POLS 2312 TEST TWO STUDY GUIDE
POLS 2312 TEST TWO STUDY GUIDE POLS 2312-001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by M.G on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLS 2312-001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Kimberly Harper in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 255 views.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
POLITICAL PARTY ● Texas has both temporary and permanent party structures ● Temporary ○ Primaries and conventions function briefly to nominate candidates, pass resolutions, adopt a party platform, and select delegates to pary conventions at higher levels ● Permanent ○ In Texas, the precinct chairs, county and district execcutive committees, and the state executive committee form the permanent organization of a political party. ● Political Parties ○ Broad in order to be inclusive and diverse ○ Not experts in any fields they discuss. ○ Main objective is elections ● Temporary vs. Permanent ○ Permanent is always there ○ Temporary shows up during election season IDEOLOGY ● Ideology is defined as a fixed set of beliefs ● There is a difference between economic and social conservatism/liberalism ● People are rarely both socially and economically conservative or liberal ○ Fiscal (economic) conservatives want the government to stay out of the economy ○ Fiscal liberals want the government to be involved in the economy ○ Social conservatives want the government to be involved in social issues in order to uphold traditional values and to establish a “moral compass” ○ Social liberals do not want the government to be involved in social issues; wants the government to leave the choice to marry who they want to the people. ● People tend to link people to a specific set of ideology based on their party label. ○ Republican = antiLGBT, antiabortion ○ Democrat = proLGBT, proabortion CONSERVATIVE ● Conservative is defined as “someone who supports traditional family values” and is associated with: ○ Traditional marriage ○ Religion ○ Children (think the Duggar family) ○ Basically the ‘50s ● Conservative ○ A person who advocates minimal intervention by government in social and economic matters and who gives a high priority to reducing taxes and curbing public spending. ● Social conservatives (often associated with the Christian Coalition) advocate for their family values. ● Fiscal conservatives give the highest priority to reduced taxing and spending LIBERAL ● Liberal is defined as “believing that government should be active in supporting social and political change” ● A person who advocates for government support in social and economic matters and who favors political reforms that extend democracy, achieve a more equitable distribution of wealth, and protect individual freedom and rights. NEOCONSERVATIVE ● Neoconservatives compromise on social issues ● Also called a fiscal conservative ● Also called a compassionate conservative ● A political ideology that reflects fiscal conservatism, but accepts a limited government role in solving social problems NEOLIBERAL ● Neoliberals compromise on economic issues ● Also called a social liberal ● A political ideology that advocated less government regulation of business but supports more governmental involvement in social matters. LIBERTARIAN ● Libertarian Party ○ Influential in TX ○ Libertarians do not want the government involved in economic or social issues. INDEPENDENT ● Run with no party label/has no party affiliation ● A candidate who runs in a general election without party endorsement or selection ● Sam Houston was the last Independent governor of TX HISTORY OF PARTIES ● Texas has w eak parties. ○ We have a weak party structure because we have been mainly a oneparty state ○ TX was solidly democratic from 18701970 ○ In 1960, a republican won a TX senate seat. ○ 1970’s1990’s were years of twoparty competition ■ Transitional period ■ Realignment ■ TX became republican due to the Civil Rights movement. ○ 1990present ■ TX is ‘big red’ ■ However, TX is becoming a battleground state due to large urban areas, minorities, and young voters. PLATFORM ● Platform ○ A document that sets forth a political party’s position on issues such as income tax, school vouchers, or public utility regulation. ○ p. 146 of Practicing Texas Politics ○ Various issues that the parties divide on ■ LGBT marriage ■ Abortion ■ Education ■ Economy DEALIGNMENT ● Occurs when citizens have no