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SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 1

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by: Hannah Wright

SOC 100 Study Guide for Exam 1 SOC100

Hannah Wright

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These notes cover the material for exam 1.
Sociology 100: Introduction to Sociology
Rebecca, Sandefur
Study Guide
SOC 100, UIUC, Sandefur, sociology
50 ?




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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Wright on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC100 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Rebecca, Sandefur in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Sociology 100: Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 SOC 100 Lectures for Exam 1 Norms: rules about behaviors that are collectively agreed upon ex: wearing clothes -discovered by violating them -different groups within society have different norms themselves -differences in high school vs. in college Habit: something you do routinely Folkway: when you violate a norm the reaction is mild (ex: picking nose) Moere: stronger and more important norm Taboo:serious norm (rational understanding society=big natural consequence) -ex: (meat that looks like a human foot packaged in the meat section, eating other human beings, incest) -not all laws are norms/norms are laws -immigrant enclave: geographic place for some people of a certain ethnic group -wealthy, middle class, poor -Cornerville is mostly unemployed because they don’t read, speak english, college students have prejudice views towards them, area is seen as scary and creepy -grown men have a lot of time to engage in interactions bc theres nothing for them to do -how people behave, think, and feel, as well as what they believe about themselves, are all strongly conditioned by their circumstances -circumstances=social context someone is in -self confidence has many benefits -dramaturgy analyzes human behavior as though people are on stage -created by erving goffman -sense in which our lives are a play or an act 1 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -front stage: where you present yourself as your role -back stage: behind the screen you are a different self and do different things, different ways of presenting ourselves when no one’s looking -the Promissory character of action: “one finds that when the individual is in the immediate presence of others, his activity will have a promissory character” -what you know about me is what i promise -you don’t want to promise just anything… “it is in an individuals interests to control the conduct of others, especially their responsive treatment of him. This control is achieved…” -you tell people about yourself by the way you organize and present your space -it tells you what you’re supposed to do and what you're supposed to think about us (what kind of interaction is this?)…how your organize yourself tells us this -roles reflect rules about how people in given statuses should interact with each other -ex: doc’s role as a leader is to initiate action for the group in the book…not alec’s job to follow to initiate action for the group Dramaturgical analysis of something: -social structure -situation -your status -expectations attached to this status? -my status -expectations attached to this status? Working consensus:together the participants contribute to a single over-all definition of the situation whip involves no so much a real agreement as to what exists but rather a real agreement as to whose claims concerning what issues will be temporarily honored -Tact: ex: you see someone and they see you but you both agree that you're going to pretend you didn't see each other -observing the unobserved observer 2 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -in dramaturgy, the self is not an organic thing that has a specific location…in analyzing the self then we are drawn from its professor, from the person who will profit or lose most by it, for he and his body merely provide the peg on which something of collaborative manufacture will be hung for a time..this means of producing and maintaining selves do not reside inside the peg -in dramaturgy the “structure” of a person’s identity or personality comes mostly from outside that person -the social construction of the self: dramaturgy Fixed and stable___________________ __________ epiphenomenal -a secondary phenomenon accompanying another and caused by that other thing Street corner society: Doc: wants to preserve the Nortons, very artistically creative…job in stained glass factory, not a lot of education, makes good arguments, leader, aggressive, assertive -dizzy spells at a party or meeting, during this he can’t get a job, he has no money, not married, can’t play his role in terms of supporting his friends (can’t pay bowling fees), been lifted up by one of his friends as a candidate for political position -gets dizzy when he has to go subordinate himself to someone else to get a job -looses physical ability to manage the space he is in (loses himself) Long John: the anti doc..not a leader or respected, hard to get into bowl with Aphrodite girls, only status he has is because the leaders give it to him, gambles a lot of his money away in dice games -“metamorphosis” -nightmares: has a dream that he’s dead…so he was asked if something happened when he was a kid…sheet over his head in the hospital with pneumonia… occur when his group is disintegrating (when he has no spot in a social structure so he feels like he’s dead…socially he is) in order to cure him he needs to be put into a new social structure so doc helps him and the nightmares go away -examples of “fixed” aspects of selves examples of “mutable” aspects of selves 3 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -technology can threaten norms and changes the way we construct ourselves and manage our identities -we construct our identity from things we know and remember from our past role strain: demands with any given role are so great that they can’t fulfill the obligations attached to one