Impairment Children at risk for academic failure because they don’t have basic language skills for reading and writing Affecting males more than females No obvious anatomical, physical, intellectual, or perceptual causes seem to exist Language performance significantly lower than intellectual performance Don’t exhibit perceptual difficulties SLI characterized by the exclusion of other disorders Casual factors difficult to identify because features tend to be normal: o Nonverbal intelligence o Birth and delivery o Hearing o Self-help o Motor skills 8 Brain imaging of children with SLI indicates brain symmetry Lifespan Issues Preschool o Even they perceive other children with SLI negatively School-aged children o Lingering results of SLI may result in reading difficulties o Earlier: rhyming, letter naming o Later: academic difficulties Long term data is sparse SLI Language Characteristics SLI children have difficulty with form Extracting regularities from the language around them o Resisting different contexts for language o Constructing word-referent associations for lexical growth Problems with morphological and phonological rules and vocabulary development form Comprehension is easier than production Problems with pragmatics form Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD is at the more severe end of PDD yet is in a wide range o Hyperlexia is an inordinate interest in letters/words, such children tend to read early, but have poor comprehension skills 9 o Semantic-pragmatic limited vocabulary and poor conversational skills Asperger’s syndrome normal IQ range with typical language development in form and content, however poor use ASD is an impairment in reproach social interaction with a severely limited behavior, interest, and activity repertoires that have an onset before 30 months of age Characterized by disturbances in: o Developmental rates and the sequence of motor, social adaptive, and cognitive skills Spurts and plateaus Often lower IQ range o Responses to sensory stimuli Both hyper sensitive sensory systems Preference for routine, easily upset by change Self-stimulatory behaviors Speech and language, cognition, and non-verbal communication o Non-verbal minimally, verbal, echolalia, or even somewhat typical Reduced capacity to appropriately relate to people, events, and objects Infants often described as lethargic, have few demands, prefer solitude or are highly irritable with lots of crying and screaming As these children age they tend to prefer more alone time, prefer little affection, demonstrate odd play behaviors 10 ASD Casual Factors 65% show neurological differences High levels of serotonin Abnormal development of the cerebellum Abnormal development of the temporal lobe Eye-face detection delayed Incidence o One in 47 births o Family history o Males 4x more than females o To date, no specific gene linked to ASD Processing differences o Difficulty analyzing/integrating information Over selective-fixated on minor details o Stored unanalyzed whole, later reproduced in full o Organization hindered ASD Lifespan Issues Young children o Most identified by age 3 o Toddlers fail to meet the typical behavior milestones School-aged children and adolescents o Children this age typically tend to receive education accommodations with both placements in special classroom and integration plans Adult years o Many integrated into home life, most sheltered 11 Language Characteristics of ASD Communication problems often one of the first indicators 30% remain non-speaking throughout their lives Prosody tends to be flat, robotic, wooden, mechanical Echolalia o Whole/part repetition of a previous utterance o Often outgrown/reduced Semantic and pragmatic irregulatories o Range of intention is very limited Self-entertaining gibberish Demands Perseverations Entire verbal routines which are often echolalia Brain Injury Types: TBI most common among children o Coma o Disorientation and memory loss o May have accompanying physical disability o May have accompanying personality change o Recovering irregular, correlated with: severity, physical complications, length of time unconscious, return of memory, rather than age Cognitive deficits include o Perception, memory, reasoning, and problem solving issues o Inattentive, easily distracted o Organization, sequencing, using abstractions 12 o Difficulty making relationships, making an inference, formulating goals o Permanent or temporary Psychological maladjustments include o Social disinhibition, impulsive, acting out o Distracted, low frustration levels, anxiety, even depression o Misinterpretations common Lifespan Issues o Severity level and degree of complications determines the adjustments that are required over the lifespan Language Characteristics o Use of language most severely and most frequently impacted o Higher functioning aspects of language form and context also commonly altered most things taken literally, quite concrete in interruption Cases of Neglect and Abuse Influences on communication development: o Neglect and abuse are the outward signs of a dysfunctional family, the social environment in which children learn language o Poor health, untreated conditions, substance abuse, poor nutrition, all impact on brain and language development o Quality of the child-parent attachment results in the lack of support for development od meaningful communication Lifespan issues 13 o Jhdhf Language characteristics of children abuse: o Less communicative o Weaker communication skills than peers o Often not open to discussion Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Drug-exposed Children Incidence o One in every 600 kids Impact o Low birth weight which can lead to CNS problems o Motor- ADHD o Cognitive- as a group, statistically the IQ tends to be In the borderline MR range o Different drugs, different affects: jittery, irritable, manic, lethargic Lifespan issues o High percentage of FAS infants die within the first year o Many of these children have significant motor and language problems Much like LLD description but do not respond favorably to speech and language interventions Language characteristics of AD o Delayed development of oral language o Echolalic o Comprehension problems o Word-retrieval problems 14 o Weak conceptual development o Very poor pragmatic skills o Highly resistant to effective speech-language therapy 15
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