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BSC 215 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Exam 2 Study Guide BSC 215

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 215 > BSC 215 Exam 2 Study Guide
Regan Dougherty
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This is a very thorough study guide including information presented in class as well as information from the textbook. I've organized much of the information in tables to help you study, as the ex...
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/03/16
Exam date: 03/09/16 BSC 215 Exam 2 Study Guide ** Some tables are not completely filled out. This is because I either expanded on that topic in some other area of the study guide or did not want to include extraneous information. - Tissue - a group of structurally and functionally related cells and their external environment that together perform common functions • Extracellular matrix (ECM) - external environment that is made up of 2 major components: - Ground substance - contains extracellular fluid (water, ions, nutrients, other solutes) also contains proteoglycans (trap bacteria and connect ECM to cell • membranes), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (attract water), and glycoproteins - Protein fibers Important Fibers Structure Function Collagenous • multiple subunits of a fibrous • resist stretching protein Reticular • thin collagen fibers with • form sponge-like frameworks glycoprotein coat Elastic • made of elastin (coiled protein • elasticity (protein can uncoil with the ability to recoil) and then recoil to original shape) 4 Major Tissue Types Structure Function Epithelial • sheets of tightly packed cells • coverings and linings • little visible ECM • glands Connective • loosely scattered cells • bind, support, protect, and • ECM is the most prominent connect parts of the body structural component 1 Exam date: 03/09/16 Nervous • cells exhibit numerous • process and transmit processes (dendrites and information axons) • ECM is mostly fluid Muscular • long, cylindrical or spindle • contractile cells that generate shaped cells force • little visible ECM Cellular Morphologies Squamous flattened, irregular shape Cuboidal as wide as it is tall (cube-shaped) Columnar tall, narrow Polygonal these are usually columnar cells seen from the top Stellate star-shaped (ex. nerve cells) Spheroidal sphere-shaped Discoid disc-shaped Fusiform long, spindle-shaped cells Fibrous look like fibers; much longer than they are wide - Cell junctions - physical connections between adjacent tissue cells Cell Junctions Structure Function Location Tight Junctions integral proteins in the hold cells tightly between cells of • • • plasma membranes of together blood vessels adjacent cells weave • make space between and lock together cells relatively impermeable Desmosomes • integral proteins link • increase strength of • skin cells cells together cell these proteins are materials in ECM may • • attached to still pass between intermediate filaments cells of cytoskeleton Gap Junctions • small pores in • allow small • cardiac muscle adjacent plasma substances to pass membranes formed by freely between the protein channels cytosol of two cells 2 Exam date: 03/09/16 - Epithelial Tissue • Functions: - protection - immune defenses - secretion and excretion - transport into other tissues (absorption) - filtration - sensation • Characteristics: - Polarity • Has an apical (associated with external environment) and basal (associated with basal lamina) side. - Specialized contacts (cell junctions) - Avascular - does not contain blood vessels - Supported by connective tissue (provides blood supply) - Innervated - nerve endings are present - Regenerative - has the ability to regenerate/divide • 2 Types of Epithelial Tissue: - coverings and linings - glands Types of Epithelial Cells Structure Function Locations in the Body Simple Squamous • single layer of • diffusion and • alveoli (lungs) thin, flat cells secretion • kidney glomeruli • bound by tight • endothelium junctions 3 Exam date: 03/09/16 Cuboidal • single layer of • absorption and • liver square/round secretion thyroid • cells • mammary and salivary glands • kidney tubules Columnar • single row of tall, • absorption and • lining of GI tract narrow cells secretion • uterus • kidneys Pseudostratified • looks to have • mucous • upper respiratory columnar multiple layers secretion and tract but all cells touch propulsion • urethra the basement membrane Goblet Cells • goblet-shaped • mucus secretion • GI tract • unicellular gland • respiratory tract Stratified Squamous • multiple layers of Keratinized: Keratinized: (Only the deepest cells • resist abrasion • epidermis layers are in • top cells are flat • prevent water Non-keratinized contact with the • deepest layers loss • tongue basal membrane.) are constantly Non-keratinized • esophagus regenerating resist abrasion vagina • • Cuboidal • multiple layers of • secretion • sweat glands round or cube- • ovarian follicles shaped cells Columnar • multiple layers of • protection • certain glands tall, narrow cells • absorption and secretion Transitional • multiple layers of • distention • bladder cells • ureters apical cells • change shape - Gland - structure that forms and secretes a product • Endocrine gland - no ducts; secrete products directly into the bloodstream Exocrine gland - secretes a product through a duct • Types of Exocrine Glands Simple tubular unbranched • •long and straight Compound tubular •branched •long and straight 4 Exam date: 03/09/16 Simple acinar •unbranched •spherical Compound acinar •branched •spherical Tubuloacinar •both tubular and acinar portions Exocrine Secretion Modes Mechanism Fate of Cell Merocrine (eccrine) • product is secreted as vesicle •cells are reusable by exocytosis Apocrine • product is secreted as vesicle •glands break down over time by exocytosis because they lose cytoplasm • part of cytoplasm is secreted as well Holocrine • product accumulates in the cell •cell ruptures and dies until the cell ruptures and dies - Connective Tissue Functions: • - bind organs together (tendons, ligaments, adipose tissue) - support (bones, cartilage) - physical protection (skull/bones, adipose tissue) - immune protection (blood) - movement (bones) - storage (adipose tissue, bones) - heat production (adipose tissue) - transport (blood) • Characteristics - ECM usually takes up more space than cells. • Cells are usually not in direct contact with each other. • ECM plays an important role in function. - Levels of vascularity vary. 5 Exam date: 03/09/16 Component Cells of Connective Tissue Proper Fibroblasts produce protein fibers and other elements of the ECM Adipocytes cytoplasm contains lipids; nuclei and other organelles are contained in the perimeter of the cell Mast Cells immune cells that secrete inflammatory mediators Phagocytes immune cells that ingest foreign substances, microorganisms, and dead/damaged cells by phagocytosis ex. macrophages and neutrophils Other Immune Cells depend on the body’s current needs Types of Connective Tissue Proper Structure Function Location Loose (areolar) contains all 5 cells support deep in the skin • • • types • walls of hollow organs • contains all 3 fiber types • highly vascularized Dense regular • parallel collagen fibers • resists unidirectional • tendons and stress ligaments Dense irregular • randomly arranged • resists stress in • deep in the skin collagen fibers multiple directions around organs • • joints Dense regular elastic • parallel elastic fibers • stretch • lining of blood vessels with randomly • certain ligaments oriented collagen fibers Reticular • network of reticular • support • blood vessels fibers • lymph nodes • spleen • liver • bone marrow 6 Exam date: 03/09/16 Adipose • fat-storing adipocytes • insulation White and surrounding warmth skin • • fibroblasts and ECM • shock absorption • breasts, buttocks, • protection thighs, etc. • energy storage • surrounding heart and abdominal organs Brown • neck and back of infants Specialized Connective Tissue Structure Function Cartilage • ECM contains GAGs, • absorb shock proteoglycans, collagen fibers, resist tension • and elastic fibers • chondroblasts - divide by mitosis and make cartilage; immature • chondrocytes - maintain ECM • chondrocytes are found in cavities called lacunae • little innervation and vascularization • contains a lot of fluid Bone (osseous tissue) • organic ECM: collagen fibers and osteoid (ground substance) • inorganic ECM: calcium phosphate crystals • 4 types of cells (see Bone Cells table below) Blood • ECM (plasma) consists of water, dissolved solutes, and proteins • erythrocytes (RBCs) - transport oxygen • leukocytes (WBCs) - immunity • platelets Types of Cartilage Structure Function Location Hyaline • ground substance is • epiphyseal plates the predominant element of ECM • composed of thin collagen fibers 7 Exam date: 03/09/16 Fibrocartilage • ECM is composed •resist compression • intervertebral discs mostly of collagen • knee joints fibers Elastic • ECM is filled with •elasticity • pinna (outer ear) elastic fibers - Muscle and Nervous Tissue - A Brief Summary • Muscle Tissue - Myocytes - muscle cells; main component of muscle tissue excitable (respond to electrical or chemical signal) • • Myofilament proteins fill the cytoplasm. - Endomysium - ECM; holds muscle cells together Two Forms of Muscle Cells Striated •striations - alternating light and dark bands Smooth •no striations Types of Muscle Tissue Structure Function Location Skeletal • long and cylindrical •contractions produce • connected to skeleton cells (also called movement (usually muscle fibers) voluntary) • multiple nuclei • striations Cardiac • branched cells •involuntary • heart • one or two nuclei contractions striations • • intercalated discs separate cells Smooth • flattened cells •involuntary • walls of hollow organs • one nucleus contractions • Nervous Tissue - 2 Cell Types • Neurons - generate, conduct, and receive information in the form of electrical signals 8 Exam date: 03/09/16 - excitable - Most mature neurons do not undergo mitosis. - 3 Main Components: • Cell body (contains nucleus and organelles) • Axons (send signals; usually only one per neuron) • Dendrites (receive signals; usually multiple per neuron) • Neuroglia (support neurons) - Bone Tissue • Functions