HUN1201 Unit 2 Study Guide Review
HUN1201 Unit 2 Study Guide Review HUN1201
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HUN1201 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Jafari-Nasabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
HUN1201 Study Guide Unit 2 Define hunger and appetite. Which organ triggers feelings of hunger and satiation? Hunger – physiological need for food Appetite – psychological need for food Hunger and satiation is triggered by HYPOTHALAMUS What effect do different macronutrients have on hunger? What type of food has the highest satiation value? PROTEIN has the highest satiety value Highfat diet > Highcarb diet (satiety) Bulky meals (high in fiber and water) promote a sense of satiety Solid foods are more filing than semisolid or liquid foods Define the processes of digestion, absorption, and elimination. Digestion – large food molecules are broken down to smaller molecules, mechanically and chemically Absorption – products are absorbed thru the INTESTINAL wall Elimination – undigested portions of food and waste are removed from body Know the difference between peristalsis and segmentation. Peristalsis – contractions of entire GI tract that push contents from one area to the next Segmentation – contractions of the intestinal wall of small intestine that mixes chime and enhances SURFACE AREA with digestive enzymes Know the role of gastrin. Gastrin – a hormone produced by stomach lining that stimulates the production of gastric juice for digestion Know the two different types of cells in gastric glands. Parietal Cells – secrete HCL (denatures proteins and activates pepsin to digest proteins) and intrinsic factor (protein to absorb vitamin B12) Chief Cells – secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase (enzyme that digests lipids) What is gastric juice and what is the role of each component of the gastric juice? Gastric juice helps digest PROTEINS. contains: HCL (denatures proteins), pepsin (activated by HCL and digests proteins), gastric lipase (digests lipids), and intrinsic factor (absorbs vitamin B12) Know the role of bicarbonate in stomach and small intestine. Bicarbonate neutralizes HCL; acts as a BUFFER and keeps the pH of blood from becoming too acidic or too basic Know the enzymes produced in gastrointestinal tract (mouth, stomach, and pancreas) that facilitate the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and lipids. MOUTH: salivary amylase digests carbohydrates STOMACH: pepsin and gastric lipase digests proteins and lipids PANCREAS: proteases, pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase, pancreatic amylase (digests proteins, lipids, cholesterol, and carohydrates) List the key hormones involved in digestion and their actions. List the accessory organs that facilitate digestion and their roles. Gallbladder – contracts from CCK signal and bile emulsify the lipids Pancreas – manufactures, holds, and secretes digestive enzymes, produces HORMONES (insulin and glucagon), bicarbonate is secreted Liver – synthesizes chemicals for metabolism, receives products from digestion, releases glucose, stores vitamins, manufactures blood proteins, filters blood (remove wastes and toxin) Define food intolerance and food allergy. Intolerance – gastrointestinal discomfort caused by certain food Allergy – a reaction of the IMMUNE SYSTEM List the most common types of monosaccharides and disaccharides. Most common monosaccharide: GLUCOSE (then fructose and galactose) Most common disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose What are the characteristics of glucose, fructose and galactose? What are the monosaccharides that synthesize lactose, maltose and sucrose? Lactose: galactose +glucose Maltose: glucose + glucose Sucrose: glucose + fructose What is the storage form of carbohydrates in animals and where in the body is it stored? Glycogen is the storage form and it’s in the MUSCLES AND LIVER. Define lactose intolerance. Cannot hydrolyze lactose in dairy products; causes irritation of GI tract. Know what stages of carbohydrate digestion occur in the mouth, pancreas, and liver. MOUTH – most chemical digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the salivary amylase (breaks down poly saccharides into disaccharides) PANCREAS – pancreatic amylase (digests carbohydrates to maltose) LIVER – nonglucose molecules are converted to glucose List all the hormones that regulate blood glucose levels. Insulin – stimulate glucose to be taken up by liver and converted to glycogen Glucagon – converts glycogen into glucose Epinephrine and Norepinephrine – secreted by adrenal glands when blood glucose is low; increase glycogen breakdown in liver to release glucose into blood Cortisol and Growth Hormone Define glycemic index and glycemic load. Glycemic index – food’s potential to raise blood glucose Glycemic load – determine the effect of a food on person’s glucose response List the role of glucose as an energy source. Red blood cells use ONLY GLUCOSE Especially important for energy during exercise Define ketosis, ketoacidosis, and gluconeogenesis. Ketosis – fat breakdown during fasting (forms ketones that increase blood acidity) Ketoacidosis – condition in which excessive ketones are present in the blood (alters basic body functions and damages tissues; can be fatal) Gluconeogenesis – synthesis of glucose from fatty acids (occurs when a diet is deficient in carbohydrate) CANNOT be used to make new cells, repair tissue damage, support the immune system, or preform any other functions Know type 1 and type 2 diabetes (prevalence, causes, and treatment). Type 1 – body does not produce enough insulin and causes hyperglycemia (HIGH blood glucose); may be an autoimmune disease, treated by insulin injections Type 2 – cells become less responsive to insulin; caused by genetics, obesity, and physical inactivity—treated with weight