PY 101 Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapter 7-9)
PY 101 Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapter 7-9) PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Paige Montgomery on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Evan Kennedy in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see PY 101 - Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Exam #2 Information Topic Number of items Memory (Chapter 7) 11 Thinking and Intelligence (Chapter 8) 15 Development (Chapter 9) 16 Total 42 Chapter 7: Memory – 11 Questions ◦ Consolidation Reboxing memories after time Lose memory over time ◦ Memory Stages Short term Long term Working/Sensory memory Working: what is going on right now. Lasts about 30 seconds or less Sensory: 30 of a second; very brief ◦ Levels of Processing How you remember things What makes it easy/hard to remember things The more levels you can process something on, the better you will remember If you can make something mean something to you, you will remember it better Not actual levels Processing in different parts of the brain ◦ Memory Strategies Placing words in a memory palace (mentioned in the book) Imagine words in different places Pneumonic devices Chunking ◦ Memory Distortion Memory biased Cast yourself in a favorable role in your memory Remembering how you want to remember Forgetting ◦ PTSD and Persistence Persistence: in PTSD, you can’t not forget about a specific memory A memory keeps coming back Memories that you would rather forget but you cannot stop dwelling on it ◦ Networks of Association Spreading activation How things in our brain are organized You store memory based on what they mean The word “star” is stored close to where we store “shiny” ◦ Suggestibility Implanting something in somebody’s memory The way the question in phrased affects the way that we answer Car wreck studies (describe how to cars crashed, describe how the cars smashed together) Candy study we did Prime somebody to think a certain way ◦ Amnesia Forgetting stuff The video about the man who could not form new memories The really sad video about the man Got excited every time he saw his wife Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence – 15 Questions ◦ Analogical and Symbolic Representations Analogical: visual (draw someone a picture of a violin and it looks like what we all picture as a violin) Symbolic: abstract (saying violin and picturing a violin in your head) ◦ Categorization The berry club comic We categorize by common themes ◦ Exemplar vs. Prototype Models Prototype is an actual thing that we think is the most actual bird The bird activity You wouldn’t pick an ostrich as a bird because it is not the stereotypical bird Exemplar: two competing ideas of how we categorize things in our head Exemplar: average; everything in a category and we find an average the average bird Birds that you see a lot Ideas of an object that we see most often ◦ Schemas and Stereotypes Experiences Short hand scripts Going into a McDonald’s and knowing the experience, and not having to relearn it again when you go to Burger King, you can combine the experiences ◦ Heuristics and Affective Forecasting Similar idea as above Short cuts Things we do automatically Algorithm Availability heuristic Judge things on how easy they are to come up with Really likely we will be bit by a shark because we have heard so many stories Affective forecasting: we are often bad at how we will feel in the future If I win the lottery… If my dog dies… How poorly/well we will cope with a good/bad situation ◦ Problem Solving How we solve problems How we figure out the world around us ◦ Universal Grammar Chomsky There is something written in you that you learn grammar The deaf babies who babbled and learned to use their hands Everyone has this grammar inside us and we are waiting for some vocabulary ◦ Overgeneralization When kids are learning a language and apply a rule where it does not belong Misapplying grammar rules ◦ Intelligence Testing 2 kinds of tests Test that try to get at your aptitude (how smart are you intrinsically) IQ (what have you learned) This test is an achievement test ◦ Emotional Intelligence Everything having to do with emotions Being tactful ◦ Expected Utility Theory Making decisions Gold coin experiment ◦ Intelligence and Environment Environmental influences on intelligence Prenatal Mother/father’s health before your birth ◦ Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid: more about how you deal with the world in general; how you handle problems Crystallized: What you have learned; the automatic stuff Chapter 9: Development – 16 Questions ◦ Prenatal Environment Toxins that can be bad for a baby Why you do not drink alcohol when you are pregnant ◦ Sensitive Periods More able to develop something Periods of your life when you are more open to learning things Sensitive to learning language Also applies to attachment ◦ Development and Environment Twin studies Push and pull with the genes and environment you were brought up in ◦ Attachment, Imprinting, and Harlowe Sensitive period Why it is good for babies to be held The sad monkey video ◦ Developmental Periods (Piaget, Kohlberg, and Erikson) P: cognitive Kids with tall and short glasses K: moral reasoning Three stages Conventional thinking E: development over lifespan Development does not stop ◦ Identity Gender identity How we were raised ◦ Marriage Marriage is good for you Reasons why marriage is good Better health Live longer ◦ Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Older people When you are older, we have different priorities Wanting to hang out with family Live is fleeting You want to spend time with the people who mean the most to you ◦ Cognitive Declines in Aging
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