Bio 100 Study Guide Test 2
Bio 100 Study Guide Test 2 Biol 100
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hansel on Thursday March 3, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 100 at Kansas taught by Laurel Haavik, Richard Williamson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 171 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kansas.
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Date Created: 03/03/16
Study Guide 2 Biology 100 Answer Key Chapter 7: 1. Something that makes its own food (ex: plants) 2. Use energy from light, specifically for plants the light is sunlight, and create their own food 3. Don’t make their own food (like humans or animals) and have to eat producers, animals, or be a decomposer 4. Feed us, clothes us, build houses (with wood), and provide us with energy 5. Chloroplast 6. Chlorophyll 7. Actual part of the plant that absorbs the light and it helps transfer solar to chemical energy 8. Endergonic reaction 9. Stomata= pores 10. Stroma= fluid 11. Grana 12. Interconnected membranous sacs that contain chlorophyll 13. 6CO2+6H2O C6H12O6+6O2 14. CO2 becomes reduced while H2O IS oxidized 15. 1. Light Reaction 2. Calvin Cycle 16. Light Reaction: a. H2O is split O2+ Hydrogen electrons b. Light energy used within the Thylakoid to move the electrons from the Hydrogens to electron acceptor NADP+ c. NAPD+ is reduced to NADPH (only difference between NADH and NADPH is an extra phosphate group) d. NADPH holds the electrons and Hydrogen ions and provides energy for the Calvin Cycle e. Creates ATP from ADP+ Phosphate 17. Location= Thylakoids 18. Calvin Cycle: a. NADPH reduces the carbon from CO2 b. ATP from light reaction is used to create sugar 19. False; no light is directly needed 20. Occurs in the stroma of chloroplast 21. Use of carbon from a CO2 molecule in an organic compound 22. Range of electromagnetic wavelengths 23. Photons 24. True 25. When a photon is absorbed by a pigment the electrons in the pigment all move out one electron shell further away from the nucleus. This creates potential energy and the electrons are moved from a ground state to an excited state. 26. Excited=unstable 27. When a photon excites and moves an electron a shell with in a chlorophyll, then the electron falls back to its original shell (during this fall light and heat is created) 28. Fluorescence happen in chlorophyll when it is not in contact with the chloroplast 29. Within the Thylakoid membrane 30. The make up of chlorophyll molecules, other pigments, and proteins with a reaction center in the middle 31. Pigments bound to proteins 32. To gather light. Pigments get the light and the energy is passed from one molecule to the next molecule until it gets to the reaction center 33. Has special chlorophyll A molecule (aka primary electron acceptor) takes in electrons then it is reduced 34. Steps: a. Photon contains energy which moves the electrons from photosystem 2 to a higher energy level where the electron acceptor gets it b. Then the electron is moved to an electron transport chain that leads to photosystem 1 c. The energy released during the Electron transport chain= used fro ATP synthesis d. Another photon is now used to increase the energy then the electrons are gained by the electron acceptor e. The leftover electrons in photosystem 1 are used to create NADPH 35. Hydrogen electrons from H2O are used to change NADP+ to NADPH 36. CO2 (from the air), ATP and NADPH (products from light reaction) 37. ATP= energy NADPH= provides electrons to reduce CO2 38. G3P (a 3 carbon sugar glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) 39. To create other sugars (glucose, sucrose, ect) 40. Calvin Cycle: a. Enzyme rubisco fuses CO2 and the 5 carbon sugars RuBP (ribulose bisphosphate) creating: 2 3 carbon organic acid 3 PGA b. Energy from ATP and donated electrons cause 2 reactions which reduce 6 of the 3GPA molecules to 6 G3P (3carbon sugar) c. 1 G3P is released d. then ATP energy uses the rest of the G3P to rearrange their components and create 3 RuBP to restart the cycle 41. 3 times around the cycle to create 1 Chapter 8: 42. only 1 parent creates identical offspring (no egg or sperm present) 43. needs the presence of a fertilized egg from sperm. Therefore, one needs the organs, testies and ovaries, to have sexual reproduction occur. The DNA of the offspring is a combination of the 2 parents (sperm and egg) 44. false 45. true 46. prokaryotes 47. single cell organisms (ex: bacteria) 48. the splitting in half of a prokaryote cell a. DNA is copied then the cell is split in half with one set of DNA on each side 49. Binary Fission: a. Chromosomes copy and each set moves towards the opposite side of the cell b. The cell gets longer throughout the process c. Plasma membrane grows inward and eventually splits the cell into 2 daughter cells 50. 46 51. centromere 52. sequence of a cell is formed from its parent cell to the moment it begins cell division 53. interphase (growing stage) and Mitotic phase (cell division) 54. False it spends most of its life in interphase 55. The cell grows in size a. Doubles the chromosomes b. Creates extra organelles (for the daughter cell) c. Creates more cytoplasm d. Absorbs and stores extra “food” to carry out division 56. G1 (first gap) S phase (chromosome duplication) G2 (second gap; cell grows in size to get ready for cell division) 57. The cell actually divides 58. Mitosis and Cytokinesis 59. 