loss, healthy eating and exercise After absorption, what are the possible fates of triglycerides? How do each of these fates happen? (E.g. if they are being used for energy, what process does fat go through?) Used immediately for energy Used to make lipidcontaining compounds Stored in muscle and fat What are the characteristics/properties of saturated fatty acids versus unsaturated fatty acids? Saturated fatty acids – H atom surround every carbon (single bonds; no kink); solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids – double bonds; kink – liquid at room temperature Know the relationship between transfatty acids and hydrogenation (and how you can identify trans fat in “real life”) Hydrogenation – H atoms are added to unsaturated fatty acids; oils become more solid Know the basics of lipid digestion. Fat digestion occurs in the SMALL INTESTINE; CCK and secretin cause the gallbladder to contract and release bile, which emulsifies fat (into small droplets) Pancreatic enzymes beak fat into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride List the food sources of omega3 and omega6 fatty acids. Why are these important? Omega3 (fish oil, walnuts, etc.) and Omega6 (vegetable and nut oils) are essential fatty acids Omega3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and blood clotting/triglycerides What are the functions of each: LDL, VLDL, and HDL cholesterol? How do they impact health? Where can we obtain cholesterol and why is it important to our health? Cholesterol helps build cell membranes, make hormones, produce vitamin D and bile acids to digest fat and absorb nutrients; mainly found in animal products (meats and dairy) Define: Transamination – transferring the amine group from an essential amino acid to a different acid group and R group • Transcription – messenger RNA copies the genetic information from DNA • Translation – the genetic information in RNA is converted into the amino acid sequence of a protein What is protein turnover? The balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. More synthesis than breakdown indicates an anabolic state that builds lean tissues, more breakdown than synthesis indicates a catabolic state that burns lean tissues. What groups (e.g. acid group) make up an amino acid? What parts are common to all amino acids and what parts are different? Central carbon, AMINO GROUP (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), and a hydrogen atom Rgroups are different What is a complete protein? Incomplete? Can you give examples of each? Complete protein – sufficient amounts of all nine essential amino acids (high quality); animal soy protein Incomplete protein – insufficient essential amino acids; does not support growth and health (low quality); plant based foods (nuts, seeds, fruits) Explain the basic steps of protein digestion. BEGINS IN STOMACH: o HCl acid denatures protein strands and activates pepsin o Pepsin breaks down proteins into short polypeptides and amino acids CONTINUES IN SMALL INTESTINE: o Pancreatic enzymes (proteases) complete protein digestion What is positive nitrogen balance? Negative? What life stages/conditions are associated with each? Nitrogen balance determine protein needs: o Positive = needed for periods of growth, pregnancy, recovery from illness o Negative = results from starvation, lowenergy diets, severe disease, etc. Compare and contrast kwashiorkor and marasmus. They are both caused by PROTEINENERGY MALNUTRITION (not enough protein) MARASMUS: absolutely nothing (deficient in both protein and carbohydrates) KWASHIORKOR: intake of CHOs is greater than protein intake; caloric intake is normal, but consists mostly of carbohydrates (extended belly) What is PKU? There are two main amino acids mentioned. (AKA PHENYLKETONURIA) rare inherited disorder that causes phenylalanine to build up the body; Tyrosine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid because there is a lack of enzymes to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine. What is condensation and what is happening during this process? ANABOLIC process that forms a larger molecule and releases water as a byproduct. What is hydrolysis and what is happening during this process? CATABOLIC process that breaks down a molecule with the addition of water. Define anabolism, catabolism, and phosphorylation. Anabolism – requires energy; building large molecules from smaller ones Catabolism – releases energy; breaks down large molecules into smaller ones Phosphorylation – addition of a phosphate group to a compound What is ATP and where is ATP produced? ATP is an organic compound used by cells as a source of energy; produced in the mitochondria. Energy is released when bonds of phosphate groups are broken. Know what redox and oxidations reactions are. Oxidation reaction – LOSES ELECTRONS (more positively charged) Reduction reaction – GAINS ELECTRONS (more negatively charged) Know the beginning and ending products of Glycolysis. Also know where the process takes place in the cell. Occurs in the cytosol. BEGINS WITH: glucose ENDS WITH: 2 pyruvate Know the beginning and end products of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle. Also know where the process takes place. Occurs in the matrix of MITOCHONDRIA BEGINS WITH: 2 acetyl CoA Cycle has NO END PRODUCT but releases 2 ATP. Define lipolysis. Breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. Know the different catabolic and anabolic hormones. Anabolic: o Insulin (increases synthesis and storage of triglycerides Catabolic: o Glucagon, Epinephrine, Cortisol (all increase lipolysis) Know what happens to pyruvate during various conditions anaerobic/ aerobic. Anaerobic (absence of oxygen) pyruvate must be converted to lactic acid Aerobic (presence of oxygen) pyruvate is converted to AcetylCoA and proceeds to TCA cycle
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