AMH2097 Exam 2 Study Guide (Terms List)
AMH2097 Exam 2 Study Guide (Terms List) ASH3930
Popular in Studies in Asian History
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASH3930 at Florida State University taught by Annika A. Culver in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 103 views.
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Terms List for AMH 2097 Exam 2 Pogroms – a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews in Europe. The wave of migration to the United States was due to pogroms. Tenements – buildings that had once been singlefamily dwellings were increasingly divided into multiple living spaces to accommodate America’s growing population. These narrow, lowrise apartment buildings were all too often cramped, poorly lit and lacked indoor plumbing and proper ventilation. “America letters” – Norwegians praised American society and offered advice to relatives for coming to America. Elisabeth Koren – The diary Elisabeth kept chronicles that crossing and the first five years of their life in America, eloquently capturing the stark contrast between the comfort and privilege of their life in Norway and the rugged rigors of pioneer America. Mezzogiorno – the traditional term for the southern region of Italy. Mezzogiorno were the most despised immigrants in America for their lack of assimilation to language and culture. They had darker skin and were considered “nonwhite” (as were Jews). Pick and shovel work – jobs Italians had in America; building construction for railroads and mines. Gold Mountain – a Chinese name for California. After gold was found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, thousands of Chinese began to travel to California in search of gold and riches during the California Gold Rush. SacramentoSan Joaquin River Delta – an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California in the United States. Agricultural interests in the Delta were protected by the building of levees, a colossal effort first undertaken by Chinese laborers. Helped made land farmable, fertile, and able to grow crops. Made a great deal of wealth for California land owners. “The Heathen Chinese” – a narrative poem by American writer Bret Harte that tells the story of a card game between an Irish man and Chinese man; both were hiding cards in their sleeves. It depicted Chinese men as “sneakier” cheaters and Irish men cheaters that were prone to violence. Harte's poem shaped the popular American conception of the Chinese more than any other writing at the time. Denis Kearney – a California labor leader of the late 19th century who was known for his nativist and racist views about Chinese immigrants. He used the Sandlot forum to give frequent and violent speeches against Chinese immigrants and the problems he claimed they caused. The Grange – SOCIAL GROUP for farmers that helped bring about the populist party. It was a farmers' movement involving the affiliation of local farmers into area "granges" to work for their political and economic advantages. The official name of the National Grange is the Patrons of Husbandry the Granger movement was successful in regulating the railroads and grain warehouses. The Populist Party – highly critical of capitalism, especially banks and railroads, and allied itself with the labor movement; muckrakers worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption. The Subtreasury Plan – allowed farmers to store theirharvest at federal warehouses during periods of low prices, and to obtain federal loans worth 80 percent of the crops' market value. The plan's intention was to enable farmers to keep commodities off the market when prices were low, and support themselves with loans until they rebounded (proposed by supporters of populism). Devised by populists/farmers to remove corporations and have government help sell crops. (Never happened) Mary Elizabeth Lease – an advocate of the suffrage movement as well as temperance but she was best known for her work with the Populist Party. She believed that big business had made the people of America into "wage slaves", declaring, "Wall Street owns the country. It is no longer a government of the people, by the people, and for the people, but a government of Wall Street, by Wall Street, and for Wall Street. The great common people of this country are slaves, and monopoly is the master." Coxey’s Army – protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a fouryear economic depression that was the worst in United States history to that time. The purpose of the march was to protest the unemployment caused by the Panic of 1893 and to lobby for the government to create jobs which would involve building roads and other public works improvements, with workers paid in paper currency which would expand the currency in circulation, consistent with populist ideology. Progressive Movement – a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States. The main objective was eliminating corruption in government. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. They also sought regulation of monopolies and corporations through antitrust laws. Populists wanted the federal government to step in and reform the economic system, but progressives had a variety of ideas to change American society. Margaret Sanger – popularized the term "birth control", opened the first birth control clinic in the United States, and established organizations that evolved into the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Immigration Restriction League – founded in 1894 by three Harvard alumni who believed that immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were racially inferior to AngloSaxons, threatening what they saw as the American way of life and the high wage scale. They worried about immigrants bringing in poverty and organized crime at a time of high unemployment. Nickelodeons – first type of indoor exhibition space dedicated to showing projected motion pictures; named from nickel, the name of the U.S. fivecent coin, and the ancient Greek word odeion, a roofedover