of their roles -one role but everything thats a part of that role is out of your reach to manage= stress -when single role is so overwhelming that that person cannot do it, offload tasks to other people or leave Role Conflict: conflict between the roles in a certain situation…two social structures with different obligations that are in conflict with one another, so you pick one/drop a role -friend’s roles: be supportive, express affection and encouragement, engage in fun leisure activities, defend you against assaults on your self-esteem -peer editor of you paper/colleague’s role: provide frank comments about the product of your writing labor, criticize your performance of part of the expectations of your job, writing papers, monitor and help you with your work -to define: ask how many social structures are involved here, to solve it you can leave -if you’re a mom and you have a job outside of the home as your second role Status inconsistency: ex in the past: woman doctor in the past, African American secretary of state, elderly ppl doing extreme physical thing, Roman Catholic President of the USA (JFK) ex now: child being president, gay/homosexual president, physically disabled person doing delivery jobs ex: FDR being president 4 times with polio, goes out into the world driving in a car, wear heavy braces and a cane to manage his status inconsistency -you often see stereotypes Social structure: -made up of positions -things are attached to the positions (ie. duties, rights, responsibilities, expectations that define positions’ relationships to each other 4 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -roles and statuses exist independently of their incumbents (ppl who are in them) husband_______________ wife king___________________ queen -ex from street corner society: doc opens up community center and its the most successful, because he understands social structure…figures out who the leader is and works with that guy -entry to some statuses is affected by your own choices and actions, while incumbency in other statuses is bestowed on us by the community, society, others -achieved statuses: husband, college student, doctor, car thief, champion bubble- blower -ascribed statuses: man, child of a college graduate, widow, elderly person, mexican- american “master status”: engaged in interaction and have a lot of statuses, most significant status at that moment, most strongly covers the working consensus -ex: “my parents died when i was little, raised by my grandmother”…statuses are orphan, college student, grandchild…..master status is orphan Macrosociological definition of “master status”: ex: Henry Louis Gates, Jr. was a professor with his doctorate degree, the door jammed and tried to get into his own house, the police came and arrested them for disorderly conduct….”master status” was black guy project 1: research question: how do people’s locations in social structures affect their experiences? -personal experience=paper -publicly available photographs=photo essay -1-3 images -caption for each image, but not a lot to write image speaks for itself (250 words) -Film: wiki…start page: the movie synopsis and what the concept illuminates -each page defines and applies the concept, including a short clip from the film -emotional impact of the “tricky situation” on different ppl involved 5 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -everything has a thesis, communicating: define key terms (reader on same page as you), read instructions carefully Groups: collections of people that have some kind of connection to one another, share some specific identity and/or common goals Social agrimation: places where groups can start, collective civil disobedience, and mob actions can start Primary groups: tend to be small, hard to enter and exit, tend to expect a lot of their members, ties are personal, membership tends to be the end in itself, control each other informally -formed by consanguinity=similar blood -formed by affinity= you pick them ex: life-long friend group, greek life, family, roommates you are close to Secondary groups: tend to be larger (or can be small), can be easier to enter and exit, tend to have limited role expectations for members, ties tend toward impersonality (ex: formal roles), membership tends to be for a purpose (instrumental), control tends to be weak or formal (ex: rules) ex: greek life, roommates you’re not close to Italian Community Club -specific roles, rules, and pay dues -sometimes in conflict (Italian junior league girls) Chick -can be aggressive -wants club to be successful, so he can be successful -has college degree, bossy, selfish, ambition, arrogant Manifest and Latent Functions -ex: norm, tax law, blazer Manifest Functions: consequence that is intended and foreseen ex: blazer keeping wearer warm 6 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Latent Function: consequence that is unexpected (also known as “unintended consequences”) ex: blazer signaling social status (college professor) Parliamentary Procedure in the Italian Community Club Manifest Functions: Latent Functions: -decide what we want to do -makes allegiances obvious Social Mobility: movement form one status or group to another -vertical mobility -horizontal mobility: things that are at the same level, not ranked - (ex: in an organization, or in a field…in the same company, or in space (moving around the country/world) -Doc being a high school drop-out can move around in society -Doc is not held back by his friends -being a leader is a main part of his identity…so he would have to subordinate himself to someone else -Chick is best understood as someone caught between two worlds -(goes to college and has relations with others through there, but wants to go back and help the society he came from) Crime: -according to Durkheim crime is an act that offends the collective conscience -how do we now when one has happened? -we observe a punishment for certain acts “consists of an action which offends certain collective feelings which are especially strong and clear-cut” -society is real not a metaphor Collective conscious: -society’s brain according