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AU / Science / NUTR 2000 / what is the basic unit for carbohydrate structures?

what is the basic unit for carbohydrate structures?

what is the basic unit for carbohydrate structures?


School: Auburn University
Department: Science
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Michael greene
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: A bit lengthy, but the answers can be found in all of the notes I've posted.
Uploaded: 03/04/2016
10 Pages 6 Views 12 Unlocks

Nutrition 2000: Exam 2 Study Guide

what is the basic unit for carbohydrate structures?

Part 1: Write the correct word that corresponds to the definition given.

1. The basic unit for carbohydrate structure. _____________________________ 2. Three fatty acids hooked to a backbone of glycerol. ______________________________ 3. An enzyme that breaks down disaccharides and trisaccharides. _______________________ 4. Acts in the liver to break down glycogen. ________________________

5. The ratio of the blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard.  ________________________________

6. The 1st double bond is located in the 6th carbon from the omega end. Also can be a  polysaccharide. __________________________________

7. Lipoprotein that carries lipids from the liver to the tissues. ________________________ 8. The 1st double bond is located in the 3rd carbon from the omega end. _____________________ 9. Enzymes that break down fat. _________________________

Three fatty acids hooked to a backbone of glycerol are called what?

10. Part of a disaccharide known as lactose. ______________________________ 11. When the body begins to become resistant to the effects of insulin. _____________________ 12. Dietary + Functional Fiber. _______________________________

13. A condition where there is a decrease in lactose production resulting in the inability to digest  lactose. __________________________

14. High blood glucose. _________________________

15. The glycemic index times the amount of carbohydrate in a serving, divided by 100. ___________________________

16. A hormone that stimulates the release of pancreatic lipase. ____________________________ 17. The primary site for fat absorption. ______________________________ If you want to learn more check out What is the Roles of Older Siblings with Disabilities?

18. A large particle that carries dietary lipids. _____________________________

19. Formation of a blood clot in a blood vessel. ___________________________ 20. Made by the liver and intestine, picking up cholesterol and transferring it to other lipoproteins.  ____________________________

An enzyme that breaks down disaccharides and trisaccharides is called what?

21. Converted to glucose and other compounds. ____________________________ 22. The process of making glucose. ______________________________

23. Low blood glucose. __________________________________

24. The chemical bonding of two monosaccharides. ___________________________ 25. A lipoprotein that contains more cholesterol than VLDL. ________________________ 26. Methods focused on contrasting and combining results from different studies in hopes of  We also discuss several other topics like what are Plato’s view?

identifying patterns among study results. ______________________________ 27. Temperature at which oil begins to smoke. ____________________________ 28. The generic term for fats, oils, and other molecules. ____________________________ 29. Cells that make up fat, and where lipids are stored. _____________________________ 30. The breakdown of triglyceride consisting of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol backbone.  ________________________

31. A chain of carbons flanked by hydrogens and an acid group at one end.  ___________________________

32. The breakdown of triglyceride consisting of one fatty acid bonded to a glycerol backbone.  __________________________

33. Contains to fatty acids and a phosphate group bound to a glycerol backbone.  __________________________________

34. A clinical condition where the artery wall thickens as a result of plaque.  ___________________________________

35. The breakdown of carbon-carbon double bonds, by UV light and/or oxygen.  _____________________________

36. The process used to semi solidify an oil. __________________________

Part II: Match the following terms to their category. (HINT: YOU WILL HAVE TO MATCH  SEVERAL TERMS TO ONE CATEGORY.)

37. Sucrose a. Glucose-Glucose

38. Saccharin b. Sweet N’ Low (Pink) 39. Pectin c. Insoluble/Non-Fermentable Fiber 40. Lactose d. Splenda (Yellow)  

41. Gums e. Glucose-Fructose 42. Aspartame f. Soluble/Viscous Fiber 43. Cellulose g. Equal (Blue) 44. Mucilage h. Glucose-Galactose 45. Maltose Don't forget about the age old question of Prestige pricing, is what?

46. Hemicellulose

47. Sucralose

48. Lignin

Part III: True/False. Label the following statements as true or false.  We also discuss several other topics like who is Rutherford B. Hayes?

49. Starch and fiber are digestible. ____

50. The ADI for aspartame is 50 mg per kilogram of body weight. ____

51. Food labels don’t separate insoluble and soluble fiber. ____

52. Triglycerides are the main storage form of carbohydrates. ____

53. Human makes fatty acids that contain a double bond after the 9th from the omega end. ___ 54. In fatty acids, the “omega” side is the methyl side and the “alpha” side is the acid side.  ____

55. HDL is the “bad” cholesterol. ____

56. PUFA’s are more susceptible to fat rancidity because they have more double bonds. ____ 57. The average U.S. intake for fiber is 17 g/day for women and 14 g/day for men. ____ 58. Constipation can increase the risk of developing hemorrhoids and diverticula. ____

59. A monounsaturated fatty acid contains one double bond. ____

60. The fats and oils in foods are mostly carbohydrates. ____ We also discuss several other topics like Does love make us happy?

61. A polyunsaturated fatty acid contains two or more double bonds. ____ 62. LDL is the “good” cholesterol. ____

63. Hydrogenation presents the same health risks as saturated fats. ____

Part IV: Short answer. Answer the questions completely.  Don't forget about the age old question of What is a hypoxia?

64. What are carbohydrates the main fuel source for?

65. What starches are found in plants and what percentage of those are digestible by humans? 66. What are the storage sites for glycogen? What is the main storage site?

67. Shortly describe the two experiments that resulted in the discovery of insulin.  

68. Where does gluconeogenesis occur?

69. Where WHarthe adrenal glands located are and what do they do?

70. What are the high carbohydrate food groups?

71. What are the low carbohydrate food groups? 72. What are the risks associated with Aspartame?

73. How much fiber is too much fiber? 74. What are the health benefits of adequate fiber?

75. What does soluble fiber do?

76. What does both soluble and insoluble fiber do? 77. What are the types of lipids?

78. What do all lipids have in common?

79. What are the states of fats and oil at room temperature? 80. What are the essential fatty acids?

81. What happens in the small intestine during lipid digestion? 82. Where does lipid digestion start?

83. What are the functions of phospholipids?

84. Where are phospholipids produced?

85. What are the side effects and risks of omega-3s? 86. What are the important roles that cholesterols play in our bodies?

87. What two hormones need cholesterol?

88. What foods are omega-3s found in and what are is the recommended intake? 89. What do DHA and EPA do?

90. What are the functions of omega-6?

91. What are the symptoms of fatty acid deficiency?

92. What are long chained fatty acids diffused into?

93. What are short/medium chained fatty acids diffused into?

94. List the process of chylomicrons.

95. How are phospholipids broken down and what are are they broken down into?

96. List the process of VLDL.

97. What is the function of HDL?

98. What are the desirable levels for lipids?

99. What is plaque made of?

100. What are the risk factors for atherosclerosis? 101. What are the things considered in estimating the risk of CVD? 102. How do you raise your HDL-C?

103. List the functions of white and brown fats.

104. What are the methods of preventing fat rancidity? 105. What are Dr. Greene’s recommendation for lipid consumption?


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