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Block 2 test materials

by: Courtney Haviland

Block 2 test materials Anat 204

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Anatomy > Anat 204 > Block 2 test materials
Courtney Haviland

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Answer key to block 2 study guide
Anatomy for Paramedical Personnel
Dr. Ruit
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Haviland on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anat 204 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Ruit in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Anatomy for Paramedical Personnel in Anatomy at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
1. Describe the functional divisions of the nervous system Sensory Receptors (Somatic/special/visceral)sensory divisionInformation processingMotor division (somatic Nervous system/autonomic nervous system)Effectors 2. Identify the components of a neuron Dendrites-Highly branched processes that function as the receiving end for info Axon-single process from the cell body that carries info away from the body Axon Hillock-point of axon origin from the cell body Axon terminal-where the neuron communicates with other cells Neuronal cell body-contains organelle that provide energy signaling molecules that are critical in cell-to-cell communication 3. Describe the function of a neuron They conduct electrical signals for communication 4. What are the internal features of a neuron? Synapse-Site of axon where the neuron communicates with another cell Synaptic cleft-Narrow Gap between pre/post synaptic cells where neurotransmitters are released Synaptic vesicles-filled with chemical neurotransmitters that release when stimulated 5. What are the external features of a neuron? Bipolar neurons-2 processes, 1 dendrite, 1 axon. Found in special sense organs what relay information about sight smell or hearing Unipolar neurons- Have a dendrite and axon that are continuous. Typical shape of neurons in the PNS Multipolar neurons-have 2 or more dendrites and an axon. They are the most common. This is the typical shape of a motor neuron that controls skeletal muscle 6. What is a schwann cell? Produce myelin, which is a membranous membrane around PNS axons, that function like insulation on a wire that increases the speed of nerve impulse transmission 7. Function/Location of Neuroglia- Astrocytes-create and maintain the blood barriers that isolate the CND from forgein objects circulating in the blood. They provide structural support, for scar tissue Microglia- Migratory cells that constantly move through neural tissue. They Fight cancer, repair trauma, and respond to autoimmune diseases. Oligodendrocytes- provides a structural framework by stabilizing the positions of axons. They produce myelin that increase the speed of nerve impulse transmission 8. Components of the spinal nerves Conus Medullaris- The tapered end of the spinal cord Caudal equina- Nerve roots that extend beyond the conus Medullaris and resembles a horse’s tail Filum Terminale- fibrous strand that extends to the coccyx 9. Distribution patterns of the brachial, lumbar and sacral plexuses to there functions: Brachial Plexus- innervates the pectoral girdle and upper extremity. C5-T1 Primary contributors to brachial plexus Lumbar plexus- innervates the pelvic girdle and lower extremity. L1-L4 Primary contributors to lumbar plexus Sacral Plexus- innervates the pelvic girdle and lower extremity. L4-S4 primary contributors to sacral Plexus 10. Identify the cranial nerves by name, number and function I Olfactory-Smell II Optic- Vision III Oculomotor- Eye movement IV Trochlear- eye movement V Trigeminal- face sensory VI abducens- Eye movement VII Facial- face muscles/ taste VIII vestibularcochlar- hearing/balance IX glossopharyngeal- muscles of throat and pharynx X vagus-internal organs XI Accessory-muscles of the neck and upper back XII hypoglossal- tongue movement 11. How is the brain protected and supported? Cranial meninges, cranial bones, and cerebrospinal fluid Dura mater Arachnoid mater Pia Mater 12. How is cerebral spinal fluid created and what is the flow? Cerebral spinal fluid is created in the choroid plexus, it circulates from ventricular space into subarachnoid space, and is then returned to venous circulation through arachnoid granulations 13. What is the structure and function of the brainstem? a. Medulla- cranial nerves 8-12, relay info to higher centers b. Pons- Cranial nerves 5-8, relay info to the cerebellum c. Midbrain- cranial nerves 3-4, regulate auditory and visual reflexes d. Cerebellum- coordination and control of ongoing body movements e. Diencephalon- Thalamus- final relay point for ascending sensory info Hypothalamus- cardiovascular control f. Cerebral hemispheres- frontal-speech center, parietal- somatosensory cortex, temporal lobe-hearing, occipital-vision 14. In the cerebral cortex, where is the major motor and sensory areas? Primary motor cortex-precentral gyrus-motor speech center Primary somatosensory cortex-post central gyrus Primary auditory cortex- hearing Primary visual cortex- vision 15. What are the structures and functions of the sympathetic nervous system? Found in the Thoracic to 2 ndlumbar region, the 1 neuron is in the nd spinal cord, and the 2 is in a ganglion. It is responsible for fight or flight responses a. Parasympathetic nervous system? The first neuron is found in the cranium or sacrum. They are responsible for rest and digest 16. What are the innervation patterns of the sympathetic/para nervous systems? The SNS innervates everywhere in the body that has a blood supply. The PSN innervates the true viscera, including the head and the organ systems. 17. Anatomical/Physiological characteristics of the sympathetic/para nervous systems The systems work together to decrease or increase activity of the nervous system 18. What is the same between the innervations of the nervous system skeletal muscles and the innervation of visceral effectors? They both have 2 neurons for each system, so 4 total a. What is the difference? SNS- has short preganglionic axons and long post ganglionic axons where the PNS- has long preganglionic axons and short post ganglionic axons. 19. Describe the structure of the eye Conjunctiva- covers inner eyelids and front of eye Lacrimal apparatus- produces tears Sclera/cornea- outer fibrous layer that supports, protects, and helps the cornea focus Choroid- delivers oxygen and nutrients to the retina Retina-photoreceptor that responds to light Anterior cavity- Posterior/anterior chamber that has aqueous humor Posterior cavity- vitreous body 20. Describe the structure of the middle ear Tympanic membrane-which is the ear drum, separates the external from middle ear Auditory ossicles-connects tympanic to cochlea, malleus, incus, stapes Auditory tube-Connects middle ear with the nasopharynx 21. Describe the structure of the inner ear Bony labyrinth-internal membranous labyrinth that is fluid filled Vestibularcochlar nerve- CV VIII 22. Describe the structure of the external ear Auricle-Cartilage of the ear External acoustic meatus- lined with hair and cerumen a. What are their functions? The external ear is for hearing, the middle ear is for hearing, and the internal ear is for hearing and equilibrium. 23. Describe the structure of the bony labyrinth It is fluid filled space that surrounds the outsides of the structures of the ear 24. Describe the structure of the membranous labyrinth Is deep to the bony labyrinth and is between the perilymph and endolymph. 25. Describe the structure of the cochlea It is a snail like structure in the middle ear that consists of bony and membranous labyrinth. a. What are their functions? The main function of the cochlea is for hearing The labyrinths are for equilibrium and hearing


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