to Durkheim 7 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -crime is normal 1. a statistical definition (statistically normal) 2. a health-assessment definition -crime is also healthy -everyone plays the numbers -gambling is not a crime in Cornerville -racketeering is not a crime in Cornerville (racketeers act like investment bankers, valuable source of capital for this society) -organized crime in a legal sense (office/company-50% man-agents) Responses to Structural Strain: Conformity-accept goals and legitimate means Innovation-accept goals, but reject legitimate means Ritualism-reject goals, but accept legitimate means Retreatism- reject goals and reject means Rebellion- reject old goals and means and substitute new ones Officer Clancy: unusual police officer who does his job (enforces the law) -consequence: chaos, confusion, disorder -obeying the law is deviant behavior -manifest function: maintaining order of the crime -deviance=behavior that violates norms -Crime: deviance that secures a stronger reaction Network Analysis: the study of concrete social relationships in terms of both their form and their content -investigates many different kinds of concrete ties simplex tie: a relationship that involves a single role -ex: tie with a parent 8 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Multiplex tie: a relationship the involves more than one role -ex: parent that is also your coach for a sports team -strong tie=close relationship -weak tie= distant relationship Status Check: -50% of men in Cornerville are democratic political operatives? -In Cornerville, politicians need support of corner gangs to get elected? -In norton’s, Docs ties to Danny and mike are…? -In attempts to get a fence built around the softball field, we see that sam’s tie to the park commissioner is…? Social capital: relationships that let you do what you want to do 9 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Discussion Section Review: Social network: -connections, relationships, friendships, social class -role strain, role conflict, and status inconsistency are all a part of it -lose and close ties ex: Corner boys Social Norm: -accepted behavior in society -folkways: minor violations -mores: in between violations -taboos: most serious Dramaturgy: -Irving Goffman: the self is surrounded by interaction, it changes based on your situation -always changing and shaping in different social interactions -very fluid (almost all the way at that end) -we live our lives as a play/act -front stage: who you are in social interactions / backstage: who you are when you are alone -promissory character of action -“we all live by inference” -roles/statuses -working consensus: people define a situation and say we will honor it in this way -ex: this is discussion and we will discuss sociology -tact: working consensus is that you are going to lie to each other -hate someone and they hate you…agree to not talk/ see each other when you pass by each other on the sidewalk 10 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -observing the unobserved observer -when you see someone who looks unfriendly, then you see them in a social setting and they smile and are nice to other people Status: -Ralph Linton came up with it -relative standing in society -achieved: you work for it -ascribed: born with it -inconsistency: doesn’t meet society’s expectations -tricky situations (ie. female truck driver or stay at home dad) -status symbols imply what status you are in (wedding ring, clothes) -can have more than 1 -may change over time or may remain constant -very fluid -slots in every situation and ppl slide into them at different times of day, have an order -ex: classroom situation -social mobility: horizontal and vertical, you can move up/down across different achieved or ascribed statuses in society Horizontal mobility: moving within the same social class from one job to another Vertical mobility: moving up or down in social class by getting a better paying job and a nicer house, and going from middle class to upper class -easier to move around in achieved statuses -master status: what the most important status to you in a particular moment is -one becomes more salient than the others Role: 11 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -role strain: expected to do more then you’re capable of handling -ex: student, single mother -role conflict: the equivalent of two roles conflicting -ex: a police officer expected to help his community during a flood, but wants to leave with family to save them - street corner society -role of doc as a leader -very little status mobility Structural Strain: -Merton -relationship between legitimate means and culturally approved goals -responses: -conformity: agree with goals and agree with goals by legitimate means -innovative: ex: drug dealing, approves goals, but reject means -ritualism: rejects goals but approves of means -retreatism: ex: monks, reject the goals and reject the means -rebellion: reject the goal and the means but replace them -Durkheim’s idea of crime fits into Merton’s response of innovation -crime is needed by society because it is useful -> leads to change In Class Review:
 -list concepts -define in your own words -provide an ex. from street corner society -think of major illustrations of the concepts from Street Corner Society (not interested in the plot, interested in big things that illustrate concepts) -ex: question…something something about the rackets illustrates this concept T/F -multiple choice/true-false 12 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Social organization: the study of how human behavior is socially ordered -first fundamental insight is a key principle of social organization -creative and constraining (makes ppl better at bowling in Cornerville) -mutable and relatively stable over time -usually not consciously planned (at least not entirely) NOT -necessarily efficient (Doc is good at managing ppl, all of efforts are devoted to group of 10 friends, society can’t take advantage of his talents) -necessarily “good” (good for whom?) (good/bad for Doc to be held back by friends?) -necessarily