allegiance to a political party and become independent voters ● Removing yourself from a political party ● More individual ● Happens due to a distaste of government ● Example: people are dealigning themselves with the ‘establishment’ by supporting nonestablishment candidates Bernie Sanders and Donald Trump REALIGNMENT ● A large shift from one party to another ● Happened during the Civil Rights Movement when TX went from being a democratic state to being a republican state all of the politicians “switched” sides. ● Occurs when members of one party shift their affiliation to another party STRAIGHT TICKET ● When you vote straightticket on the party label ○ i.e, you select an option that will select all other republicans/democrats on the ballot. ● Leads to the Coattail effect ○ An unintended consequence of straight ticket voting ○ Example: Someone has just researched the candidates for a presidential or gubernatorial election. This person does not want a democrat in the top position, so they will vote republican. However, due to the research (or laziness) of this person, they do not know anything about the other races on the ballot. Since they are voting republican on the big race, they will often vote for that same party on a straightticket vote. SPLIT TICKET ● More independent ● More informed ● More objective ● Votes are made one by one. THIRD PARTY ● Minor parties ● Libertarian Party ○ Influential in TX ○ Libertarians do not want the government involved in economic or social issues. ● Green Party ● Tea ‘Party’ ● Independent ○ Run with no party label ○ Sam Houston was the last Independent governor of TX SUFFERAGE ● Suffrage ○ The right to vote ○ Must be registered to vote ○ Over 18 to vote ○ Felons cannot vote ○ Mentally incompetent cannot vote AMENDMENTS ● 15th ○ 1870 ○ Allows men regardless of color to vote ● 19th ○ 1920 ○ Women’s right to vote ● 24th ○ Poll taxes ○ Current controversy over Voter ID laws is due to the fact that people have to pay a fee for their ID, making the law in essence a poll tax. ● 26th ○ 18+ right to vote VOTING RIGHTS ACT (1965) (1975) ● Voting Rights Act of 1965 ○ Colored persons actually get the right to vote ○ Literacy test ○ Grandfather clause ○ Whiteprimary ● Voting Rights Act (Amended) 1975 ○ Language minorities ○ If a certain percentage of an area has a language minority, ballots must be printed in that language. REDISTRICTING ● Districts are drawn in really odd shapes due to gerrymandering ○ Gerrymandering drawing lines to include or exclude minorities to influence voting. ● Done every ten years to map out where everyone is in order to have districts with an equal population. GERRYMANDERING ● Gerrymandering drawing lines to include or exclude minorities to influence voting. ○ To impact the outcome of the election by skewing the concentration of a population in a district VOTER REGISTRATION ● In TX, you must be registered 30 days prior to the election in order to vote VOTER ELIGIBILITY ● Universal suffrage everyone has the right to vote (with some exceptions) ○ Registered ○ 18+ ○ Exceptions ■ Felons cannot vote ■ Mentally incompetent cannot vote ● Common obstacles: ○ Literacy test ■ Some states required voters to pass a screening test in order to register to vote. ○ Grandfather clause ■ Stated that persons who could exercise the right to vote before 1867 and their descendants were not subject to educational, property, or tax requirements for voting ■ Not used in TX ○ Poll tax ■ TX (and other states) required citizens pay a $1.50$1.75 tax in order to become eligible to vote ○ Whiteprimary ■ Some parties in some states limited party membership to white people only, thus barring persons of color from voting. MOTOR VOTER LAW ● Done through the DMV. If you check a box on your license form, it automatically registers you to vote on your 18th birthday. ● Allows for registration to vote when obtaining or renewing a driver’s license. SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INDICATORS ● Age ● Education ● Income ● As these go up, you’re more likely to vote ● Political environment ● Battleground State status ● Registration/Voter ID [State Laws] ● Civic attitude ● Criminal record ● 2008 Stats ○ 55% national presidential ○ 45% TX ● Star County (LowIncome, 24k a year) ○ Voter turnout in 2008 was 35% ● Collin County (Higherincome, 81k a year) ○ Voter turnout in 2008 was 66% VOTING HABITS AND INFLUENCES ● Apathy ○ A lack of interest ○ Young adults and teens are mostly apathetic towards voting ○ If you don’t care about the government, they don’t care about you. The government’s responsibility is to those who participate. ○ Drives voters away ● Alienation ○ Occurs after a person is engaged in government, but the government does not respond. ○ Many college students feel alienated ○ Drives voters away ● Civic duty ○ A sense of serious duty towards the act involved ○ “It’s amazing what people will do for a sticker” ○ Could apply to voting, jury duty, military service, and more. ○ Drives voters to the polls PRIMARY ● Where the democratic and republican parties vote to choose their presidential nominee. ● Often a very low turnout ● Early voting you can vote in any precinct in your county ● Voting day you must ote in your precinct ● A preliminary election conducted within the party to select candidates who will run for public office in a subsequent general election. ● Direct primary ○ A nominating system that allows voters to participate directly in the selection of candidates for public office ● Runoff primary ○ Held a month after the first primary to allow party members to choose a candidate from the first primary’s top two vote getters ○ Held only if one candidate does not get 51% of the vote ○ Does not include presidential primaries ● Closed primary ○ A primary in which voters must declare their support for the party before they are permitted to participate in the selection of its candidates ● Open primary ○ A primary in which voters are not required to declare party identification ● Crossover voting ○ A practice whereby a person participates in the primary of one party, then votes for one or more candidates of another party in the general election. GENERAL ELECTION ● An election held every 4 years on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November to primarily elect the President. ● Congressional elections are held every 2 years. MIDTERM ELECTION ● An election held in between general elections, happening in two year increments. For example, the next midterm election will be in 2018 ● Gubernatorial elections are held during midterm election OFF YEAR ELECTION ● Held in odd years, usually to vote on a constitutional amendment, bonds, or special elections ● Governor and other statewide offices serving four year terms are are elected in the November of the even year between presidential elections. ● Special elections ○ Can be called in order to fill a vacancy ○ Turnout is under 10% (usually 56%) ○ Can have bond issues, constitutional amendments, etc. ○ Held in odd years VOTER TURNOUT ● Voter turnout is 55% (sometimes 60%) for a presidential election (National) ● State voter turnout for a presidential election is 45%. ● TX gubernatorial voter turnout is 25% ● Less than 10% (7%) voter turnout in odd year elections. ● 2008 Stats ○ 55% national presidential ○ 45% TX ○ Star County (LowIncome, 24k a year) ■ Voter turnout in 2008 was 35% ○ Collin County (Higherincome, 81k a year) ■ Voter turnout in 2008 was 66% REVOLVING DOOR ● Issue of a conflict of interest ● The idea that we have legislators who leave the legislative branch to become a lobbyist ● At the federal level (and 31 states) a cooling period of 2 years is required before becoming a lobbyist ○ TX has no limit. INTEREST GROUP ● An organization that seeks to influence government officials and their policies on behalf of members sharing common views and objectives. ● Both interest groups and parties are trying to shape the world we live in. ● Interest groups are specific ● Interest groups have experts ○ Some of these experts will write bills, speeches, and more to save legislators some work. ● Interest groups want people with power ○ Interest groups will often donate to both parties in order to have favor with a person in power. ● The 1st Amendment gives the people the right to lobby. ● Interest groups are linking mechanisms , connecting people with the same mindset for a common cause. ○ There is strength in numbers ● We have interest groups because of a decentralized government . ○ We have 181 state legislators and all of their staff to influence, among many other people HARD MONEY ● Goes directly to a candidate ● Campaign money donated directly to candidates or political parties and restricted in amount by federal law. SOFT MONEY ● Goes to a political party ● Government banned. ● Loophole: Section 527 committees ○ nonprofit political