of the Skeletal System - support - protection - movement - mineral storage and homeostasis - acid-base balance - adipose tissue storage (yellow bone marrow) - blood cell formation (red bone marrow) • The average adult has 206 bones. Bone Classification by Shape Long • length > width Short • length = width Flat thin and broad • Irregular • has an irregular shape and does not fit into any other category Sesamoid • bones found within tendons Wormian (sutural) • bones found within skull sutures 9 Exam date: 03/09/16 • Structure of a Long Bone - Periosteum - membrane surrounding the bones; composed of dense irregular connective tissue and houses osteogenic cells and osteoblasts • Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers - collagen fibers that penetrate deeply into the bone matrix, securing the periosteum in place - Diaphysis - the shaft of a long bone - Epiphysis - enlarged, rounded structures at the ends of long bones • covered with a thin layer of articular cartilage (hyaline) to reduce friction at joints - Medullary (marrow) cavity - houses bone marrow - Nutrient foramina - small holes in bone tissue that allow blood vessels to penetrate - Endosteum - reticular connective tissue membrane that lines the internal surfaces of a bone - Epiphyseal line - calcified remnant of the epiphyseal plate • Epiphyseal plate (AKA growth plate) - a line of hyaline cartilage from which a long bone grows in length - Compact vs. Spongy Bone • Compact - hard, dense bone tissue located on the exterior of a bone; composed of osteons - Osteon Structure Components of Osteon Structure Function Lamellae • rings within osteon composed • enhances strength of thin layers of bone • adjacent lamellae run in opposite directions • contains collagen fibers Central (Haversian) canal • hole that runs through the • houses blood vessels and center of an osteon nerves • lined by endosteum 10 Exam date: 03/09/16 Lacunae •small cavities that are filled •surround osteocytes with extracellular fluid and located between lamellae Canaliculi •thin “arms” that reach to •connect lacunae connect lacunae •places of contact contain gap junctions - Overall Compact Bone Structure • Compact bone is composed of multiple osteons with lamellae between them. - Interstitial lamellae - occupies the space between osteons - Circumferential lamellae - found toward the outset surface of the bone • Perforating canal - houses blood vessels and nerves • Spongy - bone tissue located inside a bone; composed of a framework of bony struts called trabeculae - contains bone marrow - always surrounded by compact bone - Trabeculae project into the marrow cavity. Trabeculae are covered with endosteum and usually do not contain osteons • BUT they do contain concentric lamellae - canaliculi - osteocytes within lacunae • No central or peripheral canals are found in trabeculae; the cells obtain oxygen and nutrients from blood vessels in the bone marrow. • Structure of Short, Flat, Irregular, and Sesamoid Bones - Periosteum and Perforating fibers - supplied with blood vessels and nerves (nutrient foramina) - outer layer of compact bone that surrounds spongy bone - Diploe - the spongy bone tissue of flat bones 11 Exam date: 03/09/16 • Red vs. Yellow Bone Marrow - Red - loose connective tissue supporting hematopoietic (blood forming) cells decreases with age • - Yellow- consists mostly of blood vessels and adipocytes; stores triglycerides in adults • increases with age • Composition of Osseous Tissue (Bones) - Extracellular Matrix • Inorganic - contains hydroxyapatite crystals (calcium and phosphorous) - salts of bicarbonate (potassium, magnesium, sodium) Organic (Osteoid) • - Protein fibers (mainly collagen) - proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), glycoproteins - Cells Bone Cells Structure Function Location Origin Bone building Osteogenic flattened cells differentiate • • cells into osteoblasts Osteoblasts •cuboidal/ • build bone/ • outer surface • osteogenic columnar secrete ECM of the bone cells (a process (inner called bone periosteum deposition) and endosteum) Osteocytes surrounded maintain osteoblasts •by lacunae • ECM • 12 Exam date: 03/09/16 Bone Osteoclasts • large • break down • shallow • blood cells/ “dissolving” multi- ECM (bone depressions bone marrow • cells nucleated resorption) on internal or • ruffled border external is the region surfaces of of the cell the bone that secretes H+ and enzymes to break down bone - Ossification/Osteogenesis - formation of bone Two Types of Ossification Starting Material Intramembranous • mesenchymal membrane • flat bones of skull • clavicle Endochondral • hyaline cartilage framework • all other bones Primary (woven) Bone • immature • irregular arrangement of collagen fibers • abundant osteocytes little inorganic matrix • • present during embryonic development or fracture repair • absorbed by osteoclasts and replaced with secondary bone Secondary (lamellar) Bone • more inorganic matrix • fully formed lamellae with regularly arranged collagen fibers • stronger than primary bone The Steps Intramembranous Ossification 1. Osteoblasts develop in the primary ossification • Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteogenic center. cells, which mature into osteoblasts. 