theater. Chinese Exclusion Act – prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. It was the first law implemented to prevent a specific ethnic group from immigrating to the United States. Public Charge Clause – found immigrants who were unable to take care of themselves without becoming a public charge unsuitable for American citizenship and therefore denied their entry. Became a broad category to exclude and then deport immigrants. Committee on Public Information – created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in WWI. Every medium available was used to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals. Espionage and Sedition Acts – prohibited spying, interfering with the draft, and making statements that would “prevent military success”; limited speech that criticized the government (many socialist magazines and immigrant papers were banned). World War I – archduke of AustriaHungary was assassinated, starting WWI. The U.S. initially took neutrality, but progressivism influenced America to be involved in the affairs in other nations. Over time, the U.S. started helping the British, and Zimmerman telegrams made U.S. turn on Germany. ALLOWED U.S. TO CHANGE GROM DEBTOR TO CREDITOR NATION (by trading with Europe) Started “Red Scare” (a suspicion of communism) Costa George Najour – Syrian man that petitioned US government for citizenship by claiming he was white (economically successful, published books, etc.); Court sided with Najour saying that people from Syria were white. Silk – Lebanese peasants became very rich for a short time due to harvesting silk; when silk prices collapsed, Lebanese moved to the U.S. for a better life (became accustomed to better lifestyle). Peddling – Lebanese immigrants went doortodoor selling household and religious items; allowed them to make a lot of money in the U.S. and be accepted into American culture. Sacco and Vanzetti – Italian anarchists who were convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster during the armed robbery of the Slater and Morrill Shoe Company; no evidence to confirm this, believed they were executed for their race and political radicalism. Ku Klux Klan – protestant nativist groups revived the Klan in the early 20th century, burning crosses and staging rallies, parades and marches denouncing immigrants, Catholics, Jews, blacks and labor unionists JohnsonReed Act – established a quota system on Europe; limited the annual number of immigrants from each country to 2% to the number of people that were living in the United States from 1890 (allowed more northern, Anglo Saxon immigrants than “nonwhite” immigrants) and BANNED ASIANS IMMIGRANTS. The Great Migration – movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West Welfare Capitalism – practice of businesses providing welfare services to their employees (shortened workweek, raised wages, paid vacations, improved safety and sanitation) Louis Adamic – a SloveneAmerican known for writing about and celebrating ethnic diversity of America; believed America had great potential but that tensions between ethnic minorities and the status quo were near crisis. Wrote the perspective of immigrants in America. Believed 100% Americanism prevented secondgeneration immigrants from developing selfconfidence and appreciating their culture. The Great Depression – The economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stockmarket crash and continuing through most of the 1930s (one of the darkest moments in world history) Al Smith – linked to the notorious Tammany Hall machine that controlled New York City's politics; was a strong opponent of Prohibition and was the first Catholic nominee for President. His candidacy mobilized Catholic votes— especially women who previously had not voted. It also mobilized the antiCatholic vote, which was strongest in the South. Black Tuesday – when panicked sellers traded nearly 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange (four times the normal volume at the time), and the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 12%. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors, and stock tickers ran hours behind because the machinery could not handle the tremendous volume of trading; start of the Great Depression. “The Invisible Scar” – the emotional and psychological toll of the Great Depression. People were less confident with their money. There was great distrust toward rich people and corporations. Competitiveness forced people to leave to new towns, lie about their ethnicity, lie about their marital status, etc. to be hired. The possibility that poverty could happen to anyone depressed people. People saved money obsessively. Ella May Wiggins – a union organizer and balladeer who was killed during the Loray Mill Strike. Murdered for being an integrationist; Wiggins sought cooperation between black and white workers. Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. Made many radio speeches that encouraged Americans to accept government programs to help improve the economy (changed the mindset of Americans to demand government action to help society). The New Deal – President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state. His programs were meant to combat economic depression and it enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy (1 new deal = manipulating industry) Established to serve the "three Rs" Relief for the people out of work, Recovery for business and the economy as a whole, and Reform of American economic institutions Increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. National Recovery Administration – designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. There were maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, and more rights for labor union members, including the right to choose their own representatives in bargaining. However, it was controversial and declared unconstitutional the U.S. Supreme Court. Agricultural Adjustment Act – This act restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops. People who did not own land did