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Soc 220 1st midterm review

by: Rhianna Franchini

Soc 220 1st midterm review SOC 220

Rhianna Franchini
SUNY Oswego
GPA 3.42

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notes, definitions, and explanations for the first test
Intro Soc Research
Young M Kim (P)
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rhianna Franchini on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 220 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Young M Kim (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Intro Soc Research in Sociology at State University of New York at Oswego.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Chapter 1: Social Research method= scientific way of designing, collecting, and analyzing data to answer  the questions about our social world Ordinary Human Inquires (that sociologists need to watch out for): ● Authority= someone in power says so… ○ Ex: parents, teachers ● Tradition= “It’s the way things have always been”  ● Common sense= the ability to think and behave in a reasonable way and to make decisions ● Media Myths= a widely held by false belief or idea created by the media ● Personal experience= overgeneralization, selective observation, premature closer ○ Ex: cops are _____ because of my experience ○ we cannot predict behavior in one social context based on a different social context Steps in Social Research  1. choose topic 2. Review the Literature  a. what has been done b. how has it been done c. what hasn’t been done 3. Focus research question a. what do you want to know b. must provide clear definitions c. don’t take anything for granted 4. Design study a. how will you proceed 5. Collect data 6. Analyze data 7. Interpret data Chapter 2: Three types/ reasons for a study 1. Descriptive Research a. try to provide detailed highly accurate picture  b. create typology c. report on background d. Ex: how often do Oswego students drink? 2. Explanatory Research a. test hypothesis i.e. try to establish a causal relationship b. try to seek answers 3. Exploratory Research a. pioneering research on new or unknown topics b. formulate question for future research c. do not know impact on society Use of Research: ● Basic ○ advance what we know, fundamental knowledge ● Applied ○ use something to perform another action  ○ trying to fix social issues => Solutions Time Dimension ● Cross­sectional ○ once over time ● Longitudinal  ○ panel study ○ time­series ○ cohort analysis ○ case study Research Techniques ● Quantitative ○ experiment  ○ survey ○ context analysis ○ existing study ● Qualitative ○ field research ○ historical comparative Chapter 4: Three Approaches to methodology 1. Interpretive Social Science (ISS) a. how people interact with each other b. ISS ficus on micro­level social interaction including verbal and nonverbal communication to  understand (or create) the meanings in a given social context c. frontstage and backstage behaviors 2. Positivist Social Science (PSS) a. mimics approach of natural sciences  b. focuses on empirical and objective evidences c. PSS prefers quantitative data and uses statistics to come up with casual laws 3. Critical Social Science (CSS) a. more interested in changing society than studying it b. changes are necessary because people are trapped by illusion, therefore their potential is never actualized Chapter 6: Variable= element that changes from person to person Constant= one value of a given variable Independent Variable= cause  Dependent Variable= effect Hypothesis= an unproven statement of what will happen to a dependent variable when a  change occurs in the independent variable Unit Analysis= the “who” or “what” that you are analyzing in a study  Potential Errors in Hypothosis 1. Reductionism a. when one makes an assumption about a group based on an individual 2. Ecological Fallacy a. when you make an assumption about an individual based on group data 3. Tautology a. When the independent variable is not different from the dependent variable 4. Spuriousness a. creating connections between accidental coincidences Chapter 7: Validity= you measure what you intend to measure Reliability= degree of consistency of your measurement when repeated Nominal= number or symbols are assigned to a set of categories for the purpose of naming,  labeling, or classifying the observations Ordinal= nominal levels that can be ranked from high to low Interval= all cases are expressed in same units but it doesn’t have a true zero True zero= zero value indicates the absence of the object being measured Ratio= must have a true zero Measurement Theory X=T+S+R ● X=your measurement ● T=true measurement  ● S=systematic error (introduced by researchers) ● R=random error (fluctuation beyond control, not problem some will be zero due to averages) Index= using multiple items to measure one concept Ex: how would you measure ideal occupations? (salary, benefits, vacation time, hours) What weighting would you use? (give different items different importance) Scale= measures the potency of feelings expressed as a numerical scale (1 to 10) Types of scales 1. Likert Scale  a. a typical question provides a statement and asks respondent to whether they strongly agree,  agree, undecided, disagree, or strongly disagree b. data collected is ordinal c. if you collapse the categories to agree and disagree it becomes nominal 2. Social Distance scale a. includes set of items (5­8) that are unidimensional measuring the same concepts and arranged  in a progressive order (from less intense to more intense) 3. Semantic Differential Scale 4. Guttman Scale


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