2 genetically identical daughter cells 60. prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase 61. microtubules and proteins that move and separate the chromosomes of the daughter cells 62. true 63. the chromosomes become apparent due to the tightening of DNA coil and the mitotic spindles start to grow in the cytoplasm 64. the nuclear envelop disappears, then the chromosomes start to attach to the mitotic spindles. The mitotic spindle is complete. The chromosomes all line up on the metaphase plate (not a real plate just the center of the cell) 65. The centromere of the chromosomes come apart splitting the 2 sister chromatids. The motor protein kinetochores (a part of the chromatids) uses ATP to move the sister chromatids down the spindle to opposite sides of the cell 66. Cell elongates, a nuclear envelope at each side of the cell is created to hold the chromosomes. The mitotic spindle disappears. 67. When the cells actually divide; occurs simultaneously with telophase 68. Cleavage furrow: the groove in the middle of the 2 cells that is pinched together to create 2 new cells 69. Vesicles with plant wall material meet at the middle of the cell and fuse to create a cell plate between the 2 cells. Then it grows to the edge of the cell with the addition of more vesicles eventually creating 2 new cells. 70. Have to be in contact with a solid surface to divide 71. Cells stop dividing when crowded 72. No they don’t need an anchor when dividing and they don’t care if they are touching when they dividecreating tumors 73. Protein in the body that makes cells divide 74. Molecules that move in the cell and trigger the cell to start the next step of the cell cycle 75. During G1, before the Mitotic phase, and before anaphase 76. Have the same genetic options (freckles or no freckles) but the 2 chromosomes within a pair may have different versions (1 chromosome= freckles and other could= no freckles) 77. Particular place on a chromosome where specific genes are found 78. Autosomes 79. Somatic cells containing homologous chromosome pairs (diploid # for humans=46) 80. Each has a single set of 22 autosomes and a sex chromosome (X or Y) 81. Zygote 82. Through meiosis 83. Creates 4 daughter haploid gametes 84. Same as mitosis, chromosomes are duplicated 85. Prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, and telophase 1 86. Synapsis: homologous chromosomes come together creating structures with 4 chromatids lined up. Crossing over: homologous chromosomes exchange their information. Info. Mixes up the genetic information. Chromosomes coil and create spindle while the nuclear envelope disappears and the chromosome tetrads are moved to the middle of the cell. 87. Chromosomes align on the metaphase plate. Chromosomes attached to the spindles by the protein, kinetochore, within the centromere. 88. Homologous chromosomes unattached and separate but the sister chromatids remain intact as the chromosomes move to the opposite sides of the cell. 89. The chromosomes are at each end of the cell and a nuclear envelope for each cell is created... Cells divide 90. 2 haploid cells 91. pretty much the same as mitosis except you end with 4 haploid cells instead of 2 diploid cells 92. Mitosis products: used for growth, tissue repair, asexual reproduction Meiosis products: used for sexual reproduction 93. Random assortment in metaphase I of Meiosis I (ex: one side of the cell could be all maternal while the other could be all paternal or they could be mixed) 94. The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes 95. True 96. Steps of Crossing over a. DNA molecules or nonsister chromatids break at the same location b. The two breaks join together to create an “X” shape, the chiasma (creates the hybrid chromosomes) c. When the chromatids split in Anaphase I they now have new genetic variations d. In Anaphase II the sister chromatids separate with each separate chromosome going to a different gamete 97. Chromosomes pairs do not separate correctly or at all 98. True 99. Used to detect problems within someone’s genes Chapter 10: 100. The study of heredity at the molecular level 101. True 102. Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C) 103. Nitrogenous base (A,T,G,C), Sugar, and phosphate Group 104. Covalent bond 105. Deoxyribose 106. Thymine and Cytosine 107. Adenine and Guanine 108. False Uracil is the replacement for Thymine in RNA 109. RNA= Ribonucleic Acid 110. AT and GC 111. AU and GC 112. 