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Quiz 6 Study Guide

by: jjb13n

Quiz 6 Study Guide PSB 3004C

GPA 2.54

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About this Document

Material for quiz 6
Physiological Psychology
Dr Hull
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by jjb13n on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSB 3004C at Florida State University taught by Dr Hull in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Quiz 6 Study Guide    ● What is lateral inhibition?  What is its function?  ○ Lateral inhibition ­­­> Each cell inhibits its neighbors  ○ Interconnections between cells of the visual system alter the apparent brightness  of visual objects and also enhance boundaries by means of a process known as  lateral inhibition  ● What are the functions of the cornea, lens, and ciliary muscles?  ○ Cornea  ■ Focus light  ■ Bending light, which forms the image  ○ Lens  ■ Focus light  ■ Shape changes in order to focus on objects at different distances from the  eye  ■ Horizontal & amacrine cells provide lateral connections across the retina;  axons of ganglion cells carry information out of the eye to the brain  ○ Ciliary muscles (adjust the focus, by changing the shape of the lens)    ● What are the bipolar cells and ganglion cells?  What makes up the optic nerve?  ○ Bipolar cells  ■ Receive input from rods & cones  ■ Process and report light stimulation to ganglion cells  ○ Ganglion cells  ■ Produce action potentials that travel along their axons to the brain  ■ Information from many photoreceptors converges on each ganglion cell  ○ Ganglion axons form the optic nerve   ● What is the optic chiasm, and what happens there?  ○ Site where the two optic nerves leaving the eye meet   ○ In humans, half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side  ○ After passing the optic chiasm, the axons are called the optic tract  ● Describe the path of light from the cornea to the place where it activates a  photoreceptor.  ○ Light from the cornea projects to the retina → there, bipolar cells receive input  from the rods and cones → then, they synapse on ganglion cells  ● What are horizontal and amacrine cells?  ○ Horizontal cells contact photoreceptors and bipolar cells  ○ Amacrine cells contact bipolar and ganglion cells  ● Which cells in the retina generate only graded potentials, and which generate action  potentials?  ○ All cell except ganglion cells generate only graded potentials  ○ Ganglion cells generate action potentials  ● What are the photopic and scotopic systems, and when is each active?  ○ Photopic system (relies on cones)–requires more light, and allows color vision;  sensitive to wavelength    ○ Scotopic system (relies on rods)–works in dim light; relatively insensitive to  wavelength   ● What is the relationship of RETINAL and opsin in rhodopsin?  What does light do?  ○ When activated by light, rhodopsin (rod pigment) dissociates into retinal and  opsin, catalyzing an intracellular second­messenger cascade that results in the  closing of many sodium channels  ○ The resultant graded hyperpolarization leads to a decrease in glutamate release  (from tonic levels), signaling a change in illumination  ● What are 11­cis RETINAL and all­trans RETINAL?  ○ In the dark, retinal is bent at carbon #11 (11­cis retinal); it fits into a pocket in the  big opsin protein  ○ When light strikes it, the long hydrocarbon chain straightens (all­trans retinal) &  can no longer fit in the pocket  ● What type of electrophysiological response occurs in the rods & cones when  phototransduction occurs?  ○ When activated by light, rhodopsin (the rod pigment) dissociates into retinal and  opsin, catalyzing an intracellular second­messenger cascade that results in the  closing of many sodium channels  ○ The resultant graded hyperpolarization leads to a decrease in glutamate release  (from tonic levels), signaling a change in illumination  ● Describe the responses of on­center and off­center bipolar and ganglion cells  ○ Illumination of the center of an on­center/off­surround cell results in an increase  in firing, and illumination of the surround results in a decrease in firing. The  reverse pattern holds for off­center/on­surround cells  ■ Bipolar and ganglion cells have concentric receptive fields  ■ Off­center bipolar cells excite off­center ganglion cells, when light is  turned off  ■ On­center bipolar cells excite on­center ganglion cells, when light is  turned on  ■ Bipolar cells release glutamate, which always depolarizes ganglion cells  ● What transmitter is released by all rods & cones?  