rational (persist b/c they don’t fall apart in street corner society) 3 ways of thinking about social organization: 1. social organization as achieved through norms -dramaturgy (enter an interaction you want to set terms of the interaction, want ppl to treat you in a way that’s most advantageous to you) -crime, ala Durkheim (violate norms to the point that they get a general sufficiently strong reaction) -four kinds of norms (folkways, mores, taboos, in a society with laws some of those norms are laws and some of them aren’t) -when a norm becomes formally written and the staff starts to enforce it = law 2. Social organization as a structure composed of statuses and roles -role and status (exist independently from their incumbents) -tricky/sticky situations (role strain, role conflict, status inconsistency) -types of statuses -social structure and mobility -structural strain and deviance 13 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 3. Social organization as described by social networks -social capital (people you surround yourself with become resources to you, ie. the example with the parents and the kid with connections to his teachers and coaches) -ties, strength, and type multiplex tie: mom that’s also your employer simplex tie: you mom being your mom -relationships -actors -perspectives: egocentric, sociocentric egocentric: only view from your perspective and opinions sociocentric: view from others and their opinions microsociological definition of master status: the thing about you that’s most important at the moment you're doing the analysis -dramaturgical analysis of classroom: student and professor -world as a big place in which we inhabit a big social structure, what follows us no matter where we go/most definitive of our lives….girl? professor? white? Durkheim: -idea of collective conscience (shared values of a group) -society is really real Dramaturgy in street corner society ex: you bowl in your role, what happens to you is set by someone else -master status: follower Goffman: -dramaturgy -the self is the things that you do when you interact with other people -you are a product of your interactions with other ppl 14 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 -changes from situation to situation ex: Doc, confident outgoing masterful guy, but when he loses those things he gets dizzy ex: police officer has relationship with police officer and racketeers -role conflict ex: Bill Whyte and Doc -became friends, but Doc is also the informant ex: author and ppl you’re learning about -multiplex tie Deviance: behavior that violates norms Crime: deviance that violate norms that get a relatively strong reaction/ in formal law, some governing society has decided it’s not okay and decides formal sanctions for it -deviant whether or not it’s a crime primary group: small with intimate relationships and the content is strong • Tend to be small • Tend to be hard to enter and exit • Tend to expect a lot of their members • Ties are personal • Membership tends to be the end in itself (“consummatory”) • Control each other informally secondary groups: bigger and less consuming of you • Can be large • Can be easier to enter and exit • Tend to have limited role expectations for members • Ties tend toward impersonality (e.g., formal roles) Membership tends to be for a purpose (“instrumental”) • • Control tends to be weak or formal (e.g., rules) 15 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 ex: white american -powerful part of your identity can still be a secondary group membership -becomes a primary group if you have strong concrete relationships with each other Manifest Function: consequence that is intended and/or foreseen Latent Function: consequence that is unexpected What else have we learned? -Cornerville as a case or example of -an immigrant enclave (geographic place where most of the ppl are from the same place) -a neighborhood with high poverty and high unemployment -racketeers provide employment, entertainment, get loans from them -all around the world, even today -cornerville boys and college boys are examples of friendship groups/groups that are organized out of different principles -college boys formed from a teacher influencing them in school Whyte discovers that Cornerville is very ordered -relationships of mutual obligations -rank in a hierarchy -the ‘earthly’ hierarchy is a part of a general theory of order Functionalism: trying to find an explanation on how and why things fit together Conflict Theory: the things that keep society changing and moving is conflict Social Institution: networks of structures in society that work to socialize the groups of people within them -ex: family, educational systems, healthcare systems, and legal systems 16 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 Research Methods: -sociologists are interested in description and causation -deductive research: starts with a hypothesis and goes down the line of an experiment -inductive research: starts with empirical observations then builds a theory off of those observations 4 steps to designing research: 1. identify concepts and relationships 2. find the variables 3. operationalization (method for measuring a variable) 4. pick a population and sample (through random samples and case studies) Dependent variable: outcome we’re interested in Independent variable: explanations of the outcomes we find Quantitative: numbers are directly related -ex: survey research, demography, and content analysis Qualitative: more broad/ open-ended approach -ex: participant observation, interviews, ethnography, historical methods, and content analysis Food deserts: accessibility to healthy food is the dependent variable, and the independent variable is race/ethnicity and class Culture: -society’s set of beliefs, traditions, and practices Cultural Realism: recognizing that there are differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning values Subculture: groups united by sets of values, traits, behavior patterns, and shared symbols distinguished from others within the same culture or society 17


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