2 strands of polynucleotides split then a complementary strand is created making 2 DNA double helix strands 113. Semiconservative model= each new DNA strand contains 1 new strand with 1 old strand 114. True 115. DNA replication doesn’t start at one place and go down the line… it starts in many places throughout the strand so the replication process is faster and more efficient 116. False 117. Enzyme that allows DNA growth 118. Enzyme connects the pieces or Okazaki fragments into the DNA strand 119. The side of the parent DNA strand that growth would have to happen in the 35 direction (but obviously can’t) has to replicate its nucleotides in pieces…. These pieces are known as Okazaki Fragments 120. Genotype: sequence of nucleotides in DNA 121. Phenotype: physical traits 122. Transcription and translation 123. DNA TranscriptionRNA mRNA protein 124. These 3 RNA monomers chains are called codons 125. Amino acid translations of RNA nucleotide triplets 126. DNA splits in 2 strands and 1 strand is used to create RNA. Then the RNA polymerase to form another strand of RNA. 127. Promoter: nucleotide sequence binds RNA polymerase to the strand of DNA 128. Terminator: the end codon (end of the gene) 129. The DNA is rewritten as RNA. The messenger RNA is the kind of RNA that has the translated DNA for protein synthesis. Before leaving the nucleus cap and tail nucleotides are added to mRNA for protection of falling apart and the ability to leave the nucleus. To leave the nucleus introns have to be removed and exons join the mRNA strand. 130. Introns= stretch of nucleotide that intervene with the coding (noncoding regions aka they cannot be coded or used to create proteins). They must be removed for the mRNA to leave the nucleus 131. Exons=the coding regions of the cell that are left after RNA splicing occurs 132. to translate information from mRNA to the synthesis of protein (amino acids) 133. (tRNA) complementary to codon on mRNA 134. they are in the cytoplasm, they work with the mRNA and tRNA to synthesize polypeptides 135. True 136. Contains binding site for mRNA 137. Contains binding site for tRNA 138. Initiation, elongation, and termination 139. Initiation: mRNA, tRNA, and both subunits of the ribosome join together to begin creating a polypeptide 140. Elongation: tRNA amino acids build a polypeptide chain while mRNA is moved one codon at a time 141. Termination: stop codon on mRNA, polypeptide is released, and the mRNA, tRNA, and both subunits of the ribosome detach from one another 142. DNA RNA Polypeptide a. Transcription: (DNARNA) AUGAAGUUUUAG b. Translation: (RNAPolypeptide) AUG=start codon: Met AAG=Lys UUU= Phe UAG=stop codon 143. 1 codon is swapped with a different one not causing any problems or harm to the protein 144. swaps one amino acid for a different one 145. will change a codon in the mRNA to become a stop codon ending the polypeptide early 146. insertion or deletion of nucleotides Chapter 9: 147. passing on traits throughout each generation 148. study of heredity 149. He started the field of genetics. He discovered genes by experimenting with garden peas. 150. A heritable feature that varies among individuals, such as flower color 151. Each variant for a character, such as purple or white flowers 152. Parental Plants 153. Offspring of the Parents 154. Offspring of the offspring of the original parents 155. The version of each gene 156. Homozygous: genotype has identical alleles Heterozygous: genotype has two different alleles 157. Dominant: the character that is actually seen Recessive: the character that doesn’t show Phenotypic ratio: 3 purple to 1 white Genotypic ration: 1 PP: 2Pp: 1pp P= purple p= white P p P PP Pp p Pp pp 158. ^^^^answer above 159. when either the recessive or dominant trait is shown 160. inheritance when the phenotype is in between the dominant and recessive 161. when a single gene affects more than one thing in an individual; example: sickle cell disease 162. two or more alleles of a gene that are both fully expressed in a heterozygote. 163. Blood type O 164. Blood type AB 165. Group of hereditary genetic disorders (3 of them) all have the same affects on the body though 166. Autosome= chromosomes that aren’t sex chromosomes 167. a visual representation of a family and their gene inheritance patterns 168. the sex chromosomes determine gender. Male=XY Female=XX 169. Sexlinked gene: a gene that is found on the sex chromosomes 170. If you are + then you have the Rh D factor alleles but – if you do not Chapter 11: 171. The ability to turn on and off genes and allows organisms to adapt to the environment 172. When a gene is on its genetic information is transcribed onto the mRNA to create proteins. Where as opposed to when a gene is off they are pretty much dormant and the genetic information doesn’t get transcribed. 173. Gene expression 174. The transcription enzyme, and RNA polymerase attach and begin transcription 175. Located between the promoter and the gene 176. It is a switch; says whether or not RNA polymerase can attach and start transcription 177. The whole strand of DNA needed to create an enzyme 178. Attaches to the operator to block the beginning of transcription 179. Lactose binds to the repressor changing its’ shape; making it impossible for it to bind with the operator 180. in the off state until a molecule triggers it to turn on. (Ex: any in the digestive system) 181. usually on but can be turned off when an abundance of something is in the system 182. proteins that start operons by attaching themselves to DNA and starting transcription 183. having specialized shape and job to fulfill a specific job 184. True 185. In order for the DNA to actually fit in the nucleus 186. Proteins that aide in packing the DNA into the nucleus (are about half the weight of the chromosome) 187. DNA and histones together (8 molecules) 188. True
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