not benefit due to sharecropping. Second New Deal – The second part of Roosevelt's economic policy, this took more drastic action and was more pro labor/antibusiness. These programs were characterized by greater government spending, increased work relief, and some attempt at longterm reform (esp. the Social Security system); also declared unconstitutional by the Supreme nd Court. (2 new deal = give money to the consumer to spend in the economy) Social Security Act – guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federalstate system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health. Frances Perkins – The U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945 and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. Witnessed the Triangle shirtwaist factory fire (influenced her to help the labor movement). Pearl Harbor – Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii; the day after the assault, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan The Four Freedoms – The four principles President Franklin D. Roosevelt considered to be essential for world peace: freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. The president spoke of the four freedoms in a 1941 address in which he called on Americans to support those who were fighting in World War II. The ambiguous “freedom from want” became associated with the promise for freedom from depression after the war. Carlos Bulosan – was commissioned by President Franklin Roosevelt to write the essay Freedom From Want for the Saturday Evening Post. His essay described an American democracy that included equal rights for all racial minorities. Henry Luce – believed America should "accept wholeheartedly our duty and our opportunity as the most powerful and vital nation in the world and in consequence to exert upon the world the full impact of our influence, for such purposes are we see fit and by such means as we see fit." This was controversial, as many did not agree with America acting as a world power and meddling in other nation’s affairs. John Maynard Keynes – believed spending by the government in social programs, rather than war programs, should help prevent economic depression in the United States. His ideas changed the practice of economic policies of governments. Issei – Emperor Meiji agreed to allow some emigration out of Japan. Meiji wanted to integrate Japan within international economy (without losing its independence). During this time, farmers suffered financially—the emperor thought that these people could benefit from emigrating. Many began in Hawaii but moved to California for better wages. Japanese immigrants replaced Chinese due to the Chinese Immigration Act (prevented Chinese from immigrating). Men immigrated as workers and women immigrated as wives. Picture Brides – Japanese women that married to men in America to escape poor conditions in Japan. Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907) – Only allowed wives or relatives of already immigrated Japanese to come to America. Nisei – Children of the first generation of Japanese people that immigrated to America. They were more American than their parents and went to public schools. They were discriminated against and only allowed to work as laborers—many left to work in Japan. Executive Order 9066 – All Japanese were forced to live in primitive internment camps (racist motivation due to Pearl Harbor). Many older Japanese people returned to Japan. After interment, Japanese citizens restarted their lives on the west coast (had to get new jobs and homes). Double V campaign – a motivational tool used by African Americans during the time of World War II. The Double Victory Campaign took a step towards complete emancipation. Black troops were continually discriminated despite abolitionist's efforts to convince them otherwise. They were not paid the same amount of money as was promised to the white soldiers, and were constantly used for free labor. They were also segregated according to the Jim Crow laws and brutalized and belittled by the white soldiers, officers included. Wendell Wilkie – Roosevelt’s Republican opponent during the 1940 election; after his defeat, he wrote the book “One World”, which called for the United States to change its racism and discrimination against nonwhite Americans. Hiroshima – The US warned Japan that it had weapons of mass destruction. The Japanese were warned to surrender or suffer the consequences. The first atomic bomb killed 100,000 people died within seconds and thousands more later from radiation. Kitchen Table Debate – Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev engage in a heated debate about capitalism and communism in the middle of a model kitchen set up for the fair; debated over which country’s standard of living was higher (America vs. Russia) Nixon pointed out that this model kitchen was available to the common factory worker In this era, Americans became more commercialized and into consumer culture Levittown – four large suburban developments created in the United States of America by William Levitt and his company Levitt & Sons. Built after World War II for returning veterans and their new families, the communities offered attractive alternatives to cramped central city locations and apartments. Utilized mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in suburban NY to relieve postwar housing shortage; became symbol of movement to suburbs; conformity of houses; diverse communities; home for lowermiddle class families. GI Bill – provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G.I.s) as well as oneyear of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses. Large groups of firstgeneration immigrants also attended colleges for the first time. Peyton Place – “scandalous” novel of its time; the novel focused on hypocrisy, social inequities and class privilege are recurring themes in a tale that includes incest, abortion, adultery, lust and murder. Challenged norms of the era. The Nuclear Family – emphasis on suburban families of a husband, wife, and their biological children; depended less on relatives (like in extended families) and more on themselves and their suburban community and neighbors. This generation was very sociable because they were away from extended family. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male/Female – popularly known as the Kinsey Report on Women; based on personal interviews with approximately 6,000 women. Kinsey analyzed data for the frequency with which women participate in various types of sexual activity and looked at how factors such as age, socialeconomic status and religious adherence influence sexual behavior. Comparisons are made of female and male sexual activities. Kinsey's evidence suggested that women were less sexually active than men The findings caused shock and outrage, both because they challenged conventional beliefs about sexuality and because they discussed subjects that had previously been taboo. Emmett Till – an AfricanAmerican teenager who was murdered by two white men after reportedly “speaking inappropriately” with a white woman. His mother, who had raised him mostly by herself, insisted on a public funeral service with an open casket to show the world the brutality of the killing. Her decision focused attention not only on American racism and the barbarism of lynching but also on the limitations and vulnerabilities of American democracy Montgomery Bus Boycott – Rosa Parks was an AfricanAmerican woman who was a political activist who fought for black rights. When the white seats filled, the driver asked Parks and three others to vacate their seats. The other African American riders complied, but Parks refused. In response, approximately 40,000 AfricanAmerican bus riders–the majority of the city’s black bus riders–boycotted the system. On June 5, 1956, a Montgomery federal court ruled that any law requiring racially segregated seating on buses violated the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The city appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which upheld the lower court’s decision on December 20, 1956. Montgomery’s buses were integrated on December 21, 1956, and the boycott ended. It had lasted 381 days. Claudette Colvin – Claudette Colvin, a student from a black high school in Montgomery, had refused to move from her bus seat nine months earlier than Rosa Parks. Rosa Parks was chosen as an example for civil rights leaders due to her being older, married, and more “respectable” in comparison. However, her testimonies in court helped support the integration of bus systems. SitIns – On May 28, 1963, a small group of students and faculty from Tougaloo College, a private and historically black institution in north Jackson, drove 10 miles to downtown and sat at the lunch counter at the fiveanddime store near the Governor's Mansion. They were well dressed, well behaved, studying literature and science. They refused to leave until they received service and only left at closing. This won the support of more black students, and even some white people. These were campaigns soon spread throughout the south. Demonstrators were beaten, sprayed with condiments and burned with cigarettes. Patricia Stephens – one of the leading AfricanAmerican civil rights activists in the United States, especially Florida. She was jailed for refusing to pay a fine for sitting in a Woolworth's "White only" lunch counter along with her sister Priscilla and others trained in nonviolent protest by CORE. Her eyes were damaged by tear gas used by police on students marching to protest such arrests, and she wore dark glasses for the rest of her life. She served in many leadership roles in CORE and the NAACP, fighting against segregated stores, buses, theaters, schools, restaurants, and hotels, protesting unjust laws, and leading one of the most dangerous voter registration efforts in the country in northern Florida in the 1960s. Chicago Freedom Movement – led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and sought to improve civil rights; first northern campaign sought to change racist tradition and custom, rather than laws (no racist laws, just racist mentality). Black Power – a range of political goals, from defense against racial oppression, to the establishment of separate social institutions and a selfsufficient economy (separatism help usher in black radical thought, and action against white supremacy. Malcolm X – urged blacks to claim their rights by any means necessary, more radical than other civil rights leaders of the time; moved away from King's nonviolent methods of civil disobedience. Black Panther Party – an AfricanAmerican organization established to promote Black Power and selfdefense through acts of social agitation. Monitored the actions of police in the community, held education programs, and held food programs. Cesar Chavez – Farm worker, labor leader, and civilrights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers. He helped to improve conditions for migrant farm workers and unionize them. National Farm Workers Association – worked to improve immigrantworking conditions through unionism and aggressive yet nonviolent tactics; held rallies, marches, and went on strike against mistreatment of laborers. Grape Boycott – the boycott began on September 8, 1965, and lasted more than five years. Due largely to a consumer boycott of nonunion grapes, the strike ended with a significant victory for the United Farm Workers as well as its first contract with the growers. Red Power – sought to address poverty within Native American community; some migrated to cities where they also faced racial discrimination. They began to organize and demand their civil rights. Reservation Native American took part in protests against fishing, logging, and hunting rights. Urban Native Americans began the American Indian Movement (AIM), which formed to address American Indian sovereignty, treaty issues, spirituality, and leadership, while simultaneously addressing incidents of police harassment and racism against Native Americans. Wounded Knee – American Indians seized and occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota in response to failure to fulfill treaties with Indian people and the failure to impeach Richard Wilson. The New Left (Students for a Democratic Society) – a political movement in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of educators, students, and others who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as education, dress codes, and universities should be more impersonal. Also concerned with gay rights, abortion, gender roles, and drugs. The New Left did not believe workers would cause a revolution, and did not look to the Soviet Union as the model for democracy (unlike the Old Left). The Vietnam War was the main catalyst for the New Left movement. The New Left was antiwar and criticized the Cold War and Vietnam War. Timothy Leary – Former Harvard psychologist who experimented with psychoactive drugs (including LSD). Became a wellknown advocate of their use as a way to open and expand the mind. The Counterculture – Hippies rejected established institutions. They believed the dominant mainstream culture was corrupt and inherently flawed and sought to replace it with a Utopian society; focused on friendship and pleasure over education and wealth. John F. Kennedy – First Catholic president ever elected. He won the 1960 presidential election against Nixon. Kennedy was a charismatic person whose brief administration was mainly concerned with the influence of communism in the world. Generally ignored civil rights as “local issues”. MilitaryIndustrial Complex – Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending. (WWII and AFTER) Cuban Missile Crisis – The Cuban Missile Crisis was an incident where Soviet missiles were placed in Cuba (unknown whether provoked by Cuba). The event greatly increased tensions between the Soviets and the Americans; the world teetered at the beginning of nuclear war. As a result, Kennedy sought to make better relations with Soviet Union to prevent war. Civil Rights Act – civil rights legislation passed by Johnson in 1964. The act outlawed segregation in public areas and granted the federal government power to fight black disfranchisement. The act also created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. It outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. Lyndon Baines Johnson – Took over after Kennedy’s assassination. Had a more ambitious agenda for domestic issues than Kennedy. Grew up poor; sought to end poverty and address civil rights issues. His democratic reform program, “The Great Society,” included Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education. Signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Barry Goldwater – Republican contender against Johnson for presidency. His platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history. HartCellar Act – abolished an earlier quota system based on national origin and established a new immigration policy based on reuniting immigrant families and attracting skilled labor to the United States. Family reunification was a major goal, and the new immigration policy would increasingly allow entire families to uproot themselves from other countries and reestablish their lives in the U.S. Betty Friedan – leading figure in the women's movement in the United States, her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique, sparking the second wave of American feminism (second wave feminism was more radical and less conservative). Friedan cofounded and was elected the first president of the National Organization for Women (NOW), which aimed to bring women "into the mainstream of American society now in fully equal partnership with men". The Feminine Mystique – book by Betty Friedan, which is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second wave feminism in the United States. At her college reunion, she conducted a survey among her female classmates. The results, in which she found that many of them were unhappy with their lives as housewives. This prompted her to begin research for The Feminine Mystique, conducting interviews with other suburban housewives, as well as researching psychology, media, and advertising. Commission on the Status of Women – reported widespread discrimination against women and recommended remedies. Proposed to JFK by Assistant Secretary of Labor Esther Peterson and chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt. This commission brought national attention to sexual discrimination and would lead to legislative change. National Organization for Women – National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination. It hoped to increase the amount of women attending colleges and graduate schools, employed in professional jobs instead of domestic or secretarial work, and appointed to federal offices Radical feminism – Form of feminist theory that believes that gender inequality is the result of patriarchal domination in all aspects of political, social, and economic life. Did not believe changing the law was enough, but that all aspects of American culture should change; critiqued family, marriage, love and other parts of society. Protested in radical ways to provoke Americans to think about sexism. (1960s) Roe v. Wade – a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. Decided that a right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's two interests in regulating abortions: protecting women's health and protecting the potentiality of human life The Court resolved this by tying state regulation of abortion to the third trimester of pregnancy. President Nixon – Elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal. Watergate scandal – A breakin at the Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington was carried out under the direction of White House employees. Disclosure of the White House involvement in the breakin and subsequent coverup forced President Nixon to resign in 1974 to avoid impeachment. Stagflation – During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
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