What are its effects on on­center  & off­center bipolar cells?  What transmitter is released by bipolar cells?  What is  its effect on ganglion cells?  ○ Rods and cones release glutamate  ■ On­center bipolar cells  ● turning on light excites them; they receive less glutamate, which  normally inhibits on­center bipolar cells    ■ Off­center bipolar cells  ● turning off light in the center of the field excites the cells; they  receive more glutamate and are depolarized  ○ Bipolar cells release glutamate (always depolarizes ganglion cells)  ● What is the relationship between on­center bipolar cells and on­center ganglion  cells?  How about off­center bipolar and off­center ganglion cells?  ○ On­center bipolar cells excite on­center ganglion cells, when light is turned on  ○ Off­center bipolar cells excite off­center ganglion cells, when light is turned off  ● How did the fovea get its name?  What kinds of photoreceptors are located there?   ○ Latin for “pit”  ○ Cones  ● Why is the blind spot blind?  Why is this not a problem for our vision?  ○ No blood vessels or axons in the front cones  ○ No receptors; ganglion cell axons exit through blind spot  ● Where in the retina do we have greatest sensitivity to dim light?  Why?  ○ 20 degrees from the center (where rods are most concentrated)  ● Where in the retina do we have greatest visual acuity?  Why?  ○ Fovea (contains highest density of cones)   ● Where do most ganglion cell axons terminate?  Where else do some of them  terminate?  ○ Most ganglion cell axons go to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)  ○ Some go to the superior colliculus  ● Where is the primary visual cortex (V1)?  What is another name for that area?    ○ Occipital lobe  ○ Striate Cortex; area 17  ● Describe the receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the visual cortex. What  may provide the input to simple cells?  How about complex cells?  ○ Simple cells (bar or edge detectors) ­­­> respond to an edge or bar of a particular  width, orientation, and location  ■ 3 on­center LGN cells (provides input to simple cells)  ○ Complex cells (also respond to a bar of a particular width and orientation, but  may be located anywhere in the visual field)  ■ Several simple cells (provide input to complex cells)  ● What are the contributions of V4 and V5 to visual perception?   ○ V4 (color perception; perception of form)  ○ V5 (specialized for motion perception)  ● Where is inferotemporal (IT) cortex, and what does it contribute?  Where do IT  axons project? ​  Where are faces recognized?  ○ On inferior convexity of temporal lobe  ○ Cells in inferotemporal (IT) cortex respond to complex forms, including forms  that the subject has learned to recognize.  ○ Receptive fields in IT cortex probably develop through experience and learning.  ○ Prefrontal cortex in both monkeys and humans responds to faces; it gets input  from the IT cortex  ● How do the trichromatic and opponent process theories of color vision differ?  Which is appropriate for cones and which for ganglion and LGN cells?  ○ Trichromatic Hypothesis  ■ 3 different types of cones  ■ Each responds to a different part of the spectrum  ○ Opponent­process Hypothesis  ■ Four systems produce opposite responses to different wavelengths:  ●  +Blue/­Yellow; +Yellow/­Blue;   ●  +Red/­Green; +Green/­Red  ○ Trichromatic Hypothesis (appropriate for cones)  ○ Opponent­process Hypothesis (appropriate for ganglion and LGN cells)  ● What kinds of connections encode brightness?  ○ Some ganglion cells detect brightness and darkness  ■ Brightness detectors are stimulated by both M and L cones (+M/+L).  ■ Darkness detectors are inhibited by both M and L cones (–M/–L).  ○ 3 types of cones provide input, via bipolar cells, to ganglion cells that are  spectrally opponent or detect brightness & darkness  ● What are the 2 main processing streams from V1?  In general, what does each  encode? In which stream was patient DF’s lesion?  ○ Ventral processing stream ­­­> for identifying objects (what)  ○ Dorsal stream ­­­> for assessing the location of objects (where)  ○ DF’s lesion ­­­> Ventral processing stream                                                                                     


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