2. Osteoblasts secrete organic matrix, which • Calcification - calcium salts and other calcifies. components of the inorganic matrix are deposited into trabeculae; early bone hardens • Trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes. 3. Early spongy bone is formed. • Trabeculae enlarge and merge, forming larger trabeculae. • Mesenchyme differentiates into periosteum. Vascular tissue in the spongy bone will become • bone marrow. 13 Exam date: 03/09/16 4. Early compact bone is formed. • Spongy bone becomes more heavily calcified. The Steps of Endochondral Ossification 1. The chondroblasts in the perichondrium • The perichondrium becomes filled with blood differentiate into osteoblasts. vessels. • The perichondrium becomes the periosteum. 2. The bone begins to ossify from the outside. 2A. Osteoblasts build the bone collar on the • Osteoblasts secrete organic ECM deep to the external surface of the bone. periosteum, forming a ring of early compact bone called the bone collar. 2B. The internal cartilage begins to calcify and the • ECM surrounding the internal chondrocytes chondrocytes die. calcifies, causing the chondrocytes’ blood supply to be cut off. • The cavities remain surrounded by calcified cartilage. • *2A and 2B occur simultaneously. 3. In the primary ossification center, osteoblasts • Osteoclasts form a hole in the bone collar that replace the calcified cartilage with early spongy allows blood vessels and bone cells to enter the bone; the secondary ossification centers and primary ossification canter. Osteoblasts replace medullary cavity develop. the calcified cartilage with early spongy bone. While this is occurring, other osteoblasts are increasing the size of the bone collar. The cavities enlarge and combine, forming the medullary cavity. • Secondary ossification centers develop and the epiphyses ossify. • Cartilage is replaced by bone. • Osteoclasts degrade spongy bone, increasing the size of the medullary cavity. the medullary cavity becomes filled with bone marrow. • Longitudinal vs. Appositional Growth - Longitudinal growth - increase in length; chondrocyte division in epiphyseal plates 14 Exam date: 03/09/16 Zones of the Epiphyseal Plate Zone of reserve cartilage closest to the epiphysis • cells are not directly involved in bone growth but can divide if needed • “reserve chondroblasts” Zone of proliferation • actively dividing chondrocytes in lacunae • most mitotic growth occurs here Zone of hypertrophy and • mature chondrocytes maturation • these cells enlarge and cease dividing Zone of calcification • dead chondrocytes (some are calcified) Zone of ossification farthest from the epiphysis • calcified chondrocytes and osteoblasts that build bone - Appositional growth - increase in width; osteoblasts underneath periosteum deposit new compact bone • Appositional growth does not initially result in the formation of new osteons; instead, new circumferential lamellae are formed. Hormones Associated with Bone Growth Growth Hormone • increases mitosis of chondrocytes in epiphyseal plate • increases activity of osteogenic cells and osteoblasts Testosterone • increases rate of appositional growth • accelerates closure of epiphyseal plate Estrogen • increases rate of longitudinal growth • accelerates closure of epiphyseal plate (even quicker than testosterone) - Muscle Tissue • Characteristics - Contractility - ability of proteins within muscle cells to draw together - Excitability - responsive to stimuli - Conductivity - when stimulated, a muscle cell conducts the electrical change across the membrane along the entire length of the membrane 15 Exam date: 03/09/16 - Extensibility - can be stretched without damage - Elasticity - return to original shape after being stretched • Generic Structure - Sarcoplasm - cytoplasm of a muscle cell - Sarcolemma - plasma membrane of a muscle cell - Myofibril - cylindrical organelle of muscle cells; bundle of specialized proteins - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) - modified smooth ER that surrounds each myofibril in a web-like formation - Structure of the Skeletal Muscle • Transverse (T) tubules - inward extensions of the sarcolemma that surround each myofibril and form a tunnel-like network within the muscle fiber - filled with extracellular fluid • Terminal cisternae - enlarged portions of the SR that are on either side of a T- tubule • Triad - combination of T-tubule and two surrounding terminal cisternae - Structure of the Myofibril Types of Myofilaments Thick Myosin • each protein contains a head, neck, hinge, and tail • proteins are arranged so that clusters of myosin heads are found at the ends and only tail is found in the middle Thin Actin • bead-shaped protein with an active site that can bind to myosin head Tropomyosin • long protein that spirals around actin strands so that the active sites are covered at rest Troponin • globular protein holds tropomyosin in place • Elastic Titin • spring-shaped • elasticity 16 Exam date: 03/09/16 • The Big Picture: - Muscle • surrounded by epimysium • composed of fascicles • Fascicle - surrounded by perimysium - composed of muscle