organization ○ Can’t mention/endorse candidates ○ has to remain objective ○ Tends to do things that can’t be unseen i.e, you can’t unring the bell. ● Donations made to national political parties for federal election purposes POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE (PACs) ● The way money gets to candidates ● $10,000 federal limit per candidate per cycle ● Federal disclosure requirement ● No TX limits SUPER POLITICAL ACTION COMMITTEE (SUPER PACs) ● The loophole to PACs ● No money limit ● No disclosure ECONOMIC INTEREST GROUPS ● Business groups ● Labor groups ○ Labor groups and business groups are often pitteagainst each other ● Agriculture groups ● Professional groups ○ Doctors, lawyers, fire departments, etc. ● Things that make e conomic groups more powerful are: ○ Money ■ For proximity ■ For access ○ Organization SOCIAL (NONECONOMIC) INTEREST GROUPS ● Usually rely on donations or fees ○ AARP relies on the $5 yearly fee ● Income and organization is not as strong as that of economic groups. ● Religious groups are a form of social interest groups ● Public groups ● Included among groups primarily concerned with social issues are organizations devoted to civil rights, racial and ethnic matters, religion, and public interest protection. LOBBYING ● Lobbying is the main technique of interest (mostly economic) groups ○ Lobbyists write bills, speeches, and more. ○ Lobbyists do the leg work ○ There are 9 lobbyists to every legislator (181 legislators) ● Communicating with legislators or other government officials on behalf of an interest group for the purpose of influencing decision makers. ● Lobbyists tend to learn as much as they can about a legislator in order to connect on a personal level. ELECTIONEERING ● Electioneering ○ The total effort made to get out the vote, to win an election ■ Transportation ■ Mailings ■ Calls ○ Active campaigning by an interest group in support of, or opposition to, a candidate; actions urging the public to act on an issue. TEXAS ETHICS COMMISSION ● Created because of Bo Pilgrim ○ “Pilgrim’s Pride” ○ Handed out 10k checks based on how senators voted on a worker’s comp. law ● Exists to regulate campaigning and money flow ● Doesn’t function well POWER GROUPS ● Power groups ○ Business groups ○ Labor groups ○ Professional ● An effective interest group strongly linked with legislators and bureaucrats for the purpose of influencing decision making and having a continuing presence in Austin (you need money and organization for this) as a “repeat player” from session to session. BUSINESS GROUPS ● Exxon ● Usually have money and organization, which makes them powerful ● An economic interest group, such as a trade association, that lobbies for policies favoring Texas business. LABOR GROUPS ● Labor groups and business groups are often pitted against each other ● Unions, blue collar, etc. ● A union that supports public policies designed to increase wages, obtain adequate health insurance coverage, provide unemployment insurance, promote safe working conditions, and otherwise protect the interests of workers. PROFESSIONAL GROUPS ● A group of professionals. ○ Doctors ○ Lawyers ○ Firemen ○ Policemen ● An organization of physicians, lawyers, accountants, or other professional people that lobbies for policies beneficial to members. GRASSROOTS ● Grassroots activity ○ Outside lobbying ○ Gives politicians the impression that the citizens are involved in an issue POLITICAL INFLUENCE OF INTEREST GROUPS ● A highly variable factor that depends largely on the size of a group’s membership, financial resources, quality of leadership, and a degree of unity to measure its effectiveness. CAMPAIGN ADS On Wednesday, Professor Harper went over campaign videos. Please review her document on that as I can guarantee she’ll ask about David Dewhurst being moderate, among other things. ● Daisy AD ○ Very controversial ● Dewhurst Moderate AD ○ Dewhurst is a moderate READING QUIZZES Quiz 4 1. True 2. D) neoconservative (compassionate conservative) 3. C) neoliberal 4. B) democratic 5. C) twoparty 6. C) republicans 7. True 8. D) realignment 9. B) minor 10. A) independent Quiz 5 1. True 2. B 3. C 4. False (usually about 10% below national average) 5. E 6. B 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. A Quiz 6 1. True 2. A 3. True 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. D 8. True 9. B 10. C
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