fibers - Muscle Fiber • surrounded by endomysium • includes sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasm, sarcolemma, nucleus • composed of myofibrils • Myofibrils - composed of myofilaments • Sarcomere - the functional unit of muscle contraction; consists of the areas of the myofibril between 2 z discs - I band (light band) - contains only thin filaments • Z disc - dark line in the I band that attaches to thin and elastic filaments; also attaches myofibrils to one another - A band (dark band) - contains thick and thin filaments • H zone - the middle of the A band that appears lighter because it only contains thick filaments • M line - dark line in the A band that consists of structural proteins that hold the thick and elastic filaments in place • Membrane potential - difference in voltage between the extracellular fluid and the cytosol near the plasma membrane • Resting membrane potential - the membrane potential across the sarcolemma when the muscle fiber is at rest 17 Exam date: 03/09/16 • The Na+/K+ ATPase pump maintains a high concentration of Na+ outside of the cell and a high concentration of K+ inside the cell. - Action potential - a quick, temporary change in the membrane potential in a single region of the plasma membrane • generated by the opening and closing of gated channels • Stages of Action Potential: - Depolarization: Voltage-gated Na+ channels open in response to a stimulus. Na+ enters the cell, making the membrane potential less negative (less polarized). - Repolarization: Na+ channels close and voltage-gated K+ channels open. K + leaves the cell, making the membrane more negative and the sarcolemma returns to its negative resting membrane potential (more polarized). • Skeletal Muscle Contraction - Terms to know: • Neuromuscular junction - the synapse of a motoneuron with a muscle fiber • Axon terminal - the end of an axon that is in contact with the synaptic cleft • Synaptic cleft - narrow region between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber • Motor end plate - specialized region of the sarcolemma that contains many acetylcholine receptors • End plate potential - depolarization at the motor end plate • Excitation-contraction coupling - the linking of muscle fiber excitation via an action potential with contraction via the release of Ca+ from the SR • Crossbridge cycle - a series of events that leads to the sliding of myofilaments, causing contraction The Excitation Phase 1. An action potential arrives at the axon terminal. 2. Acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) is released into the synaptic cleft through synaptic vesicles (exocytosis). 3. Acetylcholine bonds to ligand-gated sodium channels in the motor end plate. 18 Exam date: 03/09/16 4. Ligand-gated sodium channels and Na+ diffuses into the cell. 5. The influx of Na+ depolarizes the sarcolemma, producing an end plate potential. - Multiple end plate potentials must be generated to cause a contraction. Excitation-Contraction Coupling 1. The end plate potential stimulates an action potential by opening sodium ion channels in areas adjacent to the sarcolemma. 2. The action potential is propagated down the sarcolemma to the T-tubules. 3. The depolarization of T-tubules leads to the opening of calcium ion channels in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ca+ diffuses into the cytosol. Preparation for Muscle Contraction 1. Calcium ions bind to troponin, causing troponin to to shift its position. 2. Troponin’s shift in position causes tropomyosin to move, exposing the active sites of actin. The Crossbridge Cycle 1. ATP hydrolysis “cocks” the myosin head to a high energy position. ATP hydrolysis occurs when the enzyme ATPase breaks ATP down into ADP and P(i). 2. The myosin head binds to the actin active site. 3. ADP and P(i) detach from the myosin head, causing the power stroke in which myosin pulls actin toward the center of the sarcomere. 4. ATP binds to myosin, causing it to detach from actin. 5. The cycle repeats. Muscle Relaxation 1. Acetylcholinesterase degrades acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft and the membrane repolarizes. 2. The sarcolemma returns to its resting potential and calcium ion channels close. 3. Ca+ is pumped from the cytosol back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. Troponin and tropomyosin black the active sites of actin, causing the muscle to relax. 19 Exam date: 03/09/16 • Energy Sources for Skeletal Muscle Creatine phosphate (CP) • immediate; only lasts about 10 seconds • CP + ADP —> ATP + creatine requires creatine kinase • Anaerobic glucose catabolism • glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose) glucose —> 2 pyruvate • • lactic acid is produced if oxygen is low • if oxygen is present, pyruvate moves on the the Krebs cycle Aerobic glucose catabolism • Krebs cycle • yields about 36 ATP **Nervous tissue is not included on this study guide. I will have an updated study guide available Tuesday evening after class. If you would like that information, please email me and I will get it to you as soon as I can. My email address is: Good luck studying! 20


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